Excitation

Cross references:     Inhibition     Excitation vs. Inhibition      



    excitatory 

        Behavioral Disinhibition   
        GABA Testosterone  
        Ghrelin
        Cerebellar Efferent Pathways  
          Initiation of Locomotion in Lampreys   
         Reticulospinal Transmission         
        Diencephaloreticular Transmission    
        Lamprey Neurotransmitters    
           Lamprey Neuromodulators
           Lamprey Neuropeptides
        Thalamic Neurotransmitters    
        Sensory Input    
        Predatory Behavior
        Motor Neuron Evolution  
        Central Pattern Generators   

        Early Behavior  
A compilation of pre-existing pages.  No new references. 

        Pre-Bilateria Locomotion  
A summary of locomotion from the Prokaryotes  through the  Porifera  .  No mention of hormones or neurotransmitters in the summaries, but a closer reading might reveal them. 

        Bilateria Locomotion 
A summary of locomotion from the Protostomes  through  Chordate Locomotion .   No mention of hormones or neurotransmitters in the summaries, but a closer reading might reveal them.

        Amphioxus     
A summary of locomotion from  Amphioxus Motor Nerves  to Amphioxus Behavior .    No mention of hormones or neurotransmitters in the summaries, but a closer reading might reveal them. 

        Lamprey    
A summary of locomotion from   Lamprey Locomotion  to  Salamander Locomotion  .     





Quick over-views of excitatory

        Behavioral Disinhibition  
9 references focused mostly on GABA.   


        GABA Testosterone 
10 references.  Considerable variation in foci.  No mention that the "reward" is physiologically a reduction of  GABA/Glycine Inhibition  or  Tonic Inhibition  or an increase in  Behavioral Disinhibition .  


        Ghrelin     
10 references focused mainly on appetite.  "induces feeding and locomotor activity" 


        Cerebellar Efferent Pathways  
44 references.  "... cerebellar fibers are glutamatergic ..."  

21 references.  "sensory stimulation, shows that the putative excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter directly or indirectly acts at the pattern generating circuitry within the spinal cord."  
    Neurotransmitters: L-glutamate.  
    1989
Monosynaptic excitatory amino acid transmission from the posterior rhombencephalic reticular nucleus to spinal neurons involved in the control of locomotion in Lamprey
    1994  
Role of excitatory amino acids in brainstem activation of spinal locomotor networks in larval lamprey.


    Reticulospinal Transmission
42 references.    "The results would be explained if the noradrenergic reticulospinal system was activated from the mesencephalic locomotor region."   
    "Olfactory nerve stimulation produced excitation."
    "Application of glutamate evoked depolarizations associated with a decrease in input resistance."  
    "lamprey reticulospinal neurons utilize excitatory amino acid transmission."   
    "Intracellular stimulation of single PRRN neurons produced monosynaptic excitatory postsynaptic potentials" 


    Diencephaloreticular Transmission   
22 references.    Mentions:   
    "glutamate ionotropic receptor antagonists", seretonin, GABA,  "GABA(A) antagonist bicuculline".   
    Otherwise, just electrical stimulation.  
    "The lamprey DLR coincides with a region referred to as the ventral thalamus"  


        Lamprey Neurotransmitters   
66 references.  
     Glutamate, aspartate, DL-homocysteate, NMDA, N-methyl-DL-aspartate (NMDLA), quisqualate, kainate, tachykinin-like peptides, excitatory amino acid (EAA) 
    "lamprey reticulospinal neurons utilize excitatory amino acid transmission."     


       Lamprey Neuromodulators    
2 references.  5-HT and nitric oxide. 


      Lamprey Neuropeptides
9 references.  Arginine vasotocin (AVT),  Substance P    
    "lamprey reticulospinal neurons utilize excitatory amino acid transmission."


        Thalamic Neurotransmitters    
23 references.  Glutamate, Aspartate, NMDA, AMPA


        Sensory Input    
6 references.   "sensory inputs initiate and modulate locomotion by activation of reticulospinal (RS) neurones"  
Nothing about neurotransmitters. 


        Predatory Behavior  
13 references.  Nothing about the endocrine system.  


        Motor Neuron Evolution   
3 references.
   "The exact mode of transmission of monosynaptic excitation 1a and supraspinal actions in mammals remains to be elucidated. "   
     "a hypothesis is advanced that neurons of similar type may communicate through pure electrical junctions, whereas successive synaptic articulations between different functional groups of neurons are formed by mixed or chemical synapses."  


    Central Pattern Generators    
96 references. 
    "Metabotropic glutamate receptors enhance the production of plateaus and produce a wind-up effect whereby repeated constant depolarizing current pulses evoke progressively more spikes per pulse.  
    N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) induces oscillatory properties in spinal interneurons in several species, including lamprey, frog tadpoles , and neonatal rats."  
    "... D-glutamate initiated motor output ..." This may be the answer to my long-standing question.       


    Early Behavior  
       













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