The Mi-8 spawned the Mi-24 gunship helicopter which gained notoriety for its operations in Afghanistan. Widely exported to the Warsaw Pact countries, the Mi-24 uses the TV3 engines, transmission and rotor of the Mi-17 on a new fuselage, with stub wings carrying rockets and other offensive armament. As a gunship it was unusual in having a separate cabin capable of carrying eight troops. In the early Mi-24A the pilot sat behind the armament operator and had relatively poor forward vision but the later Mi-24D provided a raised rear seating position for the pilot and a bubble nose for the weapons position.
R.Simpson "Airlife's Helicopter and Rotorcraft", 1998
The Mi-24, which has the NATO reporting name 'Hind', was developed during the mid-1960s to provide a multi-role military helicopter-of formidable capability. It appears to be evolved from, the Mil Mi-8/Mi-14 family, but a combination of reduced size and increased power gives this aircraft improved manoeuvrability and performance. While of the same basic configuration as its predecessors, and with a dynamic system based on that of the Mi-8, the Mi-24 has a more slender fuselage suitable for the gunship role, but with sufficient capability to accommodate a crew of four and a maximum of eight armed troops. The tricycle landing gear has retractable main units and a semi-retractable nose unit. Short-span cantilever shoulder wings with considerable anhedral are a distinguishing feature, and each provides mountings for a variety of weapons. Entering service in 1973-74 and deployed initially in East Germany, the Mi-24 has developed during military exercises into variants for armed assault, for anti-armour use, and for use as a helicopter escort, well able to oppose enemy helicopters in air-to-air combat. About 1,500 'Hinds', in production since the early 1970s, are currently in service with CIS forces. The type saw much action in Afghanistan, used as the proving ground for many operational improvements to the 'Hind'. The type was also used in the Iraq/Iran war of the early 1980s. The Mi-24 has been widely exported and a number are in service on most continents, with examples delivered to, or operating in, Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Bulgaria, Chad, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, India, Iraq, Libya, Mozambique, Nicaragua, North Korea, Peru, Poland, Sri Lanka, Syria, Vietnam and Yemen. Production continues at a low rate and by 1991 more than 2,300 had been built. FAI records set by the A-1O experimental variant of the 'Hind' gave some indication of the type's capabilities, as when on 2 September 1978 over a 15/25km course it achieved a speed of 368.4km/h.
Mi-24 'Hind': early production version, reported in 1972 but not seen until 1973; introduced into Soviet service in 1973/74
Mi-24 'Hind-A': second production model, with tail rotor moved from the starboard to port side of the tailfin; used as armed assault helicopter, carrying eight troops and three crew members
Mi-24 'Hind-B': initial production model with tail rotor on starboard side, wings without anhedral, no wingtip stations and only four underwing hardpoints; test use only
Mi-24 'Hind-C': dedicated training helicopter similar to 'Hind-A', but without nose-gun installation and wingtip stations
Mi-24D 'Hind-D': initial dedicated gunship variant; first reported around 1977, Mi-24D is basically a late production 'Hind-A' with revised forward fuselage containing separate cockpits for pilot and gunner, the latter controlling a single 12.7mm turret-mounted machine-gun and pylon-mounted AT-2 'Swatter' wire-guided ATMs; some versions had 23mm cannon in turret
Mi-24W 'Hind-E': improved version of 'Hind-D' gunship first reported in early 1980s; equipped with 12 AT-6 'Spiral' radio-guided ATMs mounted on stub wings together with AA-8 'Aphid' air-to-air missiles for self-defence
Mi-24P 'Hind-F': Mi-24P (P for pushka, cannon) version of gunship, appeared in 1982 fitted with 30-mm GSh-30-2 cannon in starboard uderfuselage nose pack which includes 750 rounds of ammunition
Mi-24R 'Hind-G 1': fitted with wingtip 'grapplers' or 'clutching hands' apparently used in connection with NBC technology, the Mi-24R was first reported in 1986 after the Chernobyl disaster
Mi-24K 'Hind-G 2': similar to Mi-24R but with large camera installed in cabin with lens on starboard side
Mi-25: export version of 'Hind-D'
Mi-35: export version of 'Hind-E'
Mi-35P: export version of 'Hind-F'
D.Donald "The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft", 1997
NATO reporting name: Hind
TYPE: Twin-turbine gunship helicopter, with transport capability.
PROGRAMME: Development began second half of 1960s, as first fire support helicopter in former USSR, with accommodation for eight armed troops; 12 prototypes built; first flight 19 September 1969; first reported in West 1972; photographs became available 1974, when two units of approximately squadron strength based in the former East Germany; reconfiguration of front fuselage changed primary role to gunship; new version first observed 1977; used operationally in Chad, Nicaragua, Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), Angola, Afghanistan, Chechnya and Iran/Iraq war, when at least one Iranian F-4 Phantom II destroyed by AT-6 (NATO 'Spiral') anti-tank missile from Mi-24; low-rate production continued for export until 1994. Late models still available from Rostvertol.
Mi-24A ('Hind-A, B and C'): Early versions with pilot and co-pilot/gunner in tandem under large-area continuous glazing; large flight deck; about 250 built.
Mi-24BMT: Modified 1973 for minesweeping.
Mi-24D: (Type 24-6; 'Hind-D'): Interim gunship version; design began 1971; entered production at Arsenyev and Rostov plants 1973; about 350 built 1973-77. Basically as late model 'Hind-A' with TV3-117 engines and port-side tail rotor, but entire front fuselage redesigned above floor forward of engine air intakes; heavily armoured separate cockpits for weapon operator and pilot in tandem; flight mechanic optional, in main cabin; transport capability retained; USUP-24 gun system, with rangefinding; undernose JakB-12.7 four-barrel 12.7mm machine gun in turret, slaved to adjacent KPS-53A electro-optical sighting pod, for air-to-air and air-to-surface use; Falanga P (Phalanx) anti-tank missile system; nosewheel leg extended to increase ground clearance of sensor pods; nosewheels semi-exposed when retracted.
Detailed description refers to Mi-24D, except where indicated.
Mi-24DU: Dual-control training version has no gun turret. (See also Mi-25.)
Mi-24K (korrektirovchik: corrector) ('Hind-G2'): As Mi-24R, but with large camera in cabin, f8/1,300mm lens on starboard side; six per helicopter regiment for reconnaissance and artillery fire correction; gun and B-8V-20 rocket pods retained. No target designator pod under nose; upward hingeing cover for IR sensor. About 150 built 1983-89.
Mi-24P (Type 24-3; 'Hind-F'): Development started 1974; about 620 built 1981-90; first shown in service in 1982 photographs; P of designation refers to pushka = cannon; as Mi-24V, but nose gun turret replaced by GSh-30-2 twin-barrel 30mm gun (with 750 rounds) in semi-cylindrical pack on starboard side of nose; bottom of nose smoothly faired above and forward of sensors.
Mi-24PS: Special version for Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs; prototype exhibited at Moscow Air Show '95. Equipment includes undernose FLIR, searchlight on port side, loadspeaker pack on starboard side; hoist, climbdown ropes, stations for radio operator.
Mi-24RKR ('Hind-G1'): Identified at Chernobyl after April 1986 accident at nuclear power station; no undernose electro-optical or RF missile guidance pods; instead of wingtip weapon mounts, has 'clutching hand' mechanisms on lengthened pylons, to obtain six soil samples per sortie for NBC (nuclear/biological/chemical) warfare analysis; air samples sucked in via pipe on port side, aft of doors; datalink to pass findings to ground; lozenge-shaped housing with exhaust pipe of air filtering system under port side of cabin; bubble window on starboard side of main cabin; small rearward-firing marker flare pack on tailskid; crew of four wear NBC suits; six helicopters are deployed per regiment throughout RFAS ground forces. Designation (also appearing as Mi-24RCh) indicates Razvedchik: reconnaissance/chemical. About 150 built 1983-89.
Mi-24RR: Derivative of Mi-24R for radiation reconnaissance.
Mi-24U: unarmed dual-control trainers (first flight 1972).
Mi-24V (Types 20-1 and 24-2; 'Hind-E'): As Mi-24D, but modified wingtip launchers and four underwing pylons; weapons include up to eight 9M114 (NATO AT-6 'Spiral') radio-guided tube-launched anti-tank missiles in pairs in Shturm V (Attack) missile system; ASP-17V enlarged undernose automatic missile guidance pod on port side, with fixed searchlight to rear; R-60 (K-60; NATO AA-8 'Aphid') air-to-air missiles optional on underwing pylons; pilot's HUD replaces former reflector gunsight. Deliveries to former Soviet Air Force began 29 March 1976; about 1,000 built at Arsenyev and Rostov 1976-86. (See also Mi-35.)
Mi-24VM: Proposed upgrade first shown in model form at Moscow Air Show '95.
Mi-24VP: Variant of Mi-24V with twin-barrel 23mm GSh-23 gun, with 450 rounds, in place of four-barrel 12.7mm gun in nose; photographed 1992; small production series built at Rostov.
Mi-24 Ecological Survey Version: Modification by Polyot industrial research organisation, to assess oil pollution on water and seasonal changes of water level. First seen 1991 with large flat sensor 'tongue' projecting from nose in place of gun turret; large rectangular sensor pod on outer starboard underwing pylon; unidentified modification replaces rear cabin window on starboard side.
Mi-25: Export Mi-24D, including those for Afghanistan, Cuba and India.
Mi-35: Export Mi-24V. Unarmed, dual-control trainer version also produced for India.
Mi-35M: Upgraded Mi-24/35 designed to meet the latest air mobility requirements of the Russian Army.
Mi-35M1: Upgrade of latest production standard of Mi-24VP.
Mi-35P: Export Mi-24P.
ATE 'Super Hind': Upgrade configuration proposed by South Africa's Advanced Technologies and Engineering. Derived from Denel/Kentron PZL W-3WB Huzar upgrade. Extended nose in front of cockpit with undernose Kentron IR/EO sight and 20mm chain gun, cheek fairing to port for ammunition feed, designator, improved displays, new night vision systems and provision for Denel/Kentron Ingwe or Mokopa ATMs. Prototype ZU-BOI rolled out at Grand Central Airport, Midrand, by 15 February 1999.
Tamam Mi-24 HMOSP: Israeli upgrade configuration. US$20 million contract placed for upgrade of 25 (possibly Indian) Mi-24s based on existing Helicopter Multimission Optronic Stabilised Payload System, with TV, FLIR and automatic target tracker, integrated with helmet sight, digital moving map, integrated DASS and a new mission planning system. Cockpits can be reorganised to put pilot in front, weapon operator in rear.
CUSTOMERS: More than 2,500 produced at Arsenyev and Rostov.
DESIGN FEATURES: Typical helicopter gunship configuration, with stepped tandem seating for two crew and heavy weapon load on stub-wings; fuselage unusually wide for role, due to requirement for carrying eight troops; dynamic components and power plant originally as Mi-8, but soon upgraded to Mi-17-type power plant and port-side tail rotor. Main rotor blade section NACA 230, thickness/chord ratio 11 to 12%; tail rotor blade section NACA 230M; stub-wing anhedral 12°, incidence 19°; wings contribute approximately 25% of lift in cruising flight; fin offset 3°.
STRUCTURE: Five-blade constant-chord main rotor; forged and machined steel head, with conventional flapping, drag and pitch change articulation; each blade has aluminium alloy spar, skin and honeycomb core; spars nitrogen pressurised for crack detection; hydraulic lead/lag dampers; balance tab on each blade; aluminium alloy three-blade tail rotor; main rotor brake; all-metal semi-monocoque fuselage pod and boom; 5mm hardened steel integral side armour on front fuselage; all-metal shoulder wings with no movable surfaces; swept fin/tail rotor mounting; variable incidence horizontal stabiliser.
LANDING GEAR: Tricycle type; rearward-retracting steerable twin-wheel nose unit; single-wheel main units with oleo-pneumatic shock-absorbers and low-pressure tyres, size 720 x 320mm on mainwheels, 480 x 200mm on nosewheels. Main units retract rearward and inward into aft end of fuselage pod, turning through 90° to stow almost vertically, discwise to longitudinal axis of fuselage, under prominent blister fairings. Tubular tripod skid assembly, with shock-strut, protects tail rotor in tail-down take-off or landing.
POWER PLANT: Two Klimov TV3-117MT turboshafts, each with maximum rating of 1,434kW, side by side above cabin, with output shafts driving rearward to main rotor shaft through combining gearbox. There is 5mm hardened steel armour protection for engines. Main fuel tank in fuselage to rear of cabin, with bag tanks behind main gearbox. Internal fuel capacity 1,500kg; can be supplemented by 1,000kg auxiliary tank in cabin (Mi-24D); provision for carrying (instead of auxiliary tank) up to four external tanks, each 500 litres, on two inner pylons under each wing. Optional deflectors and separators for foreign objects and dust in air intakes; and infra-red suppression exhaust mixer boxes over exhaust ducts.
ACCOMMODATION: Pilot (at rear) and weapon operator on armoured seats in tandem cockpits under individual canopies; dual flying controls, with retractable pedals in front cockpit; if required, flight mechanic on jump-seat in cabin, with narrow passage between flight deck and cabin. Front canopy hinged to open sideways to starboard; footstep under starboard side of fuselage for access to pilot's rearward-hinged door; rear seat raised to give pilot unobstructed forward view; anti-fragment shield between cockpits. Main cabin can accommodate eight persons on folding seats, or four stretchers; at front of cabin on each side is a door, divided horizontally into two sections, hinged to open upward and downward respectively, with integral step on lower portion. Optically flat bulletproof glass windscreen, with wiper, for each crew member.
SYSTEMS: Cockpits and cabin heated and ventilated. Dual electrical system, with three generators, giving 36, 115 and 208V AC at 400Hz, and 27V DC. Retractable landing/taxying light under nose; navigation lights; anti-collision light above tailboom. Stability augmentation system. Electrothermal de-icing system for main and tail rotor blades. AI-9V APU mounted transversely inside fairing aft of rotor head.
AVIONICS: Comms: R-860/863 and Karat M24 com; SPU-8 intercom.
EQUIPMENT: Gun camera on port wingtip. Colour-coded identification flare system.
ARMAMENT: One remotely controlled YakB-12.7 four-barrel Gatling-type 12.7mm machine gun, with 1,470 rounds, in VSPU-24 undernose turret with field of fire 60° to each side, 20° up, 60° down; gun slaved to KPS-53AV undernose sighting system with reflector sight in front cockpit; four 9M17P Skorpion (NATO AT-2 'Swatter') anti-tank missiles on 2P32M twin rails under endplate pylons at wingtips; four underwing pylons for UB-32 rocket pods (each 32 S-5 type 57mm rockets), B-8V-20 pods each containing 20 80mm S-8 rockets, 130 mm S-13 and 250mm S-24 rockets, UPK-23-250 pods each containing a GSh-23L twin-barrel 23mm gun, GUV pods each containing either one four-barrel 12.7mm YakB-12.7 machine gun with 750 rounds and two four-barrel 7.62mm 9-A-622 machine guns with total 1,100 rounds or an AGS-17 Plamia 30mm grenade launcher, up to 1,500kg of conventional bombs, mine dispensers, night flares or other stores. R-60 (AA-8 'Aphid'), R-73 (AA-11 'Archer') and Igla air-to-air missiles fitted experimentally. Helicopter can be landed to install reload weapons carried in cabin. PKV reflector gunsight for pilot. Provisions for firing AKMS guns from cabin windows.
Jane's Helicopter Markets and Systems
Technical data for Mi-24
Crew: 2, engine: 2 x Klimov TV3-117 turboshaft, rated at 1620kW, main rotor diameter: 18.8m, height: 4.17m, take-off weight: 11500kg, empty weight: 8200kg, max speed: 330km/h, cruising speed: 217-270km/h, rate of climb: 12.5m/s, service ceiling: 5000m, hovering ceiling, OGE: 1500m, range: 500km, payload: 2500kg
Fenestron experimental, Mi-24B
Early production Mi-24 fitted with air data boom, used for tests of the Mi-28
Mi-24D given to Germany for testing a HAWK missile in place of undernose gun
Mi-24D for testing the sighting-flight-navigational complex of the Mi-28
Mi-24R / RKhR "Hind-G1" radiation reconnaissance variant
Mi-24K, cover for IR sensor open and undernose gun removed
ATE "SuperHind" Mk.2 (South African upgrade)
ATE "SuperHind" Mk.3