Behavioral Disinhibition

Note:  The following references were initially identified in  Tonic Inhibition , and I intended to use them to find a  synthesis between   Behavioral Disinhibition  and   Locomotion Sequence Revision    .    However I became distracted by other questions and have not yet completed that effort.  What follows is a summary of the relevant references. 


Searching PubMed for "behavioral disinhibition" found 2,360 references:   
    This is too many.  I need another search term. 


Searching PubMed for "gaba tonic inhibition" yielded 1206 references:   
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=gaba+tonic+inhibition 
    Note:  During the course of the review of these references, the number of them rose from 1206 to 1240. 


1985  1162<1206  (1196<1240)
Disinhibition as a basic process in the expression of striatal functions. I. The striato-nigral influence on tecto-spinal/tecto-diencephalic neurons. 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2859912   
    "The ... striatum exerts a facilitatory influence on
tecto-spinal/tecto-diencephalic (TSD) cells by releasing these neurons from the tonic inhibitory nigral influence." 
    See:  Substantia Nigra  for full Abstract, Related citations and Cited by's.   
   
The motor programs which are  referred to  tecto-spinal/tecto-diencephalic   


1987    1141<1206   (1175<1240) 
Defense reaction elicited by injection of GABA antagonists and synthesis inhibitors into the posterior hypothalamus in rats.   
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3037412   
    "These results suggest that both the physiological and locomotor components of the hypothalamic defense reaction may be under tonic GABAergic inhibition in the region of the posterior hypothalamus."      
    See:  Fear for full Abstract, Related citations and Cited by's.   

The motor programs which are referred to  Defense reaction 
    My comment
Perhaps my mother's Sadism  was a deeply ingrained, habituated defense reaction.   
    See:  My Dysfunctional Family  and  Anger


1996    (from a different search)
Neural networks for vertebrate locomotion     
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8533066
    No PubMed Abstract, but full length paper on Google
http://neuromajor.ucr.edu/courses/Grillner_Sci-Am-1996.pdf

    " Under resting conditions, the basal ganglia continuously inhibit the brain’s sundry motor centers so that no movements occur. But when the active inhibition is released, coordinated motions may begin. "
    See:  GABA/Glycine Inhibition 
for full-length article and Related citations.    
The motor programs which are  referred to  vertebrate locomotion 
 

2001    843<1206  (875<1240) 
GABA(B) receptor inhibition causes locomotor stimulation in mice   
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11755139   
    "These results suggest the existence of a GABA(B) receptor-mediated tonic inhibition of dopamine neurons."    
    See:  GABA Metabotropic Receptor  for full Abstract, Related citations and Cited by's.    

The motor programs which are  referred to locomotor stimulation 


2007    557<1206 
GABAergic output of the basal ganglia.   
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17499116    
    "Using GABAergic outputs from the SNr or GP(i), the basal ganglia exert inhibitory control over several motor areas in the brainstem which in turn control the central pattern generators for the basic motor repertoire including eye-head orientation, locomotion, mouth movements, and vocalization. These movements are by default kept suppressed by tonic rapid firing of SNr/GP(i) neurons, but can be released by a selective removal of the tonic inhibition. ... To summarize, an essential function of the basal ganglia is to select, sort, and integrate innate movements and learned movements, together with cognitive and emotional mental operations, to achieve purposeful behaviors. Intricate hand-finger movements do not occur in isolation; they are always associated with appropriate motor sets, such as eye-head orientation and posture."   
    See:  Basal Ganglia  for full Abstract, Related citations and Cited by's. 

The motor programs which are referred to    GABAergic output of the basal ganglia.   
    "
Intricate hand-finger movements do not occur in isolation; they are always associated with appropriate motor sets, such as eye-head orientation and posture
    See: Early Behavior  . 


2008   491<1206   
Diencephalic locomotor region in the lamprey--afferents and efferent control. 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18596192      
    "These findings suggest that GABAergic projections provide tonic inhibition that once turned off can release locomotion. Double-labeling experiments were carried out to identify GABAergic projections to the DLR."   
    See:  GABA/Glycine Inhibition
for full Abstract, Related citations, Cited by's and Free Article 
The motor programs which are referred to:   Tonic Inhibition  


2008    489<1206  
Gabaergic mechanisms of hypothalamic nuclei in the expression of conditioned fear. 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18634894       
    "The amygdala, the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG), and the medial hypothalamus have long been recognized to be a neural system responsible for the generation and elaboration of unconditioned fear in the brain. It is also well known that this neural substrate is under a tonic inhibitory control exerted by GABA mechanisms."     
    See:  Fear  for full Abstract and Related citations.   

The motor programs which are directly referred to:   unconditioned fear 



2008     (from a different search)  
Initiation of locomotion in lampreys  
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17916380     
    "GABA inputs tonically maintain the MLR inhibited and removal of this inhibition initiates locomotion."       
    See:  Initiation of Locomotion in Lampreys  
for full Abstract, Related citations and Cited by's  .   
The motor programs which are directly referred to:     Initiation of locomotion 


2008     (from a different search)  
Origin of excitatory drive to a spinal locomotor network.       
    "A long-standing hypotheses is that locomotion is turned on by descending excitatory synaptic drive. "  
The motor programs which are directly referred to:    spinal locomotor network 

    My comment:  
The strong bias toward locomotion reflects my biased interest in locomotion. 
 



SubC:  Behavioral Disinhibition 
160911 - 1158 



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