12 - Spectator Sports

‘Entertainment that involves the spectating of sporting activities that incorporate both physical exertion and fair competition’ (Moss, Clements and McCullough, 2009, in Moss, 2009, p.207).

Date of Article


Title / Headline



9th December, 2016BBC News

Why watching sport on TV is not a black and white issue

Discussion around the factors that impact upon television sport viewing figures, including competition, demographics and other variables.
16th November, 2016

BBC SportPrice of Football 2016: Premier League cuts cost of tickets

The Price of Football is the BBC's annual survey into consumer expenditure at football grounds in the UK. This survey has revealed a price reduction by Premier League clubs and that it is now more expensive to watch some Championship teams play away fixtures than it is to watch Premier League away fixtures, where a price-cap of £30 exists on away tickets.

24th October, 2016The Guardian

Is the unthinkable happening - are people finally switching the football off?

Article discussing a decline in early season ratings for Premier League football amongst UK TV audiences.

7th April, 2016

BBC SportOculus Rift: How will virtual reality change watching and playing sport?

Feature exploring the potential impacts of virtual reality upon sports audiences and also sports teams. 
4th March, 2016The GuardianThe fight game reloaded: how MMA and UFC conquered the world

Article charting the rise of mixed martial arts and the Ultimate Fighting Championship, and the role that social media has played in it's popularity and spread.

22nd February, 2016

BBC Sport'Clubs could stop online touts with secondary ticket exchanges'

Feature about the Football Supporters Federation (FSF) making suggestions that football clubs in England should create their own secondary ticket exchanges, in order to prevent touts re-selling tickets at high prices.
30th November, 2015

BBC News2024 Olympics: Hamburg says 'No' to hosting games

Article about a recent referendum for residents of the German city of Hamburg, where just over half of respondents said no to hosting the 2024 Olympic games, deeming it too expensive.
16th October, 2015

BBC SportPrice of Football: Most ticket prices frozen or reduced

The BBC's annual survey of 227 football clubs in 13 UK leagues, which reveals (amongst other things) a price freeze or reduction for 70% of tickets.
8th September, 2015

BBC NewsManchester United's plans for digital domination

Case study of how Manchester United are using technology and mass media to build a global fan base.
30th July, 2014The Conversation

Behind the fence: the side of Glasgow games you're not meant to see

Article examining some of the negative impacts of the Glasgow Commonwealth Games upon local residents to the games sites.
12th May, 2014

The GuardianMLS and US Soccer unveil long term TV deal with ESPN, Fox and Univision

News story about television rights in the US for football (soccer) matches, helping to increase coverage of the sport, with identified American target audiences in the Hispanic and 'millennial' segments.

8th May, 2014

BBC SportGiro 2014: Why do cycling's Grand Tours start in other countries?

Article exploring the economics and marketing rationale behind cycle races beginning in other countries.
5th May, 2014

BBC NewsThe strange demands of life as a cheerleader

Exploration of the perks and problems of the role of cheerleader within America's National Football League.
30th March, 2014The Guardian

Cheerleaders make the NFL's billions. They deserve to be paid minimum wage

In the US National Football League (NFL) cheerleaders are paid around $5 per hour, which is $3 less per hour than the American national minimum wage. In an ongoing legal dispute cheerleaders have been told that they constitute 'seasonal amusement', which therefore does not entitle them to the minimum wage.

18th March, 2014BBC SportBBC Investigation: Is the Premier League failing disabled fans?

Feature on an investigation by the BBC into the match-day experience of disabled fans at Premier League fixtures. There are only the required number of wheelchair spaces at three Premier League stadiums.

7th February, 2014

BBC SportFootball League calls for safe-standing areas in championship

News following on from the stories below, which indicate that Football League clubs have backed the idea of safe standing areas within their stadiums.
27th December, 2013

BBC SportFootball League clubs consulted on return of standing

News story furthering the debate below, after all 72 English Football League clubs have been sent a letter consulting them on a return to standing in football grounds.
14th December, 2013BBC SportStanding at football: Will terraces return to Britain's top stadiums?

Feature about the debate in British football as to whether standing areas should be allowed in grounds for fans in the top two divisions of the English football pyramid. The article draws on examples from the German Bundesliga and particularly Borussia Dortmund where rail seating has been implemented.

2nd November, 2013

BBC NewsWhy are football clubs banning local newspapers from covering their teams?News article about a growing trend in the UK of local media outlets being banned from press areas at football grounds, seemingly to prevent negative reviews in local media. This brings into focus how football clubs are increasingly being run as a business and not a community asset. 

14th September, 2013

BBC NewsWashington Redskins: Time to change the name?

News article about the name 'Redskins' being used despite it being offensive to native Americans, and a campaign to get the team to change its name.
11th September, 2013

BBC NewsAlcohol brands 'pervade' footballNews article about a study into alcohol advertising at football matches in the UK, which revealed that there is a reference to an alcohol brand during a live televised game every 2 minutes.

13th April, 2013

BBC News

How do you give stadiums atmosphere? 

Feature exploring how the atmosphere in stadiums can impact upon the visitor experience, as well team performances.
24th October, 2012

BBC Sport London 2012 Olympics legacy bypassing women

Britain's female athletes enjoyed their best ever Games in 2012, but the Women's Sport and Fitness Foundation says fundamental obstacles still block the development of girls in sport.

The charity also claims British women are held back by a culture that urges them to be thin rather than healthy.

19th October, 2012 BBC Sport Price of football: What is dynamic pricing?

Feature discussing the dynamic pricing strategy which is being trialled by some English Championship football clubs, whereby those who buy tickets earlier may pay less for them, but prices may increase as demand begins to impact upon supply. This system is already widely used in North American sporting fixtures.

18th October, 2012

BBC Sport Price of football: Survey of 166 British clubs revealed

News article about a survey by the BBC, into the actual price of participating in the live football match day experience, including the prices of season tickets, gate tickets and catering at football clubs around Britain.

10th August, 2012

BBC News Viewpoint: London 2012 a social media Olympics to remember

Feature discussing the pros and cons of social media usage, and in particular Twitter at the London 2012 Olympics.

23rd July, 2012

BBC News

London 2012: Team GB stars say facilities boosted by Olympics

Feature discussing how the Olympic games have already had a positive impact in terms of improved sporting facilities in the UK, and the possible legacy around increased interest in sport.
13th July, 2012

BBC News London 2012: The great Olympics sponsorship bandwagon

Critical feature discussing how corporate sponsorship and branding have changed the Olympic games.
7th June, 2012

BBC News Sports fans to view hours of Olympics on TV - survey

News article reporting on a survey of British sports fans to assess how much Sport they would be watching on TV / online this Summer, taking into account Euro 2012 and The Olympics.

6th June, 2012

BBC News
Cardiff City FC revise rebranding with new red shirts

News feature, which provides a contemporary case study into the measures being taken by Premier League football teams to secure new investment from Asia in order to help expand markets and reduce debt.

22nd May, 2012

BBC News Olympic fans can check-in with Foursquare tie-up

News feature about Geo-social networking company Foursquare partnering the London Olympics 2012. Olympic bosses have said the 2012 Olympics will be the first 'social media games'.


12th April, 2012

BBC News

Rubbish dump to beach: How Games changed Barcelona

Case study of how the Barcelona Olympics has lead to a legacy of aesthetic and environmental improvement for the city.
5th March, 2012

BBC News Fever Pitch and the rise of middle-class football

Feature about the changing face of football in the UK that has lead to it's gentrification as a spectator sport.
3rd February, 2012

BBC News Premier League and satellite firms in new court ruling

The Premier League and the importers of foreign satellite TV decoder boxes and cards are both claiming victory after their latest court battle.
9th December, 2011 BBC News North America to lead sports industry growth, says PWC

Global sports revenues will grow to $145.3bn (£92.5bn) between now and 2015, growing at an annual rate of 3.7%, a new report suggests.

North America will remain the largest sport industry market during that period, says Price Waterhouse Coopers.

26th September, 2011

BBC Sport Sir Alex Ferguson says television has too much power

Report and video of an interview with Manchester United manager Sir Alex Ferguson, in which he highlights some of the disadvantages to football through fixtures being dictated by television, and the lack of money given to clubs.

21st September, 2011

BBC News NSPCC: Wrestling children video "disturbing"

News video questioning the ethics of allowing children to take part in cage fighting competitions.

1st August, 2011

BBC News

Clubs reveal all in BBC Sport Price of Football survey

Feature discussing the price of football in England and Scotland to spectators, from each of the clubs in their respective football leagues. Is football outpricing the traditional grass root support that they need?


1st May, 2011
BBC News
The lure of eccentric sports

Feature examining some traditional British sporting pastimes including bog snorkeling, wife carrying and cheese rolling, along with how these have become social traditions interwoven in various regions.

27th March, 2011
BBC News
Racism in Russian football: Zenit fans
let side down

Feature highlighting the problem of racism in Russian football, particularly amongst fans of Zenit.

24th March, 2011
BBC News
English Open at St Mellion cancelled over lack of funds

News story highlighting the difficulties that golf is experiencing in attracting sponsorship to be able to stage major competitions.

23rd March, 2011
BBC News
Sport and business team up for social change
With the approach of the 2012 Olympics, the issues of corporate sponsorship and corporate social responsibility have come to the fore. "With the London 2012 Olympic Games a year away, and the legacy issues surrounding that event, the subject is obviously a very topical one," says Keir Gordon, of sports law practice Charles Russell.

14th November, 2010


Olympic boss seeks golden future for London 2012 park

News story about the proposed legacy for the Olympic Park currently under construction in East London, beyond the 2012 games.


3rd November, 2010


Poland eyes Euro 2012 business goals

News story assessing the potential economic impacts that a country can experience through the hosting of a major sporting competition, in this case euro 2012 in Poland.


31st August, 2010


 Old firm will join the Premier League - Dermot Desmond

News and discussion article around the influence that the media has upon football in Great britain, and how this may lead to two of Scotlands Premier League sides competing in England's Premier League.


22nd July, 2010
Premier League signs up EA Sports as technology partner
Gaming giant EA Sports, known for its 'Fifa Soccer' football game franchise, has signed up as the Premier League's first sports technology partner.
2nd July, 2010
MPs want new ban on sport ticket touts
News story about a proposed ban on the re-sale of tickets for all sporting events in England and Wales.
 26th June, 2010
 BBC  Is the US finally going World Cup mad?
News story about how the success of the US football team at the 2010 World Cup has captivated US audiences and increased popularity of football in the USA.
24th June, 2010
Olympics 2012: Fans must use Visa for tickets
Visa credit and debit cards will be the only ones accepted at shops or cash machines at 2012 Olympic venues. This is due to the sponsorship deal between Visa and the 2012 Olympics. The Office of Fair Trading and European Commission are reported to be currently looking into this.

24th June, 2010
 BBC Football's rejection of goal-line tech
News video about the debate around the use of goal line technology in football, which FIFA will not consider implementing.
 17th June, 2010
 BBC How ambush marketing ambushed sport
BBC Magazine article about the history of ambush marketing in major sports events.
 17th June, 2010
 BBC World Cup boosts UK retail sales
News story about an increase in UK retail sales during the build up to the 2010 World Cup. Items that saw particular increases included food and televisions.

 15th June, 2010


Fifa acts after 'ambush marketing' by Dutch brewery

News story about an alleged guerilla marketing stunt by a Dutch brewery at the 2010 Football World cup in South Africa.


15th June, 2010
MSP Margo MacDonald calls for Scots ban on vuvuzelas
News story about vuvuzelas a loud trumpet like device that has been popularised by the 2010 World Cup, which has upset some fans, and has been deemed a health and safety concern after fears that its 130 decibels could drown out safety announcements.
 15th June, 2010
 BBC Motorsport shows Britain the money
News video about the motorsport industry, which is worth billions of pounds to the UK economy.  Link
 12th June, 2010
 Daily Finance
 Why hosting the World Cup is a losing proposition for South Africa
Blog article about the financial costs of the 2010 World Cup in South Africa, and how sporting mega events often fail to live up to their intended legacies.
 11th June, 2010
 BBC  World Cup copyright warning for businesses
News story about businesses breaching copyright of the 2010 football world cup by using images and phrases that are copyright of the tournament's organising body FIFA.
 10th June, 2010
 DCMS Olympic sports legacy plans
News story about the government's plans to create a lasting legacy from the developments for the London 2012 Olympic Games.

 10th June, 2010


 World Cup brands eye winning results

News story about sponsorhip of the 2010 Football World Cup where revenues are estimated to be up by 80% on the 2006 tournament in Germany.


 4th June, 2010


 Footing South Africa's World Cup bill

 There are few cast iron laws in economics but one seems to hold - the organisers of sporting mega-events always overestimate the economic benefits and underestimate the costs. This article sets out to debate how South Africa can economically capitalise on the euphoria from being this year's football World cup hosts, and whether there will be a lasting positive legacy.

27th May, 2010


UEFA introduces tough penalties for spendthrift clubs

News story about UEFA's decision not to allow football teams to operate beyond their own financial means.


23rd May, 2010


Blackpool's Premier League promotion boosts resort

News article about how Blackpool Football Club's elevation to the Premier League has had an economic impact on the resort and has boosted the town's regeneration due to the promotion which officials believe is worth "tens of millions" of pounds.


19th May, 2010

Times Online

The 2010 World Cup is us against the rest, so get those flags out

News article about how little or nothing else that happens this year will have resonance to match the impact of the finals in South Africa.


19th May, 2010


England 2018 World Cup bid still strong, insists Sebastian Coe.

News article about how 2018 board member says Triesman affair not terminal for bid, 'We have great ability to deliver a fantastic World Cup'.


6th May, 2010

Times Online

Sky Sports raise 3-D glasses to Cash Wednesday.

News article about Sky Sports electing to make the game available (in selected pubs, and for those with the requisite plastic glasses) in 3-D.


1st April, 2010

Times Online

BSkyB told to cut prices for sports channels.

News article about how BSkyB was ordered yesterday to cut by 23 per cent the price that it charges rivals such as Virgin Media for its premium sports channels.


21st January, 2010


Could America take to cricket?

News piece about how the Indian Premier League has announced plans to take cricket to the US. But could the home of baseball ever take cricket to its heart?


16th December, 2009

Times Online

England's 2018 World Cup bid moves up gear with £300m guarantees.

News article about the bandwagon to bring the 2018 World Cup finals to England will gather speed today after the Government pressed the throttle on financial guarantees worth more than £300 million.


8th October, 2009


SPL unfazed by Old Firm exit talk


News article about how the Scottish Premier League has no plans for a top flight without the Old Firm, the body's chief executive says.



5th October, 2009


England match to be internet only


News article about England's World Cup qualifier in Ukraine on Saturday will be shown exclusively live to subscribers on the internet who will pay at least £4.99.



22nd January, 2009


Top sports make free-to-air vow.

News article about how the UK's leading governing bodies for sport have pledged to keep their main events on free-to-air TV, according to a new voluntary code of conduct.


12th January, 2009


O'Sullivan wants X Factor glitz


News article about how world snooker champion Ronnie O'Sullivan has called on X Factor judge Simon Cowell to revitalise the game.



17th April, 2008


Toronto Blue Jays Ranked 22nd Out Of 30 Most Valuable Baseball Teams.

News article about valuable American baseball teams.



24th September, 2007


New stadium boosts Arsenal income

News article detailing Arsenal's move from Highbury to the larger 60,000 seat Emirates Stadium is beginning to show results off the field of play for the north London club.



20th April, 2007


Boxing's biggest fight

News article about Boxing promoter Frank Maloney reckons it will have "15 minutes of fame", yet it is the fastest-growing spectator sport in the United States.


27th September, 2006


Australian cricket tackles racism

News article about cricketing authorities in Australia announcing a new zero-tolerance policy towards racism in the stands.



26th September, 2006

Yorkshire Post

Sporting partners who kept their eyes on the ball


News article about a ground-breaking partnership involving professional sport and higher education in Yorkshire is already making an impact. Bill Bridge reports.



24th August, 2006


Making a mint out of polo ponies

A news article regarding looking relaxed behind the bar, Tony Bennett is enjoying a frosty glass of his own as he pulls pints for thirsty riders.



24th July, 2006


Britain's holiday camp with guns

News report about how shooting has long had a difficult image in Britain. But that doesn't deter the hundreds of men, women and children who, every year, plan to spend their summer holidays on a huge rifle range, complete with chalets and caravans.