Excitation Inhibition Balance

Cross references:    Excitation   GABA   Inhibition     

Searching PubMed for "excitation inhibition balance" originally located 1093 references but this rose to 1096 references on 7-18-18: 

1974    ?<? 
On the transmitter function of 5-hydroxytryptamine at excitatory and inhibitory monosynaptic junctions. 
     It can be concluded that the excitatory and inhibitory synaptic effects evoked in the buccal neurones by the stimulation of the 5-HT-containing-giant cerebral neurones are very likely mediated by 5-HT.
    Free PMC Article     
    184 Similar Articles
    11 Cited bys

1975  ?<? 
     Localization and electrical characteristics of a giant synapse in the spinal cord of the lamprey.   
    See:  Lamprey Nervous System .     

1976  1091<1093
Excitation-mediating and inhibition-mediating dopamine-receptors: a new concept towards a better understanding of electrophysiological, biochemical, pharmacological, functional and clinical data. 
1996  1027<1093

Networks with lateral connectivity. I. dynamic properties mediated by the balance of intrinsic excitation and inhibition.

    "We conclude that lateral connections could produce and maintain a cortical network having dynamic properties without the need to invoke synaptic plasticity. Individual neuron properties could be modified by changing the balance of cortical layer excitation and inhibition."  


1996  1024<1093.

Abnormalities of the balance between inhibition and excitation in the motor cortex of patients with cortical myoclonus.

1998  999<1093

Frequency-dependent synaptic depression and the balance of excitation and inhibition in the neocortex.

    "Using dual recordings from excitatory pyramidal neurons and inhibitory fast-spiking neurons in neocortical slices, we report that sustained activation by trains of several hundred presynaptic spikes resulted in much stronger depression of synaptic currents at excitatory synapses than at inhibitory ones"  

1999  988<1093

Differential depression at excitatory and inhibitory synapses in visual cortex.

    "The function of cortical circuits depends critically on the balance between excitation and inhibition. This balance reflects not only the relative numbers of excitatory and inhibitory synapses but also their relative strengths. Recent studies of excitatory synapses in visual and somatosensory cortices have emphasized that synaptic strength is not a fixed quantity but is a dynamic variable that reflects recent presynaptic activity."  

1999  984<1093

Inhibition in the human motor cortex is reduced just before a voluntary contraction.

    "The changes in balance of excitation and inhibition of corticospinal neurons associated with a voluntary movement precede the movement and are directed at the corticospinal neurons projecting to the agonists. These changes may help to select the population of cortical neurons responsible for the movement."  

    My comment:  Come back to this. 

2002  933<1093

GABA and glutamate in the human brain.

    "Cortical excitability reflects a balance between excitation and inhibition. Glutamate is the main excitatory and GABA the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian cortex. Changes in glutamate and GABA metabolism may play important roles in the control of cortical excitability. Glutamate is the metabolic precursor of GABA, which can be recycled through the tricarboxylic acid cycle to synthesize glutamate."  

2004  911<1093

Normal aging results in decreased synaptic excitation and increased synaptic inhibition of layer 2/3 pyramidal cells in the monkey prefrontal cortex.

2004  906<1093

Spinal excitation and inhibition decrease as humans age.

2004  899<1093

Brain stimulation and conscious experience.

    "Libet discovered that a substantial duration (> 0.5-1.0 s) of direct electrical stimulation of the surface of the somatosensory cortex at threshold currents is required before human subjects can report that a conscious somatosensory experience had occurred."  

2004  898<1093

On the fight between excitation and inhibition: location is everything.

    "In the intact brain, neurons are constantly subjected to both excitatory and inhibitory inputs to their dendritic trees."  

    " Liu's most important finding of a functional nature is that inhibition appears to act quite locally; that is, an inhibitory synapse effectively opposes an excitatory synapse only when it is very close by within the same dendritic branch "  

    My comment:  This implies that synapses of opposing polarity can influence the same dendrite.      

2005  874<1093

Invariant computations in local cortical networks with balanced excitation and inhibition.

2006  842<1093

Neocortical network activity in vivo is generated through a dynamic balance of excitation and inhibition.

    "This ongoing temporal evolution between excitation and inhibition, which exhibits remarkable proportionality within and across neurons in active local networks, may allow for rapid transitions between relatively stable network states, permitting the modulation of neuronal responsiveness in a behaviorally relevant manner."  

2006  839<1093

GABAB receptor-mediated presynaptic inhibition of glutamatergic transmission in the inferior colliculus.

    "The GABA(B) receptor-mediated modulation of glutamatergic excitation in the ICC provides a likely mechanism for preventing overstimulation and/or regulating the balance of excitation and inhibition involved in processing auditory information."  

2006  827<1093

Histotypic mouse parietal cortex cultures: excitation/inhibition ratio and ultrastructural analysis.

    "Primary cultures of mouse parietal cortex, prepared between postnatal day 3 (P3) and P9, were studied using transmission electron microscopy and HPLC of excitatory (aspartate and glutamate) and inhibitory neurotransmitters (glycine, GABA and taurine) to determine their morphological and functional development."  

2006  823<1093

2007  789<1093

Does the recruitment of excitation and inhibition in the motor cortex differ?

    "The findings suggest that recruitment of inhibition and excitation within the sensorimotor cortex correlate. However, inhibitory effects are recruited at lower intensities and saturate earlier than excitation."  

2008  769<1093

E-I balance and human diseases - from molecules to networking.

    " A detailed analysis of the E/I balance during evoked spike activity further shows that the firing strength results from a simultaneous decrease of evoked inhibition and increase of excitation."  

    My comment:  Not surprising. 

2008  756<1093

In vitro and in vivo measures of evoked excitatory and inhibitory conductance dynamics in sensory cortices.

    " A detailed analysis of the E/I balance during evoked spike activity further shows that the firing strength results from a simultaneous decrease of evoked inhibition and increase of excitation."  

    My comment:  Same as above. 

2008  745<1093

Retrograde GABA signaling adjusts sound localization by balancing excitation and inhibition in the brainstem.   

    "Central processing of acoustic cues is critically dependent on the balance between excitation and inhibition. This balance is particularly important for auditory neurons in the lateral superior olive, because these compare excitatory inputs from one ear and inhibitory inputs from the other ear to compute sound source location. "  

    "It is predicted that schizophrenia patients treated with acamprosate-like compounds will not exhibit progressive cortical atrophy associated with the anti-dopaminergic effect of classical antipsychotic exposure."      

    "Since the days of Cajal, the CA1 pyramidal cell has arguably received more attention than any other neuron in the mammalian brain. Hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells fire spikes with remarkable spatial and temporal precision, giving rise to the hippocampal rate and temporal codes. "      

2009  701<1093

Involvement of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in the endogenous cholinergic modulation of the balance between excitation and inhibition in the young rat visual cortex.

2010  687<1093 

A role of GABA analogues in the treatment of neurological diseases.

    "gamma-Amino butyric acid is an extremely important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system and is essential for the overall balance between neuronal excitation and inhibition. It is well documented that GABA deficiency is associated with several important neurological disorders such as Huntington's chorea, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease and other psychiatric disorders, like anxiety, depression, pain, panic, or mania"  

2010  685<1093 

Control of hippocampal gamma oscillation frequency by tonic inhibition and excitation of interneurons.

    "Recordings of synaptic currents during gamma activity revealed that NMDAR-mediated increases in oscillation frequency correlated with a progressive synchronization of phasic excitation and inhibition in the network. Thus, the balance between tonic excitation and tonic inhibition of interneurons may modulate gamma frequency by shaping interneuronal synchronization."  

2010  684<1093   

Overexpression of the cell adhesion protein neuroligin-1 induces learning deficits and impairs synaptic plasticity by altering the ratio of excitation to inhibition in the hippocampus.

2010  671<1093 

Functional consequences of correlated excitatory and inhibitory conductances in cortical networks.

    "Last, we show that recurrent random networks with effective inhibition are more likely to exhibit dynamical network activity states as have been observed in vivo. Thus, when a feedforward signal path is embedded in such recurrent network, the stabilizing effect of effective inhibition creates an suitable substrate for signal propagation. In conclusion, correlated excitation and inhibition support the notion that synchronous spiking may be important for cortical processing."  

2010  665<1093 

Developmental sensory experience balances cortical excitation and inhibition.

    "We find that, immediately after the onset of hearing, sensory-evoked excitatory and inhibitory responses are equally strong, although inhibition is less stimulus-selective and mismatched with excitation. However, during the third week of postnatal development, excitation and inhibition become highly correlated. Patterned sensory stimulation drives coordinated synaptic changes across receptive fields, rapidly improves excitatory-inhibitory coupling and prevents further exposure-induced modifications. Thus, the pace of cortical synaptic receptive field development is set by progressive, experience-dependent refinement of intracortical inhibition."  

2010  651<1093 

Gating of signal propagation in spiking neural networks by balanced and correlated excitation and inhibition.

    "Both ongoing and natural stimulus driven neuronal activity are dominated by transients. Selective gating of these transients is mandatory for proper brain function and may, in fact, form the basis of millisecond-fast decision making and action selection. Here we propose that neuronal networks may exploit timing differences between correlated excitation and inhibition (temporal gating) to control the propagation of spiking activity transients. When combined with excitation-inhibition balance, temporal gating constitutes a powerful mechanism to control the propagation of mixtures of transient and tonic neural activity components."  

2010 650<1093 

Inhibition dominates the early phase of up-states in the basolateral amygdala.

    "Here we report that up-states in BLA principal neurons up-states begin with an excitatory drive that is rapidly (within ∼50 ms) overwhelmed by inhibitory input. This excess of inhibitory drive is short lasting (300-400 ms), after which up-states are maintained by a tight balance between excitation and inhibition. This initial large inhibitory input restricts action potential generation and reduces the firing frequency of these cells. These results indicate that, in contrast to cortical neurons, up-states in BLA neurons show an initial period of strong cortically driven feed-forward inhibition. For the remainder of the up-state, feedback inhibition then acts to balance excitatory input."   

2011  647<1093

Serotonin receptor expression in human prefrontal cortex: balancing excitation and inhibition across postnatal development.

    "Examining and understanding the healthy balance is critical to appreciate how abnormal expression of an individual HTR may create a window of vulnerability for the emergence of psychiatric illness."  

2011  646<1093 

Brain plasticity and disease: a matter of inhibition.

    "This paper summarizes recent findings showing that the inhibition-excitation balance controls adult brain plasticity and is at the core of the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders like autism, Down syndrome, and Rett syndrome."  

2011  643<1093

The balance between excitation and inhibition and functional sensory processing in the somatosensory cortex.

2011  636<1093 

Developmental maturation of excitation and inhibition balance in principal neurons across four layers of somatosensory cortex.

2011  628<1093

MHCI negatively regulates synapse density during the establishment of cortical connections.

2011  620<1093 

Neocortical excitation/inhibition balance in information processing and social dysfunction.

    "These results provide support for the elevated cellular E/I balance hypothesis of severe neuropsychiatric disease-related symptoms."  

2011  619<1093 

The contribution of GABAergic dysfunction to neurodevelopmental disorders.

    "In this review, we discuss how impairments at different stages in GABAergic development can lead to disease states. We also highlight recent studies which show that modulation of the GABAergic system can successfully reverse cognitive deficits in disease models and suggest that therapeutic strategies targeting the GABAergic system could be effective in treating neurodevelopmental disorders." 

2011  610<1093

The ongoing balance of cortical excitation and inhibition during early development.

2011  609<1093

Inhibition to excitation ratio regulates visual system responses and behavior in vivo.

2011  604<1093 

Inhibitory plasticity balances excitation and inhibition in sensory pathways and memory networks.

2012  598<1093 

The biochemical anatomy of cortical inhibitory synapses.

2012  596<1093 

Membrane properties and the balance between excitation and inhibition control gamma-frequency oscillations arising from feedback inhibition.

2012  588<1093 

Dysbalance of cortical inhibition and excitation in abstinent cocaine-dependent patients.

2012  585<1093 

Unique processing during a period of high excitation/inhibition balance in adult-born neurons.

2012  579<1093

The fraction of cortical GABAergic neurons is constant from near the start of cortical neurogenesis to adulthood.

    "Approximately one in five neurons is GABAergic in many neocortical areas and species, forming a critical balance between inhibition and excitation in adult circuits. During development, cortical GABAergic neurons are generated in ventral telencephalon and migrate up to developing cortex where the excitatory glutamatergic neurons are born."  

2012  574<1093 

Altered excitation-inhibition balance in the brain of patients with diabetic neuropathy.

2012  567<1093

A mechanism for value-guided choice based on the excitation-inhibition balance in prefrontal cortex.

2012  560<1093 

Selective functional interactions between excitatory and inhibitory cortical neurons and differential contribution to persistent activity of the slow oscillation.


Just to confuse things further, the number of references identified by searching PubMed for "excitation inhibition balance" has risen from 1093 to 1096. 

2012  562<1096 

A precluding but not ensuring role of entrained low-frequency oscillations for auditory perception.

2013  501<1096 

Spontaneous EEG alpha oscillation interacts with positive and negative BOLD responses in the visual-auditory cortices and default-mode network.

2013  490<1096

Cortical balance of excitation and inhibition is regulated by the rate of synaptic activity.

2013  477<1096

Activity-dependent adaptations in inhibitory axons.


2013  476<1096 

Dysfunctional astrocytic and synaptic regulation of hypothalamic glutamatergic transmission in a mouse model of early-life adversity: relevance to neurosteroids and programming of the stress response.

    "Adverse early-life experiences, such as poor maternal care, program an abnormal stress response that may involve an altered balance between excitatory and inhibitory signals. Here, we explored how early-life stress (ELS) affects excitatory and inhibitory transmission in corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF)-expressing dorsal-medial (mpd) neurons of the neonatal mouse hypothalamus. We report that ELS associates with enhanced excitatory glutamatergic transmission that is manifested as an increased frequency of synaptic events and increased extrasynaptic conductance, with the latter associated with dysfunctional astrocytic regulation of glutamate levels."  

    "This study reveals that increased synaptic and tonic glutamatergic transmission may be a common maladaptation to ELS, leading to enhanced excitation of CRF-releasing neurons, and identifies neurosteroids as putative early regulators of the stress neurocircuitry."  

2014  472<1096

Monogenic models of absence epilepsy: windows into the complex balance between inhibition and excitation in thalamocortical microcircuits.

2014  414<1096 

Formation of excitation-inhibition balance: inhibition listens and changes its tune.




    I'm stopping here for the time being because I feel I already have enough references for this search.  I may come back to these references at some time in the future, but for now, I think I have enough to work on.   

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