Motor Program Disinhibition


Does  Behavioral Disinhibition  activate  Motor Programs

Searching Google for "behavioral disinhibition motor programs"  found 179,000 references: 

2016  Competitive Disinhibition Mediates Behavioral Choice and Sequences in Drosophila 
    My comment    
Good diagrams, but no suggestion of what determines the outcome of the competition between the various disinhibitions.  
   SUMMARY  
"Even a simple sensory stimulus can elicit distinct innate behaviors and sequences. During sensori- motor decisions, competitive interactions among neurons that promote distinct behaviors must ensure the selection and maintenance of one behavior, while suppressing others. The circuit implementation of these competitive interactions is still an open question.  
    By combining comprehensive electron microscopy reconstruction of inhibitory interneuron networks, modeling, electrophysiology, and behavioral studies, we determined the circuit mechanisms that contribute to the Drosophila larval sensorimotor decision to startle, explore, or perform a sequence of the two in response to a mechanosensory stimulus. Together, these studies reveal that, early in sensory processing,  
    (1) reciprocally connected feedforward inhibitory interneurons implement behavioral choice,  
    (2) local feedback disinhibition provides positive feedback that consolidates and maintains the chosen behavior, and  
    (3) lateral disinhibition promotes sequence transitions.  
The combination of these interconnected circuit motifs can implement both behavior selection and the serial organization of behaviors into a sequence."


Searching PubMed for "behavioral disinhibition motor programs"  found 17 references:     


2010  1<17  What roles do tonic inhibition and disinhibition play in the control of motor programs? https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20589095   
    Abstract     
Animals show periods of quiescence interspersed with periods of motor activity. In a number of invertebrate and vertebrate systems, quiescence is achieved by active suppression of motor behavior is due to tonic inhibition induced by sensory input or changes in internal state. Removal of this inhibition (disinhibition) has the converse effect tending to increase the level of motor activity.  
    We show that tonic inhibition and disinhibition can have a variety of roles. It can simply switch off specific unwanted motor behaviors, or modulate the occurrence of a motor response, a type of 'threshold' controlling function, or be involved in the selection of a particular motor program by inhibiting 'competing' motor mechanisms that would otherwise interfere with the carrying out of a desired movement.  
    A suggested general function for tonic inhibition is to prevent unnecessary non-goal directed motor activity that would be energetically expensive. The reason why basic motor programs might be a particular target for tonic inhibition is that many of them involve central pattern generator circuits that are often spontaneously active and need to be actively suppressed for energy saving.  
    Based on this hypothesis, tonic inhibition represents the default state for energy saving and motor programs are switched-on when required by removal of this inhibition.     Free PMC Article   


2016  2<17 
    The Basal Ganglia Over 500 Million Years 
Abstract    
    The lamprey belongs to the phylogenetically oldest group of vertebrates that diverged from the mammalian evolutionary line 560 million years ago. A comparison between the lamprey and mammalian basal ganglia establishes a detailed similarity regarding its input from cortex/pallium and thalamus, as well as its intrinsic organisation and projections of the output nuclei.     
    This means that the basal ganglia circuits now present in rodents and primates most likely had evolved already at the dawn of vertebrate evolution. This includes the 'direct pathway' with striatal projection neurons (SPNs) expressing dopamine D1 receptors, which act to inhibit the tonically active GABAergic output neurons in globus pallidus interna and substantia nigra pars reticulata that at rest keep the brainstem motor centres under tonic inhibition.  
    The 'indirect pathway' with dopamine D2 receptor-expressing SPNs and intrinsic basal ganglia nuclei is also conserved. The net effect of the direct pathway is to disinhibit brainstem motor centres and release motor programs, while the indirect pathway instead will suppress motor activity.      
    Transmitters, connectivity and membrane properties are virtually identical in lamprey and rodent basal ganglia.     
    We predict that the basal ganglia contains a series of modules each controlling a given pattern of behaviour including locomotion, eye-movements, posture, and chewing that contain both the direct pathway to release a motor program and the indirect pathway to inhibit competing behaviours.      
    The phasic dopamine input serves value-based decisions and motor learning. During vertebrate evolution with a progressively more diverse motor behaviour, the number of modules will have increased progressively. These new modules with a similar design will be used to control newly developed patterns of behaviour - a process referred to as exaptation.      Free full text 



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