276<278 OxRcpDistCite

Cross references:  Oxytocin Receptor Distribution    73<278 OxRcpDistCite    
Oxytocin      Oxytocin Receptors      Oxytocin Sociopathy   1<7 OxySoc  
Amphioxus Oxytocin     Oxytocin Accumbens      

Searching PubMed for "oxytocin receptor distribution" on 02-02-14 yielded 278 references. 
oxytocin receptor distribution - PubMed

1977    276<278   

Evolution of neurohypophyseal hormones and their receptors. 

    See:   Oxytocin Receptor Distribution   .

    There are 110 Related citations and 1 Cited by.  
Since I'm interested in evolution, I'm going to go ahead and look at the Related citations ranked by reverse Pub Date.   

Related citations

     [Vasopressin and oxytocin receptors in the central nervous system of the rat].. - 1985
[Article in French]  
    "Synaptic plasma membranes containing binding sites for (3H) oxytocin and (3H) arginine vasopressin were isolated from rat amygdala, olfactory bulb and hippocampus."  
My comment
    Nothing about evolution but mentions the rat amygdala, olfactory bulb and hippocampus.     


An oxytocin receptor in anococcygeus muscles isolated from male mice..  - 1986 
The nature of the neurohypophyseal peptide receptor in the anococcygeus muscles from male mice was investigated. The rank order of potency of naturally occurring peptides was oxytocin greater than Arg-vasotocin greater than Arg-vasopressin greater than Lys-vasopressin, which is similar to that found in the uterus and mammary gland."  
My comment
    Nothing about evolution but mentions the anococcygeus muscle.   

The neurohypophysis: recent developments. - 1987   
The hormones of the neurohypophysis, vasopressin and oxytocin, have now been shown to be synthesized as part of a prohormone complex that includes a vasopressin-neurophysin and oxytocin-neurophysin, respectively. In addition, for vasopressin, there is a glycopeptide as part of the prohormone. For each hormone the prohormone is packaged into neurosecretory granules and transported via axons to the posterior pituitary gland.  
    In addition to this "classic" system, axons containing neurohypophyseal hormones project to the median eminence for release into portal vessels, and to other areas of the brain and spinal cord where the peptides may function as neurotransmitters rather than as hormones.  
    As neurotransmitters, the neurohypophyseal hormones may be involved in the regulation of certain autonomic functions. Vasopressin and oxytocin are secreted into the cerebrospinal fluid where there is a diurnal rhythmic secretion of the peptides in several animal species (some species have a predominant rhythm of vasopressin and others a rhythm of oxytocin). Neurohypophyseal peptides are synthesized in some non-neuronal tissues where the function is unknown"  

My comment
    Although they are widely distributed hormones, oxytocin and vasopressin may also function as neurotransmitters in the brain and spinal cord.     


Identification of neurohypophysial peptides in the ovaries of several mammalian and nonmammalian species.    - 1988   
Analysis by high performance liquid chromatography revealed the presence of oxytocin in all ovarian extracts examined."  
My comment
    Oxytocin in ovaries.    


Gonadotrophin-releasing activity of neurohypophysial hormones: II. The pituitary oxytocin receptor mediating gonadotrophin release differs from that of corticotrophs.     - 1989   
    "Thus, agonist and antagonist analogues of neurohypophysial hormones display divergent activities with regard to LH and ACTH responses, and the neuropeptide receptor mediating gonadotroph activation is clearly different from that on the corticotroph. Whereas the corticotroph receptor is a vasopressin-type receptor an oxytocin-type receptor is responsible for gonadotrophin release by neurohypophysial hormones."   
My comment
   Whereas the corticotroph receptor is a vasopressin-type receptor an oxytocin-type receptor is responsible for gonadotrophin release by neurohypophysial hormones.


Neurohypophyseal hormone receptors: relation to behavior. - 1992 
    No abstract but 99 Related citations. 

Contractile activity of vasotocin, oxytocin, and vasopressin on mammalian prostate. - 1992 
The neurohypophyseal peptides arginine vasotocin, oxytocin and arginine vasopressin contracted guinea pig, rat, canine and human prostates with potencies and efficacies that were comparable to those of noradrenaline and methacholine."  
My comment
    Oxytocin and arginine vasopressin contracted guinea pig, rat, canine and human prostates.  


Central nervous system effects of the neurohypophyseal hormones and related peptides. - 1993
 My comment
    A broad, not very well focused, review.             

Man and the chimaera. Selective versus neutral oxytocin evolution. - 1995 
The oxytocin/vasopressin superfamily encompasses vertebrate and invertebrate peptides and therefore the ancestral gene encoding the precursor protein antedates the divergence between the two groups, about 700 million years ago. The preserved nonapeptide pattern indicates that both the precursor structures and the processing enzymatic machinery were greatly conserved to ensure the building of a specific conformation."  
My comment
    Evolution rather than location of receptors within the body. 

Neuroanatomical distribution of vasotocin in a urodele amphibian (Taricha granulosa) revealed by immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization techniques. - 1997 
Vasotocin-like-immunoreactive neuronal cell bodies were identified that, based on topographical position, most likely, are homologous to groups of vasopressin-immunoreactive neuronal cell bodies described in mammals, including those in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, medial amygdala, basal septal region, magnocellular basal forebrain-including the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca, paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei, suprachiasmatic nucleus, and dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus. Several additional vasotocin-like-immunoreactive cell groups were observed in the forebrain and brainstem regions; these observations are compared with previous studies of vasotocin- and vasopressin-like systems in vertebrates. Arginine vasotocin-like-immunoreactive fibers and presumed terminals also were widely distributed with high densities in the basal limbic forebrain, the ventral preoptic and hypothalamic regions, and the brainstem ventromedial tegmentum." 
My comment
    Vasotocin-like-immunoreactive neuronal cell bodies were identified almost everywhere.  But do these "vasotocin-like-immunoreactive neuronal cell bodies" produce vasotocin, or do they receive it?             


[Role of the neurohypophysis in psychological stress]..  [Article in French] - 2001 
AVP and OT are secreted into the hypophyseal portal circulation by neurons which project from the paraventricular nucleus to the external zone of the median eminence. AVP and OT-containing neurons in the suprachiasmatic and paraventricular nuclei project to limbic areas, including the hippocampus, the subiculum, the ventral nucleus of the amygdala and the nucleus of the diagonal band. Specific AVP receptors which are pharmacologically different from the pressor and antidiuretic AVP receptors have been found in the anterior pituitary. OT receptors have been identified in a variety of forebrain sites.  
    The neurohypophyseal secretion is regulated by the cholinergic muscarinic, histaminergic and beta-adrenergic systems. Stress alters the secretion of one or more of the hypothalamic factors which interact at the pituitary to increase the secretion of ACTH.   AVP and OT have been shown to modulate the effect of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor (CRF) on ACTH secretion and appear to play a key role in mediating the ACTH response to stress.  
    Although AVP is a relatively weak secretagogue for ACTH, it markedly potentiates the activity of CRF both in vitro and in vivo.  
    The role of OT is more complex. In vitro, OT stimulates ACTH release at high doses whereas in human it inhibits ACTH secretion at low doses. The type of stressor appear to determine the relative importance of these secretatogues in ACTH response. Several recent studies indicate that psychological stressors display a similar degree of variety of secretagogue release patterns as was found earlier for physical stressors. A bewildering array of technique produces a bewildering array of conclusions."  
My comment:   

Neurohypophyseal peptides in aging and Alzheimer's disease.  - 2002 
The neurohypophyseal hormones arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) are produced in the neurons of the hypothalamic supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nucleus and in the much smaller cells of the suprachiasmatic (SCN) nucleus. The SON is the main source of plasma AVP.     
    Part of the AVP and OT neurons of the PVN join the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal tract, whereas others send projections to the median eminence or various brain areas, where AVP and OT are involved in a number of central functions as neurotransmitters/neuromodulators. AVP and OT from the PVN can also regulate via the autonomous innervation endocrine glands and fat tissue.  
    OT is produced for a major part in the PVN but some OT neurons are present in the SON. Moreover, both AVP and OT containing neurons are observed in the "accessory nuclei", i.e. islands situated between the SON and PVN. The SCN is the biological clock, and the number of AVP expressing neurons in the SCN shows both diurnal and seasonal rhythms.  
    In addition to these hypothalamic areas, AVP and OT may be found to a lesser extent in some other brain areas, such as the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, diagonal band of Broca, nucleus basalis of Meynert, lateral septal nucleus, globus pallidus and the anterior amygdaloid nucleus, as well as in the peripheral tissues.  
    The AVP and OT containing neurons should not be considered as one system. Prominent functional differences exist between the different nuclei. The heterogeneity also becomes clear from the marked differences in the neurohypophyseal peptides containing neurons of the SON, PVN and SCN during aging, and in the most prevalent age-related neurodegenerative diseases, i.e. Alzheimer's disease (AD)."  
My comment
    This very wide distribution of OT and AVP neurons is going to make it very difficult to form any broad generalization about their function.   

Characterization of the neurohypophysial hormone gene loci in elephant shark and the Japanese lamprey: origin of the vertebrate neurohypophysial hormone genes. - 2009 
    "The lamprey locus contains a single neurohypophysial hormone gene, the vasotocin. The synteny of genes in the lamprey locus is conserved in elephant shark, coelacanth and tetrapods but disrupted in teleost fishes. The amphioxus locus encodes a single neurohypophysial hormone, designated as [Ile4]vasotocin."     
My comment
    No speculation as to what function the hormone performs in the amphioxus or where it is to be found.  Since the amphioxus does not swim inland to spawn, I would guess that its function is sexual.  Perhaps the aggregation into colonies makes it easier for the sperm to find the eggs when the amphioxus spawns.  This reference does not go beyond the identification of the gene.     



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