The "St James & St Jude"


Jude the Apostle
Modified from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

According to the New Testament, Jude was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus. He is generally identified with Thaddeus (the twin or Thomas also know as Judas), and is also variously called Jude Thaddaeus, Judas Thaddaeus or Lebbaeus. He is identified with Jude, the brother of Jesus.

Jude is clearly Judas Iscariot, both "Jude" and "Judas" are translations of the name Ιούδας in the Greek original New Testament, which in turn is a Greek variant of Judah (Y'hudah), a name which was common among Jews at the time. In most Bibles in languages other than English and French, Jude and Judas are referred to by the same name. The name by which Luke calls the Apostle, "Jude of James", is interpreted as "Jude, brother of James" (Luke 6:16) The Gospel of John also once mentions a disciple called "Judas not Iscariot" (John 14:22). This is often accepted to be the same person as the apostle Jude. In some Latin manuscripts of Matthew 10:3, he is called Judas the Zealot. Jude, brother of Jesus, who is mentioned in Mark 6:3 and Matthew 13:55-57, and is the traditional author of the Epistle of Jude. Some Catholics believe the two Judes are the same person, while a number of Protestants do not.

Veneration of Judas Thaddaeus
(San Judas Tadeo) in Mexico

The veneration of Judas Thaddaeus (San Judas Tadeo) in Mexico has taken on importance in Mexico since the mid 20th century, especially in Mexico City. The centre for this veneration is at the San Hipolito Church in the city centre, for centuries the only church with any space devoted to this saint. Although the church remains named for its original patron, the image of Judas Thaddaeus has been moved to the main altar. The church and some other locations in Mexico, receive thousands of devotees, mostly coming on the 28th of each month, especially October 28, the saint's feast day, other areas, is filled with thousands of street shrines to San Judas Tadeo with significant numbers of devotees include Michoacán, the State of Mexico, Mexicali and Monterrey. Judas Thaddaeus (or San Judas Tadeo in Spanish) was one of the Twelve Apostles. A relative of Jesus, he was one of his first followers and after Christ's death, became an evangelizer. He was martyred along with Simon the Zealot, by decapitation with a hatchet. 

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.James, brother of Jesus

James anglicized as Jacob, who died in martyrdom in 62 or 69 AD, was an important figure of the Apostolic Age. His usual epithets are James, the Lord's brother and James the Just. Paul mentions meeting James "the Lord's brother" and later calls him a pillar in the Epistle to the Galatians and in First Epistle to the Corinthians, as one to whom Jesus appeared after his resurrection. Mary is mentioned as the mother of a James, both in the Gospel of Mark and in the Gospel of Matthew. James, the brother of Jesus. St. James is the successor to the Church of Jerusalem.

Paul further describes James as being one of the persons to whom the risen Christ showed himself (1 Corinthians 15:3–8); later in 1 Corinthians, Paul mentions James in a way that suggests James had been married (9:5); and in Galatians, Paul lists James with Cephas (better known as Peter) and John as the three "pillars" of the Church (2:9) who will minister to the "circumcised" (in general Jews and Jewish Proselytes) in Jerusalem, while Paul and his fellows will minister to the "uncircumcised" (in general Gentiles) (2:12). These terms (circumcised/uncircumcised) are generally interpreted to mean Jews and Greeks, who were predominant; however, this is an oversimplification, as 1st-century Judaea Province also had some Jews who no longer circumcised and some Greeks and others such as Egyptians, Ethiopians, and Arabs who did.

When the Christians of Antioch were concerned over whether Gentile Christians need be circumcised to be saved, they sent Paul and Barnabas to confer with the Jerusalem church. James was the local head of the oldest church and the leader of the most conservative portion of Jewish Christianity. He played a prominent role in the formulation of the council's decision. James was the last named figure to speak, after Peter, Paul and Barnabas; he delivered what he called his "decision" (Acts 15:19 NRSV) – the original sense is closer to "opinion". He supported them all in being against the requirement (Peter had cited his earlier revelation from God regarding Gentiles) and suggested prohibitions about eating blood as well as meat sacrificed to idols and fornication. There is a view that 'strangled' and 'blood' in the texts refer to foreskin conditions - paraphimosis and ruptured frenulum, respectively. This became the ruling of the Council, agreed upon by all the apostles and elders and sent to the other churches by letter.

When Paul arrives in Jerusalem to deliver the money he raised for the faithful there, it is to James that he speaks, and it is James who insists that Paul ritually cleanse himself at Herod's Temple to prove his faith and deny rumors of teaching rebellion against the Torah (Acts 21:18ff).

After the departure of Peter from Jerusalem, James presided over the mother church of Christendom until his death. In the late 2nd century, Clement of Alexandria recorded the following: "For they say that Peter and James and John, after the ascension of our savior, as if also preferred by our Lord, strove not after honor, but chose James the Just as bishop of Jerusalem".  Because of this, Reza Aslan refers to James as the first Bishop of Bishops. Jerome wrote that after the Passion the Apostles selected James as Bishop of Jerusalem. In describing James' ascetic lifestyle, De Viris Illustribus quotes Hegesippus' account of James from the fifth book of Hegesippus' lost Commentaries:

After the apostles, James the brother of the Lord surnamed the Just was made head of the Church at Jerusalem. Many indeed are called James. This one was holy from his mother's womb. He drank neither wine nor strong drink, ate no flesh, never shaved or anointed himself with ointment or bathed. He alone had the privilege of entering the Holy of Holies, since indeed he did not use woolen vestments but linen and went alone into the temple and prayed in behalf of the people, insomuch that his knees were reputed to have acquired the hardness of camels' knees.

Since it was unlawful for anyone but the High Priest of the Temple to enter the Holy of Holies, and then only once a year on Yom Kippur, Jerome's quotation from Hegesippus indicates that James was considered a High Priest. The Pseudo-Clementine Recognitions suggest this.

Jerome quotes the non-canonical Gospel of the Hebrews: "'Now the Lord, after he had given his grave clothes to the servant of the priest, appeared to James, for James had sworn that he would not eat bread from that hour in which he had drunk the Lord's cup until he should see him risen from the dead.' And a little further on the Lord says, 'bring a table and bread.' And immediately it is added, 'He took bread and blessed and broke and gave it to James the Just and said to him, "My brother, eat your bread, for the Son of Man is risen from the dead."' And so he ruled the church of Jerusalem thirty years, that is, until the seventh year of Nero."

The non-canonical Gospel of Thomas confirms that James was an important leader, stating, "The disciples said to Jesus: We know that you will depart from us; who is it who will lead us?" Jesus said to them, "Wherever you have come from, go to James the Just, for whom heaven and earth came to be."

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