Cerebellar Afferent Pathways

Cross references:    Cerebellum    Cerebellar Efferent Pathways  
Posterior Horn of the Spinal Cord    

Searching PubMed for "Cerebellar Afferent Pathways"  revealed 2340 references:   
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Cerebellar+Afferent+Pathways  


1959    2331<2340      Free PMC Article (PDF)   
Synaptic components of cerebellar electrocortical activity evoked by various afferent pathways.   
    "
Electrical responses evoked in different regions of the cerebellar cortex of cat by stimulating various cerebello-petal pathways have been analyzed for their component postsynaptic potentials (p.s.p.'s).  
    The principal analytical tools of the present work were pharmacological agents;  
    the selective inactivator of depolarizing (excitatory) axodendritic synapses, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, or C(4));
    the homologous C(6) and C(8) omega-amino acids, which inactivate selectively the hyperpolarizing (inhibitory) axodendritic synapses;  
    and the general inactivator of inhibitory synapses, strychnine.  
    Some experiments employed the analytical possibilities of activity cycles. The potentials evoked in one cerebellar region by different exciting pathways may differ markedly in their responses to drugs or may show different types of activity cycle. Also, the potentials evoked in various cortical regions by one cerebello-petal pathway are acted upon differently by the testing drugs. These differences are believed to be due to involvement of different proportions of excitatory and inhibitory, axosomatic and axodendritic p.s.p.'s.  
    The analyses of a number of different responses confirm an earlier conclusion, that the cerebellar cortex is relatively lacking in inhibitory axodendritic p.s.p.'s in comparison with the cerebral cortex. Only the cortex of the paramedian lobule appears to be endowed with a considerable proportion of inhibitory p.s.p.'s, a finding which correlates with other data."  
    My comment
    Discusses neural responses but no mention of overt behavior. 


1969      2314<2340  
Termination and functional organization of the dorsolateral spino-olivocerebellar path.   
  "Abstract
    1. Pathways ascending in the lateral funiculus of the spinal cord and terminating as climbing fibres in the anterior lobe of the cerebellum have been investigated in decerebrate cats with the cord partially transected in the third cervical segment, sparing only part of the left lateral funiculus. The climbing fibre responses evoked in Purkinje cells by electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves were studied by recording from single cells and by recording the mass activity at the cerebellar surface. 
    2. Two pathways have been distinguished. One ascends through the dorsal part of the lateral funiculus and relays in the inferior olive. It is denoted the dorsolateral spino-olivocerebellar path (DLF-SOCP) and forms the subject of this paper. The other path occupies in part a more ventral position in the lateral funiculus and it is not known if it relays in the inferior olive. It is denoted the LF-CF-SCP (lateral funiculus-climbing fibre-spinocerebellar path). 
    3. The DLF-SOCP is activated predominantly by cutaneous afferents from restricted areas in the ipsilateral paws. The relay in the spinal cord is almost certainly monosynaptic, but a long delay in the brain stem suggests that the path is interrupted by several synapses at this level. The pathway terminates in the pars intermedia in sagittal zones with a somatotopical organization (Fig. 12). 
    4. Components of the DLF-SOCP and the dorsal spino-olivocerebellar path converge onto the same olivary neurones which project to the pars intermedia and it is concluded on this evidence that the DLF-SOCP also relays in the inferior olive. 
    5. The DLF-SOCP is compared with the other known spinocerebellar paths terminating as climbing fibres in the anterior lobe. The functional role of these paths and the general significance of the sagittal projection patterns are discussed. 
    Summary
    "
Two pathways have been distinguished. One ascends through the dorsal part of the lateral funiculus and relays in the inferior olive. It is denoted the dorsolateral spino-olivocerebellar path (DLF-SOCP)."  
    No mention of behavior. 
    Free PMC Article "


1974   
2202<2340  
The organization of visual processing in the pigeon cerebellum.   
"Abstract
    1. Visual responses were sought in the cerebella of decerebrate pigeons using extracellular micro-electrodes, and were found in folia VIc-IXb, especially folia VII and VIII. The responses were mainly, but not exclusively, from the ipsilateral eye. Four binocular units were recorded. 
    2. In the anterior and posterior walls of folium VII the organization was clearly, though rather crudely, retinotopic. The temporal field was represented laterally, on the ipsilateral side, and the nasal field medially; the superior field was represented superficially, and the inferior field towards the base of the folium. In the lateral wall of folium VII there was a small anomalous region innervated by the contralateral eye. 
    3. The visual input arrived via the mossy fibre system. 
    4. Units exhibited a strong preference for moving targets, 20-60 degrees /sec being the range of optimal speeds. About three quarters of the units responded most strongly to a particular direction of target motion. The preferred direction was most frequently upwards or backwards. 
    5. Units in the granule layer were to some extent clustered according to their direction-preference, which tended to change gradually as the electrode advanced along the granule layer. 
    6. Units were classified as Gr-units (granule cells or mossy fibre rosettes) or P-units (Purkinje cells) or were left unclassified. Receptive fields of Gr-units were usually 5-30 degrees across; they were much larger for P-units in folium VIII, but not obviously so for those in folium VII. Gr-units were more frequently direction-sensitive than were P-units." 
    My comment
Says cerebellum responds to visual stimulation, but makes no mention of behavior.   
    Free PMC Article "   


1975   
2188<2340  
Responses of single units in cerebellar vermis of the cat to monaural and binaural stimuli.       
    "Abstract
    The responses of 146 cerebellar neurons to tone stimuli were studied in 29 cats anesthetized with chloralose-urethan and in 7 decerebrate preparations. Units were classified as onset or sustained firing.  
    Onset spikes occurred on stimulation of either ear and showed binaural facilitation, while sustained discharges were frequently only excited by monaural stimulation.  
    The latent periods of sustained discharges appeared to be shorter than those of onset responses, and sustained discharges were also more sharply tuned than the onset units.  
    Evidence was presented suggesting that onset responses reflected input from the inferior colliculus and sustained responses, the cochlear nucleus. The sterotyped facilitatory behavior of onset units suggested that a maximal discharge might occur if sounds were of equal intensity at each ear; 26 neurons were examined with variable interaural time or intensity differences and 10 of these exhibited maximal firing when the interaural time and intensity difference was zero--i.e., if the sound was located directly in front of the head. " 
    My comment
Reports neuron responses but doesn't mention behavior. 


1975   
2172<2340  
Diversity of mossy fibres in the cerebellar cortex in relation to different afferent systems: an experimental electron microscopic study in the cat.   
    "
The evolution of the terminal degeneration has been compared in two systems of mossy fibres: the spinocerebellar and the pontocerebellar projections. The two systems exhibit both dense and clear types of terminal degeneration. However, there are important differences between the evolutive processes of terminal degeneration in the two systems:  
    (i) the time course of the degenerating process is much faster for spinocerebellar than for pontocerebellar rosettes, and
    (ii) the glial phagocytic process accompanying the dense type of degeneration is different for the two systems. Spinocerebellar rosettes are generally removed from their glomerular central position by reactive glia, leaving fragments of the presynaptic membrane attached to their postsynaptic partner. This feature is exceptional for pontocerebellar rosettes which, in the course of their glial engulfment, leave free the postsynaptic differentiation of their former target granule cell dendrites. These differences of terminal degenerative processes have been reconciled with optical microscope observations by Brodal and Drablos of morphological differences between the rosettes of two different fibre systems."  
    My comment
No mention of behavior. 


1976   
2135<2340  
Afferents to the cerebellar lateral nucleus. Evidence from retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase after pressure injections through micropipettes.   
    "
HRP was injected by pressure from glass capillary micropipettes unilaterally into the lateral nucleus of rat so as to encompass the entire nucleus, but without spread into the interpositus nuclei. The cells of origin of the afferents to the lateral nucleus were studied after retrograde transport of the HRP.  
    The reticulotegmental nucleus of the pons was labelled bilaterally and is the major source of crossed and uncrossed reticular imputs.  
    The pontine nuclei also provide extensive crossed and uncrossed afferents.  
    The inferior olive gives a large crossed olivo-lateral nucleus projection and a minor uncrossed input.  
    The trigeminal nuclear complex--the nucleus of the spinal tract and the mesencephalic, principal sensory, and motor nuclei--all provide uncrossed afferents.  
    The rostral portion of the lateral reticular nucleus gives a small crossed and uncrossed projection while the perihypoglossal nuclei and the dorsal parabrachial body give crossed afferents to the lateral nucleus.  
    The norepinephrine afferent system from the locus coeruleus is represented by one or two heavily labelled cells and the serotonin raphe systems come from at least five raphe subgroups, the dorsal, superior centralis, pontis, obscurus and magnus nuclei.  
    No evidence was found for commissural fibers between ipsilateral or contralateral cerebellar nuclei, or afferent axons from the spinocerebellar nuclei and the paramedian retricular nucleus.  
    The significance of these sources of afferent imputs to the lateral cerebellar nucleus is discussed. The question is raised of the direct relationship between size of terminal axonal arborization and the quantity of HRP granules present in a cell retrograde transport. The limitations of the HRP method for detecting subtle local differences in the distribution of afferents within the heterogeneous groups of neurons in the lateral nucleus are discussed."  

    My comment
No mention of behavior. 

1976   
2121<2340  
The olivocerebellar projection in the cat studied with the method of retrograde axonal transport of horseradish peroxidase. III. The projection to the vermal visual area.   
    "
Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was injected separately in one of the cerebellar lobules VI, VIIA, VIIB, VIIIA or VIIIB (together corresponding to the vermal visual area) in 17 cats. After 1-3 days the distribution of labeled cells in the inferior olive was mapped. In spite of some overlapping it is clear that the various lobules of the vermal visual area receive fibers from separate parts of a horseshoeshaped region in the caudal half of the contralateral medial accessory olive (fig. 5C).  
    The projection area of lobule VIIA is found caudomedially and overlapping with the area supplying lobule VIIB. This in addition receives a few fibers from the nucleus beta. Fibers terminating in lobule VIIIA arise caudolaterally as do fibers destined for lobule VIIIB. A central part of the total projection area projects to lobule VI. Following injections leading to a similar extent of cortical staining in lobules VI, VII or VIII the projection of labeled cells in the corresponding projection areas differ markedly.  
    In the area of lobule VII apparently all cells are labeled, in the area of lobule VI the density of labeled cells is considerably less, and in that of lobule VIII there are rather few labeled cells. In a few cases with widespread staining of the cerebellar visual area there was spreading of HRP to the nucleus fastigii. The projection to this from the olive was therefore investigated to avoid erroneous conclusions. In the discussion it is pointed out that on most points our findings agree fairly well with the results of studies of the olivocerebellar projection undertaken with other methods (studies of retrograde cellular changes, electrophysiological methods). No support for a longitudinal subdivision of lobules VI-VIII was found.  
    Studies of the available literature indicate that the areas in the medial accessory olive projecting onto lobules VI-VIII probably do not receive direct afferents from regions which are known to be concerned in the transmission of visually evoked impulses. Fibers to the olive from the superior colliculus appear to pass to the nucleus beta only. This projects mainly to the uvula, to a little extent only to lobule VII. However, it may be imagined that visual impulses may reach the vermal visual area via the inferior olive by way of intercalated neurons, for example in the mesencephalic RF.  
    Major contingents of afferents to the olivary regions projecting onto the vermal area come from the spinal cord, the motor cortex and the periaqueductal gray."  
    My comment
    Discusses neural connections.  No mention of behavior. 


1976   
2120<2340  
Input from trigeminal cutaneous afferents to neurones of the inferior olive in rats.   
    "
Extracellular recordings were obtained from inferior olivary neurones of the rat. The responses of fifty neurones evoked by electrical stimulation of a branch of the trigeminal nerve were recorded. Maxillary nerve stimulation was most effective.  
    The response was characterized by an early discharge (single spike and wave, typically with latencies between 16 and 30 msec) and a weak late discharge which followed a period of inhibition of about 100 msec. Half of the neurones responded to one branch of the trigeminal nerve only whereas the other neurons displayed a varying degree of convergence, including sometimes a convergence from limb nerves.  
    Forty-nine olivary neurones were tested for cutaneous receptive fields. Ten out of these had small receptive fields (less than 20% of the contralateral face) and a low threshold to mechanical stimuli. Twenty neurones which had larger receptive fields responded also to low-threshold or to medium-threshold (i.e. non-nociceptive) mechanical stimuli. None of the neurones displayed receptive fields more extensive than half of the contralateral face and some of the larger fields had a small, low-threshold focus.  
    Olivary neurones responding to electrical stimulation of trigeminal nerves or mechanical stimulation of the face were located in the medial segment of the olivary complex (dorsal accessory and principal olive). A few cells only were located in the lateral segment.    
    It is concluded that neurones of the inferior olive receive a substantial input from trigeminal afferents and are capable of transmitting precise somatotopical information to the cerebellum."  

    My comment
    Discusses neural connections.  No mention of behavior. 


1977   
2089<2340  
The pontine projection to the cerebellar vermal visual area studied by means of the retrograde axonal transport of horseradish peroxidase.   
    "
Following injections of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in cerbellar vermal lobules VI, VIIA and B, VIIA and B in the cat, the distribution of labeled cells in the pontine nuclei was mapped in drawings of serial transverse and horizontal sections.  
    The labeled pontine cells are distributed in 4 largely longitudinal columns, situated in the dorsolateral, peduncular, lateral and paramedian pontine nucleus (referred to as columns A, B, C and D, respectively).  
    The majority of afferents to the vermal, visual areas come from colums A and B. To some extent cells projecting to the various sublobules have their preferential location within each column (Fig. 5). The majority of the fibers end in lobule VII.  
    Available data from the literature show that only columns A, D and rostral part of B may be involved in the transmission of visual impulses to the vermal area, since these columns receive afferents from the superior colliculus, the lateral geniculate body and the visual cortex, respectively. The route via the superior colliculus-dorsolateral nucleus appears to be quantitatively the most important. As judged from data on fiber connections, impulses from various sources (inferior colliculus, cerebellar nuclei and "non-visual" parts of the cerebral cortex) are transmitted to certain parts of the 4 columns. The functional importance of this convergence and some general features in the organization of the pons are discussed."  

    My comment
    Discusses neural connections.  No mention of behavior. 


1977   
2088<2340  
Brain stem afferents to the fastigial nucleus in the cat demonstrated by transport of horseradish peroxidase.   
    "
Although retrograde and anterograde degeneration studies have provided important information concerning brain stem afferents to the fastigal nucleus (FN), these data may be incomplete and should be confirmed by axonal transport methods.  
    Attempts were made to inject horseradish peroxidase (HRP) unilaterally into the FN in a series of adult cats. Animals were perfused with dextran and a fixative solution of paraformaldehyde and glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M phospate buffer. Representative sections were treated by the Graham and Karnovsky ('66) method.  
    Selective HRP injections in one FN resulted in retrograde transport of the marker to Purkinje cells of the ipsilateral vermis and distinctive appendages of the contralateral medial accessory olivary (MAO) nucleus (nucleus beta and the dorso-medial cell column). Retrograde transport of the label was found bilaterally in cells of the medial (MVN) and inferior (IVN) vestibular nuclei, in cell group x and in the nucleus prepositus (PP). Labeled vestibular neurons, most numerous in MVN, were identified in dorsal, caudal and lateral regions, with a slight ipsilateral preponderance. Only a few neurons in caudal, dorsal and lateral regions of the IVN were labeled and none of these included cells of group f. Labeled cells in the caudal third of PP were greatest ipsilaterally. Rostral and caudal injections of FN labeled smaller numbers of cells in MVN, IVN, cell group x and PP.  
    HRP injections of FN and portions of lobules VIII and IX resulted in bilateral retrograde labeling of larger numbers of cells in MVN, IVN and cell group x, and ipsilateral labeling of cells in group y and the interstitial nucleus of the vestibular nerve.  
    Injections of HRP into basal folia of lobules V and VI resulted in retrograde transport of the marker to cells of the medial and dorsal accessory olivary nuclei contralaterally, and to cells of the ipsilateral accessory cuneate nucleus.  
    Transport of label injected into portions of the pyramis was detected in parts of the contralateral MAO and bilaterally in parts of the pontine and reticulotegmental nuclei.  
    This study suggests that the principal afferents of the fastigial nucleus arise from: (1) Purkinje cells of the ipsilateral vermis, (2) restricted portions of the contralateral MAO (nucleus beta and dorsomedial cell column), (3) portions of the MVN and IVN (bilaterally) and (4) caudal parts of the PP. Secondary vestibular inputs to the fastigial nucleus probably are relayed mainly by Purkinje cells in the cerebellar cortex."  

    My comment
    Discusses neural connections.  No mention of behavior. 


1977    2070<2340  
Direct accessory optic projections to the vestibulo-cerebellum: a possible channel for oculomotor control systems.   
    "
The nucleus of the basal optic root (nBOR) receives direct retinal projections in all classes of vertebrates. This nucleus is also known as the medial terminal nucleus of the accessory optic tract, or as the nucleus extomamillaris.  
    Following a series of HRP injections into the uvula and flocculonodular lobe of pigeons, both large and small cells of the nBOR were labelled bilaterally with the marker. No significant transport of HRP to nBOR was observed following injections of more rostral folia of the posterior or anterior lobes of the cerebellum.  
    In view of the prominence of the tract from retina to nBOR and the presence of a monosynaptic pathway from nBOR directly to the vestibulo-cerebellum, we suggest this bisynaptic, "lemniscal", retino-cerebellar channel may be the substrate by which visual stimuli directly trigger oculomotor responses mediated by the vestibulo-cerebellum."  
    My comment
First mention of a behavior.  Oculomotor responses. 


1977   
2060<2340    
Some visual and other connections to the cerebellum of the pigeon.   
    "
By anatomical techniques it has been shown that folia VIc-IXc of the pigeon cerebellum receive inputs from the following groups of neurons: 
    the medial and lateral pontine nuclei,  
    the superficial synencephalic nucleus,  
    the medial spiriform nucleus,  
    the inferior olive, and  
    the deep cerebellar nuclei.  
From all but the last of these, the projection is mainly crossed, though the uncrossed component from the lateral pontine nucleus is not insubstantial.  
    The input from the superficial synencephalic nucleus provides a direct pathway from the retina to the cerebellum (folia VIc, VII, VIII and IXc). Less direct visual pathways reach the cerebellum via the following routes:  
    (i) the superficial synencephalic nucleus projects ipsilaterally to the lateral pontine nucleus and sparsely to the inferior olive;  
    (ii) the tectum projects ipsilaterally to the lateral and medial pontine nuclei, though the latter connection is sparse.  
In electrophysiological experiments, the importance of the tecto-pontine component of the projection has been demonstrated by cooling the tectum while recording visual responses from the cerebellum. The visual receptive fields of pontine cells have been analysed. They vary in extent from 10 degrees to the whole monocular field. They respond best to moving targets, preferring speeds of 20 to 60 degrees/second, and are usually direction-selective."  

    My comment
    Discusses neural connections.  No mention of behavior. 


Note:  At this point I stopped reading the Abstracts and just read the titles.  Unless otherwise stated, the papers seem to have discussed neural connections with no mention of behavior. 


1977   
2046<2340  
The olivocerebellar projection studied with the method of retrograde axonal transport of horseradish peroxidase. V. The projections to the flocculonodular lobe and the paraflocculus in the rabbit.   
    My comment
Title indicates the paper focuses on neural connections with no mention of behavior. 


1977   
2045<2340   
The olivocerebellar projection in the cat studied with the method of retrograde axonal transport of horseradish peroxidase. VI. The projection onto longitudinal zones of the paramedian lobule.   

    My comment
Title indicates the paper focuses on neural connections with no mention of behavior. 


1977   
2041<2340  
The organization of reticulo-olivo-cerebellar circuits in the North American opossum.   

    My comment
Title indicates the paper focuses on neural connections with no mention of behavior. 


1977   
2040<2340  
The pontine projection to the flocculonodular lobe and the paraflocculus studied by means of retrograde axonal transport of horseradish peroxidase in the rabbit.   

    My comment
Title indicates the paper focuses on neural connections with no mention of behavior. 


1978   
2026<2340  
Cerebellar afferent projections from the perihypoglossal nuclei: an experimental study with the method of retrograde axonal transport of horseradish peroxidase.   

    My comment
Title indicates the paper focuses on neural connections with no mention of behavior. 


1978   
2014<2340   
The organization of olivo-cerebellar projections in the opossum, Didelphis virginiana, as revealed by the retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase.   

    My comment
Title indicates the paper focuses on neural connections with no mention of behavior. 


1978   
2004<2340   
Vagal representation in the cerebellum of the cat.   

    My comment
Title indicates the paper focuses on neural connections with no mention of behavior. 


1978   
2003<2340  
Discharge patterns of Purkinje cells activated through the climbing fiber system by stimulation of somatic and visceral afferents.   

    My comment
Title indicates the paper focuses on neural connections with no mention of behavior. 


1978   
1992<2340  
[Reactions of neurons of the acoustic area of the cerebellar vermis in cats to binaural presentation of tone signals].   

    My comment
Title indicates the paper focuses on neural connections with no mention of behavior.


1979   
1972<2340  
Cerebellar afferents from the nucleus of the solitary tract.
   

    My comment
Title indicates the paper focuses on neural connections with no mention of behavior.


1979   
1966<2340  
Vestibular unitary responses to visual stimulation in the rabbit.   

    My comment
Title indicates the paper focuses on neural connections with no mention of behavior. 


1979   
1964<2340 
The pontine projection onto longitudinal zones of the paramedian lobule in the cat. 

    My comment
Title indicates the paper focuses on neural connections with no mention of behavior. 


1980    161<170   
Mossy fiber projections to the cerebellar flocculus from the extraocular muscle afferents. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7378763  
    "Inputs from extraocular muscles to the cerebellar flocculus were studied in anesthetized rabbits by recording neural responses either to electric stimulation to the nerve of the extraocular muscle or to the extraocular muscle stretch.  
    The mossy fiber (mf) origin of the responses was identified by the similarity in the laminal profiles of these responses to those of the mossy fiber responses due to eighth nerve stimulation, the capacity to follow repetitive stimulation and the responses of simple spike discharges of Purkinje cells.  
    The latency of mf responses evoked by electric stimulation of the afferent nerve from the superior oblique muscle was about 4.5-8.0 msec. Ramp displacements applied either to an individual extraocular muscle or to the whole eyeball also produced mf responses. Simple spike discharges of flocculus Purkinje cells were modulated by ramp displacements of extraocular muscles. Forty cells out of 47 cells examined responded with excitation and in 7 cells only inhibition was detected. Phasic, tonic and phasictonic excitations were obtained during ramp displacements. Responses of simple spike discharges were classified as direction-specific, plane-specific and non-specific types depending on the convergence of afferent sources of muscles producing excitation.  
    Loci in the flocculus responding to extraocular muscle stimulation were studied histologically and it was revealed that mf responses from extraocular muscles were obtained in extensive parts of the flocculus."  


1982     841<1214
    Abstract: 
The dorsal horn of the spinal cord.   

   Free Article    
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1113/expphysiol.1982.sp002630/pdf   
20 page PDF available online for free.  I wasn't able to photocopy, but the article can be read online.   
    My comment
Very informative, with diagrams.  Well worth reading.
It turns out that the dorsal horn is much more complex than I had anticipated.
    See:   Posterior Horn of the Spinal Cord 


1983    825<1214
Spinocerebellar projections in the turtle. Observations on their origin and terminal organization.
   
    No mention neurotransmitters in the title. 


1992    522<1214    from:  Cerebellar Efferent Pathways   . 
Secondary vestibular cholinergic projection to the cerebellum of rabbit and rat as revealed by choline acetyltransferase immunohistochemistry, retrograde and orthograde tracers.   
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1577999   
    "Previously we have shown that four regions of the cerebellum, the uvula-nodulus, flocculus, ventral paraflocculus, and anterior lobe 1, receive extensive, but not exclusive, cholinergic mossy fiber projections. In the present experiment we have studied the origin of three of these projections in the rat and rabbit (uvula-nodulus, flocculus, ventral paraflocculus), using choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunohistochemistry in combination with a double label, retrogradely transported horseradish peroxidase (HRP).  
    We have demonstrated that in both the rat and rabbit the caudal medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) and to a lesser extent the nucleus prepositus hypoglossus (NPH) contain ChAT-positive neurons. Neurons of the caudal MVN are double-labeled following HRP injections into the uvula-nodulus. HRP injections into the uvula-nodulus also labeled less than 5% of the neurons in the cholinergic vestibular efferent complex. Fewer ChAT-positive neurons in the MVN and some ChAT-positive neurons in the NPH are double-labeled following HRP injections into the flocculus. Almost no ChAT-positive neurons in the MVN and some ChAT-positive neurons in the NPH are double-labeled following HRP injections into the ventral paraflocculus. Injections of Phaseolus leucoagglutinin (PHA-L) into the caudal MVN of both the rat and rabbit demonstrated projection patterns to the uvula-nodulus and flocculus that were qualitatively similar to those observed using ChAT immunohistochemistry.  
    We conclude that the cholinergic mossy fiber pathway to the cerebellum in general and the uvula-nodulus in particular is likely to mediate secondary vestibular information related to postural adjustments."  
    My comment
I don't totally understand this, but it seems pretty clear that the "cholinergic projection to the cerebellum" is afferent rather than efferent. 


1994    458<1214    from:   Cerebellar Efferent Pathways  . 
Topography of Purkinje cell compartments and mossy fiber terminal fields in lobules II and III of the rat cerebellar cortex: spinocerebellar and cuneocerebellar projections.    
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7530818   
    "The cerebellar cortex is histologically uniform by conventional staining techniques, but contains an elaborate topography. In particular, on  
    the efferent side the cerebellar cortex can be subdivided into multiple parasagittal compartments based upon the selective expression by Purkinje cell subsets of various molecules, for example the polypeptide antigens zebrin I and II, and on the afferent side many mossy fibers terminate as parasagittal bands of terminals.  
    The relationships between mossy fiber terminal fields and Purkinje cell compartments are important for a full understanding of cerebellar structure and function. In this study the locations of spino- and cuneocerebellar mossy fiber terminal fields in lobules II and III of the rat cerebellum are compared to the compartmentation of the Purkinje cells as revealed by using zebrin II immunocytochemistry. Wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase was injected at three different levels in the spinal cord and in the external cuneate nucleus, and the terminal field distributions in lobules II and III of the cerebellar cortex were compared with the Purkinje cell compartmentation. In the anterior lobe, zebrin II immunocytochemistry reveals three prominent, narrow immunoreactive bands of Purkinje cells, P1+ at the midline and P2+ laterally at each side. These are separated and flanked by wide zebrin- compartments (P1- and P2-). There are also less strongly stained P3+ and P4+ bands more laterally. The spinocerebellar terminals in the granular layer are distributed as parasagittally oriented bands. Projections from the lumbar region of the spinal cord terminate in five bands, one at the midline (L1), a second with its medial border midway across P1- and its lateral border at the P2+/P2- interface (L2), and a third extending laterally from midway across P2-. The lateral edge of L3 may align with the P3+/P3- border. The terminal fields labeled by a tracer injection into the thoracic region give a very similar distribution (T1, T2 and T3). The only systematic difference is in T2, which statistical analysis suggests may be broader than L2. In contrast, anterograde tracer injections into the cervical region label synaptic glomeruli scattered throughout the lobule with much weaker or no evidence of banding. The terminal fields of the cuneocerebellar projection have a complementary distribution to those of thoracic and lumbar spinocerebellar terminals. There are two lateral bands, Cu2 and Cu3. Cu2 lies within the Purkinje cell P1-compartment, abutting L1/T1 medially and L2/T2 laterally. Cu3 lies between L2 and L3 within the P2- Purkinje cell compartment. The medial edge of Cu3 is tightly aligned with the P2+/P2- border."  


2005    236<1217 
Different pontine projections to the two sides of the cerebellum. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16111556   
    "This study analyzed the projections of the basilar pontine nuclei (BPN) and of the nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis (NRTP) to the two sides of the cerebellum in the rat. It showed that the two sides of the cerebellar cortex were innervated by different percentages of BPN (about 82% of the cells project to the contralateral cortex and 18% to the ipsilateral) and NRTP cells (some 60% project to the contralateral cortex and 40% to the ipsilateral). In comparison to projections traced to the cortex, only a few fibers were traced to the nuclei of the same animals.  
    Most of the projections of the BPN to the cerebellar nuclei were traced to the lateralis and posterior interpositus nucleus of the contralateral side (95%), while a few were traced to homologous nuclei of the ipsilateral side (5%). Thus, the BPN principally control the activity of the contralateral cerebellum, with a much less important control over the activity of the ipsilateral cerebellum.  
     Vice versa, the NRTP, which project to the lateralis, interpositus, and medialis nuclei of the two sides, with percentages (64% contra- and 36% ipsilateral) similar to those reported for the projections to the cortex, is more concerned in the bilateral control of the cerebellum, although with a moderate contralateral prevalence.  
    The fact that projections of the BPN were principally traced to the contralateral nuclei, from which the efferent projection fibers from the cerebellum originate, suggests that the BPN are principally involved in the motor control of the contralateral body. Conversely, the bilateral projections of the NRTP to the cerebellar nuclei suggest that the NRTP is mainly involved in bilateral motor activities. The comparison of the projections to the cortex and nuclei of the cerebellum of single animals supports the co-existence of coupled (i.e., projections to the cortex and the corresponding nuclei) and uncoupled (i.e., projections to the cortex but not to the nuclei) projection patterns, from both the BPN and the NRTP. These features of the pontocerebellar projections open new vistas on the functional architecture of this pathway."  
    My comments
1.  "Most of the projections of the BPN to the cerebellar nuclei were traced to ... the contralateral side (95%)"  
2.  " Vice versa, the NRTP, which project to ... the two sides, with percentages (64% contra- and 36% ipsilateral)"  
3.  See:   2005    237<1217 
    Postural control in man: the phylogenetic perspective.  
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16097476  






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