The development of the helicopter commenced in mid-1960s based on the dynamics, power units and other components of the Mi-8. Other components of the airframe came from the Mi-14 Haze, a shore-based, navalized version of the Mi-8 'Hip' with a float bottom and ASW equipment. The Hind went from drawing board in 1968 to first test-flights in less than eighteen months. The first prototype, still with TV2-117 engines, flew in September 1969. First models were delivered to the armed forces for evaluation in 1970. The Mi-24A (Hind-B) did have a number of problems - lateral roll, weapon sighting problems, and limited field of view for the pilot. A heavy redesign of the aircraft front section solved most of these problems. Mi-24A (Hind-A) is the first version, in serial production since 1972. The Mil Mi-24 is a large combat helicopter gunship and low-capacity troop transport operated from 1976 by the Soviet Air Force, its successors, and over thirty other nations.
Mikhail Leontyevich Mil died in 1970. His concept of a battlefield helicopter, realized under him only in the initial stage, was continued and developed by his comrads in arms and students led by chief designer Marat Nikolayevich Tishchenko.
In the time that passed since the first flight of the Mi-24 prototype, several modifications were developed based on the basic model. In the modifications, the designers used new achievements of aviation science and technology to make the helicopter conform to the increasing requirements of the times.
According to the experience of development and daily operation of the Mi-24, virtually every modification surpassed the initial prototype in some way. Although they differ considerably from the first helicopter, both outwardly and, more importantly, in combat effectiveness, they retain the first designation. The first model ofthe Mi-24 helicopter held a special place in the history of helicopter building, namely that of the "father" of a family of specialized combat helicopters.
Its NATO reporting name is Hind and variants are identified with an additional letter. The export versions, Mi-25 and Mi-35, are denoted as Hind D and Hind E respectively. Versions D and above include a characteristic tandem cockpit with a "double bubble" canopy. Nearly all of the older HIND A, B and C variants have been upgraded or modified to the HIND D or E standard.
Development began in the second half of the 1960s, as the first fire support helicopter in the former USSR, with accommodation for up to eight armed troops. A complete redesign was ordered after the construction of a 1966 Bell UH-1-sized mockup with skid-type landing gear and a side-by-side cockpit. Mil was issued with a directive to submit new plans in 1967, building three new mockups with five alternative forward fuselage arrangements. All featured a replacement for the fixed GSh-23 twin-barrelled cannon with a faster-firing machine gun in a powered turret, and provisions for the 9M114 Shturm V (AT-6 "Spiral") ATMs. It was the 10.5 tonne aircraft, with two JV3-117A engines, chosen over the lighter single-engined alternative. This aircraft (Izdelie 240) was based on the Mi-14 dynamic system, with a streamlined new fuselage.
The two V-24 prototypes were built by MVZ 329 (the Mil workshops) at Panki and it’s first flight was 19 September 1969. 10 preseries Mi-24s followed, five built by MVZ 329 and five by Progress (MVZ 116) at Arsenyev. The State acceptance trials were performed June 1970 to December 1971. All the prototypes were fitted with TV3-117A engines, not TV2-117 as sometimes reported. First reported in the Western press and production started 1972. Photographs became available in 1974, when two units of approximately squadron strength were based in East Germany. The reconfiguration of the front fuselage changed the primary role to gunship, this new version was first observed in 1977. Used operationally in Afghanistan, Angola, Chad, Chechnya, Iran/Iraq war (when at least one Iranian F-4 Phantom II was destroyed by a 9M114 (AT-6 “Spiral”) anti-tank missile from a Mi-24), Nicaragua and Sri Lanka. The peak production rate at the Progress plant, Arsenyev, was 165 a year but the production line there was dismantled in 1989. Late models continue to be available from Rostvertol at Rostov-on-Don, where production continues at a low rate for export and for the Interior Ministry.
Mi-24A ('Hind-A, B and C'): Early versions with pilot and co-pilot/gunner in tandem under large-area continuous glazing; large flight deck; about 250 built.
Mi-24 'Hind': early production version, reported in 1972 but not seen until 1973; introduced into Soviet service in 1973/74
Mi-24 'Hind-A': second production model, with tail rotor moved from the starboard to port side of the tailfin; used as armed assault helicopter, carrying eight troops and three crew members
(Izdelie 245) The initial production version with a similar heavily glazed angular cockpit to prototypes and preseries aircraft, but with an extended forward fuselage, giving it a more pointed nose in plan view and with less steeply pitched “roof” glazing. Single-barrel Afanasyev A-12.7 (TKB-481) 12.7 mm machine gun in a NUV-1 flexible mounting in the tip of nose, on the underside. Aimed using a simple PKV collimator gunsight. The pilot's door (on port side) was replaced by a large sliding bubble window. The WSO still entered through an upward-opening side window. The fuselage was stretched to accommodate the Raduga-F (Rainbow-F) semi-automatic command to line-of-sight missile guidance system, the presence of which was indicated by a small teardrop fairing in front of the nose landing gear. Armed with manually guided 9M17M (AT-2 “Swatter”) ATGMs. Anhedral added to stub wings to improve lateral stability and cure high-speed Dutch roll. The ATM launch rails were relocated from the fuselage sides to new endplate pylons at the wingtips. Two Mi-24A prototypes were produced by grafting a new nose on to pre-series Mi-24s. It entered production at Arsenyev in 1970. Circa 170 built.
Mi-24F 'Hind-A': (Izdelie 245M) An inadequate tail rotor authority led to the replacement of the starboard pusher tail rotor by a tractor tail rotor on port side from 1974. Seven reinforcing ribs were added to the port fuselage aft of the wing, the SRO-2M Khrom ("Odd Rods") IFF antenna was relocated from the canopy to the oil cooler. The APU exhaust was extended and angled downwards. The total production of Mi-24, Mi-24A, Mi-24U and Mi-24F was about 240, ending in 1975.
-- Possible designation mistake by Air International.
Mi-24B 'Hind-A': (Izdelie 241) An up-gunned and improved model with the new 12.7 mm Yakoushev/Borzov YakB (TKB-063 or 9A624) 12.7 mm four-barrel machine gun in an USPU-24 powered chin turret, traversable through 120 degrees in azimuth and from +20 to –40 degrees in elevation/depression, and slaved to the KPS-53AV sighting system. Manually controlled ATGMs were replaced by 9M17P Falanga-P and Falanga-PV with SACLOS guidance. The traversing radio command link antenna moved from centreline to below the port side of the nose, with a gyrostabilised collimated LLTV/FLIR under the starboard side in a fixed fairing. The aircraft passed company trials in 1971-72 but it was overtaken by Izdelie 246 ("Hind-D") and abandoned after some 10 were upgraded from Mi-24As. A full-scale mockup was produced from a pre-series Mi-24 with an undrooped wing, the prototype from an early Mi-24A with the normal anhedral wing. It retained it’s fully retractable landing gear like all previous Mi-24 variants.
Mi-24 'Hind-B': initial production model with tail rotor on starboard side, wings without anhedral, no wingtip stations and only four underwing hardpoints; test use only
(Izdelie 240) Prototypes and pre-series aircraft with simple tapered wing with no anhedral and simple underslung BD3-57Kr-V racks. Pilot (offset to port) and WSO (forward) in tandem under a heavily glazed cockpit. One was modified in 1975 as “A-10” for successful speed record attempts with wings removed and faired over and with inertia-type dampers on the main rotor head. TV3-117A engines. One was later used to test the Fenestron tail rotor.
Fenestron Experimental: In 1975 an uncoded Hind-B - one of the original prototypes or possibly one of the ten pre-production aircraft - was fitted experimentally with a large-diameter eight-bladed fenestron replacing the standard tail rotor and pylon. The stub wings were removed, probably to save weight. However, development was discontinued because the fenestron was found to be ill-suited for helicopters in the Mi-24's weight class.
Mi-24BMT: (Izdelie 248) A few modified in 1973 for minesweeping.
Mi-24U: unarmed dual-control trainers (first flight 1972).
Mi-24 'Hind-C': dedicated training helicopter similar to 'Hind-A', but without nose-gun installation and wingtip stations
(Izdelie 244) Unarmed pilot conversion trainer based on the Mi-24A, but lacking the nose-mounted gun, wingtip missile launch rails and undernose Raduga antenna. The instructor was seated in the former WSO position, with full dual controls and instruments. Circa 25 built at Arsenyev or produced by conversion of redundant Mi-24/Mi-24As between 1972 and 1974.
Mi-24D 'Hind-D': initial dedicated gunship variant; first reported around 1977, Mi-24D is basically a late production 'Hind-A' with revised forward fuselage containing separate cockpits for pilot and gunner, the latter controlling a single 12.7mm turret-mounted machine-gun and pylon-mounted AT-2 'Swatter' wire-guided ATMs; some versions had 23mm cannon in turret
(Type 24-6; 'Hind-D'): Interim gunship version; design began 1971; entered production at Arsenyev and Rostov plants 1973; about 350 built 1973-77. Basically as late model 'Hind-A' with TV3-117 engines and port-side tail rotor, but entire front fuselage redesigned above floor forward of engine air intakes; heavily armoured separate cockpits for weapon operator and pilot in tandem; flight mechanic optional, in main cabin; transport capability retained; USUP-24 gun system, with rangefinding; undernose JakB-12.7 four-barrel 12.7mm machine gun in turret, slaved to adjacent KPS-53A electro-optical sighting pod, for air-to-air and air-to-surface use; Falanga P (Phalanx) anti-tank missile system; nosewheel leg extended to increase ground clearance of sensor pods; nosewheels semi-exposed when retracted.
Detailed description refers to Mi-24D, except where indicated.
(Izdelie 246) Interim gunship version combining the “old” weapon system of the Mi-24B with a new airframe designed for the planned Mi-24V (due to delays with that aircraft's Shturm-V ATGMs with SPS-24V fire-control system, consisting of KPS-53AV weapons control unit and KS-53 gunsight). The design began in 1971 and two prototypes were built by converting Mi-24A aircraft, still with the starboard-side tail rotor. It entered production at the Arsenyev and Rostov plants in 1975, with about 625 built between 1975-1985. Basically the same as the late model “Hind-A” with TV3-117 engines and a port-side tail rotor, but the entire front fuselage had been redesigned above the floor forward of the engine air intakes. Separate armoured cockpits for the weapon operator and pilot in tandem, and a flight mechanic was optional, in the main cabin. Transport capability was retained. USPU-24 gun system, with range-finding. An undernose YakB-12.7 four-barrel 12.7 mm machine gun in a turret, slaved to the adjacent KPS-53A electro-optical sighting pod, for air-to-air and air-to-surface use. Long air data boom with DUAS-V pitch and yaw vanes. Falanga P anti-tank missile system. The nosewheel leg extended to increase ground clearance of the sensor pods. The wing pylons were plumbed for 500 litre (132 US gallon or 110 Imp gallon) drop tanks. The nosewheels are semi-exposed when retracted. S-13 camera moved from the port wingroot to the port wingtip/endplate junction. (See also Mi-25.)
Mi-24D FOD (Foreign Object Damage) protection systems testbed: A Mi-24D coded 74 Red was used to test an early model of the vortex-type intake filters which became standard on late Hinds. Unlike the production model resembling partly deflated footballs, these looked like large buckets. By 1998 the helicopter was derelict at the flight test facility in Panki.
Mi-24D+ Hind-D: Subversion of the Mi-24D with the TV3-117V engines and L-006 radar warning sensors of the Mi-24V. Only a small number was produced before 1985.
Mi-24D with HAWK missile: Modified Mi-24D '98+31' (ex-NVA '495' sold to Poland as '167' in January 1996) used by WTD 61 in Manching during 1994 for tests with the head of a Hawk missile in place of undernose gun. Unknown modification replaces rear cabin window on the starboard side with a pipe projecting from it.
Mi-24PTRK: This Mi-24D modification was a testbed for the Shturm V missile system of Mi-24V.
Mi-24 Afghanistan field modifications: Passenger compartment armour and exhaust suppressors were often removed. Due to accidental firing while switching sides, the door gunner was given both a port and starboard gun. Extra rounds for the rocket pods to allow self-reloading near the battlefield and also heavy weapons for self defense were often carried.
Mi-24T: Some Mi-24Ds - without guidance pods under the nose and ATGM adapters - used by the Soviet demonstration team Berkooty were referred to as Mi-24T in the Soviet press.
Mi-24-28 PrPNK (Mi-24 PrPNK-28): Two experimental models for testing the forward sensor system for the Mi-28.
Mi-24D?: Subversion with unidentified four-barrel machine gun in the nose, smaller than the Yak-B 12.7mm gun. Small number used by East German aircrews. 3-barrel variants have also been spotted.
Mi-24CSAR: Designation for a small number of Polish Army Mi-24D airframes, modified for so-called combat/SAR operations, with special mission equipment.
-- Also said to be modified from Mi-24V(W). Checking validity.
Mi-24PL: Designation for some 36 Polish Army Mi-24Ds, with improved weapons systems for the assault/attack role. The modification were carried out by WLZ-1 in Lodz.
-- Also said to be modified from Mi-24V(W). Checking validity.
Mi-24DU: Dual-control training version has no gun turret. (See also Mi-25.)
Mi-24V (Types 20-1 and 24-2; 'Hind-E'): As Mi-24D, but modified wingtip launchers and four underwing pylons; weapons include up to eight 9M114 (NATO AT-6 'Spiral') radio-guided tube-launched anti-tank missiles in pairs in Shturm V (Attack) missile system; ASP-17V enlarged undernose automatic missile guidance pod on port side, with fixed searchlight to rear; R-60 (K-60; NATO AA-8 'Aphid') air-to-air missiles optional on underwing pylons; pilot's HUD replaces former reflector gunsight. Deliveries to former Soviet Air Force began 29 March 1976; about 1,000 built at Arsenyev and Rostov 1976-86. (See also Mi-35.)
Mi-24W 'Hind-E': improved version of 'Hind-D' gunship first reported in early 1980s; equipped with 12 AT-6 'Spiral' radio-guided ATMs mounted on stub wings together with AA-8 'Aphid' air-to-air missiles for self-defence
-- Mi-24W is the Polish designation of the Mi-24V (Ми-24В) as the Polish alphabet does not know the western letter V (and the Polish W is pronounced like an English V).
Mi-24E: Designation mistake, confusing Mi-24V and "Hind-E".
Arsenal Mi-24V upgrade: Ukrainian weapon upgrade.
Mi-24VK-1: Night and all weather upgrade of Mi-24V.
Mi-24VK-2: Second night and all weather upgrade of Mi-24V.
Mi-24VD: The D in the designation stands for Dorabotanni meaning “Terminator”. A high proportion of combat losses in Afghanistan were inflicted from the rear hemisphere. The Mi-24VD was produced in 1985 as a testbed for rearward-firing defensive armament. A bulged gondola was installed in place of the rear avionics bay, accessed via a narrow crawlway. Equipped with 12.7 mm NSVT-12.7 Utyos machine gun. The gunner entered the turret in flight with his legs dangling into the slipstream, encased in a built-in rubberised fabric “trouser” bag. This project was abandoned in 1986.
During the Afghan war Mi-24 pilots kept urging the Mil OKB to give the Hind some protection for its behind. While the Mi-8 - another Afghan war workhorse - had a hatch in the starboard half of its clamshell cargo doors where a Kalashnikov RPK machine-gun or something similar could be mounted to cover the rear hemisphere, the Mi-24 often got shot up after making an attack. About 48 per cent of all damage from ground fire on the Mi-24 was in the rear hemisphere, compared to some 27 per cent on the Mi-8.
Hence in 1985 a Mi-24V coded 43 Red was fitted experimentally with a 12.7mm (.50 calibre) NSVT-12,7 Ootyos (Cliff) machine-gun in a bulged enclosure replacing the aft avionics bay. The gunner's station is accessed from within via a crawlway passing through the rear fuel tank between the mainwheel wells. It was so cramped that the gunner could not be accomodated entirely and his legs stuck outside, scantily protected by rubberized fabric 'trousers'.
Trials promptly showed that the rear gunner's station was unsatisfactory. It caused a major shift in the helicopter's centre of gravity position and was always full of engine axhaust gases, making things almost unbearable for the gunner. The crunch came when the modified helicopter was demonstrated to VVS top brass; one of the portly generals got stuck in the narrow crawlway when he wanted to check out the gunner's station, and the idea was abandoned. Instead, rear-view mirrors were installed on operational Hinds so that the pilots could see when they were being fired upon and take evasive action.
(Izdelie 258) The final basic Army Aviation production version, based on the Mi-24V with a twin-barrel GSh-23L 23 mm gun in a NPPU-24 flexible mount with 450 rounds, in place of the four-barrel 12.7 mm gun in the nose. A small production series of 25 built at Rostov in 1989 and 1990, entering service in 1989. The production was curtailed by ammunition feed problems. One VP flew with the Mi-28-type Delta H tail rotor.
Mi-24VP2: (?) Proposal for upgrading Mi-24VP of the Russian Air Force, due to the proximity barrel armament (23 mm mobile gun) apparently merged with the program Mi-24VM.
Mi-24VM: Proposed upgrade first shown in model form at Moscow Air Show '95.
Thirty years ago, the Mi-24 helicopter, developed in compliance with the ideas of General Designer Mikhail Mil, has taken off for the first time. Over these three decades the helicopter has gone through many flashpoints and the legendary Mi-24 has been designated the flying infantry combat vehicle not without reason. However, thirty years is a long life for a combat helicopter. Therefore, in early March the Mil Experimental Design Bureau demonstrated a fundamentally modernized derivative, designated the Mi-24VM (Mi-35M), of the Mi-24 helicopter that has made a perfect showing under complicated combat conditions. The conspicuous features of the modernization, offered by the Mil Design Bureau, consist in modular updating of the Mi-24. In this case, any module (unit) can be individually modernized in accordance with the customer's request and financial potentialities.
Installation of a new main rotor provided with blades made of glass fiber plastics, a hub furnished with elastolar bearings, and an X-shaped tail rotor developed for the Mi-28N helicopter, makes it possible to decrease the mass of the flying machine, increase its hovering ceiling and rate of climb, and improve its overall operating characteristics and invulnerability.
In modernizing the airframe, armament system and communications facilities, the Mil Design Bureau offers to install a shortened wing and nonretractable landing gear and retrofit the hydraulic system. In addition to this, the client may wish to replace a number of equipment components, as well as install new bomb racks, missile launchers, and radio set.
The primary emphasis has been placed on an increase of weapon effectiveness. The Ataka air-to-ground guided missiles (ammunition establishment has been increased up to 16 missiles) have been introduced into the helicopter's armament system. The missiles can also be used against air targets similar to the Igla-V guided missiles. The 12.7mm machine-gun mount has been replaced by a 23mm aircraft cannon. The most up-to-date BVK-24 computer and a laser range finder have been introduced into the heliborne equipment. A modernization program on this scale makes it possible to increase the accuracy against a single target 1.5 times, while increasing the kill zone 2 to 2.5 times when delivering cannon fire. The combat effectiveness of employing the guided missiles increases twofold on average.
The modernization will ensure the helicopter's round-the-clock combat readiness. The use of night-vision goggles with flight information displayed in the field of view, and equipping the helicopter with an optronic fire-control station comprising of thermal imaging and TV channels, control channel, and laser range finder, as well as display systems, enables the crew to detect and recognize targets at night and employ the heliborne weapons both by day and night.
It should be pointed out that this modernization program will prolong the service life of the Mi-24, designed thirty years ago, until the years of 2015 - 2020, and essentially increase the overhaul period of the helicopter and its accessories.
-- Alternatively known as Mi-24VM-1 (Mi-35VM-1 for export).
Mi-24VM-2: This further upgrade was similar to the Mi-24VM-1, but also incorporated installation of the Mi-28N type main rotor, replacement of the nose gun by a more advanced 23mm GSh-23V. Further improvements were made to radio and computer equipment. Export designation Mi-35VM-2.
Mi-24VM-3: This designation (Mi-35VM-3 for export) was used for a further upgrade which involved the fitting or more advanced avionics and weapons systems.
Mi-24VN 'Hind-E': (Mi-35O "Hind-E") An interim night-attack version based on a conversion of the Mi-24V in Mi-24VM Stage 1 configuration. Cockpit and external lights compatible with Geo-ONV-1 NVGs and with the new RPKB navigation/fire-control system. May also feature GOES-320 gyrostabilised sensor turret containing Sony EVI331 TV and Agema THV1000 FLIR sensors (for navigation/surveillance, not targeting) or a similar GOES-342 turret with a targeting function for the 9M120 (AT-12) ATMs. Some reports suggest that Mi-24VNs were to be used by Experimental Combat Group in Chechnya. A similar upgrade configuration, with A737 GPS and using two MFI-68 cockpit displays for the pilot (one replacing the S-17V gunsight, one functioning as a colour LCD terrain map), and an MFPU console for the gunner, has been prepared for an unnamed customer. Performance generally as for Mi-24V/Mi-24P.
-- Also known as Mi-24O and Mi-24N.
Mi-24VU 'Hind-E': No dedicated trainer version of the Mi-24V was produced by the OKB or factories for the Russian or former Soviet Army. India uses a small number of these trainer versions (possibly locally converted) with the gun turret removed and faired over, and with dual controls and instruments for the instructor in the front cockpit. Mi-24VU, Mi-25VU and Mi-35U designations may be unofficial, even in India.
Mi-24P 'Hind-F': Mi-24P (P for pushka, cannon) version of gunship, appeared in 1982 fitted with 30-mm GSh-30-2 cannon in starboard uderfuselage nose pack which includes 750 rounds of ammunition
Mi-24P (Type 24-3; 'Hind-F'): Development started 1974; about 620 built 1981-90; first shown in service in 1982 photographs; P of designation refers to pushka = cannon; as Mi-24V, but nose gun turret replaced by GSh-30-2 twin-barrel 30mm gun (with 750 rounds) in semi-cylindrical pack on starboard side of nose; bottom of nose smoothly faired above and forward of sensors.
(Izdelie 243) The development was started in 1974, with about 635 built between 1981-1996, first shown in service in 1982 photographs. The P of the designation refers to pushka: cannon. As the Mi-24V, but the nose gun turret replaced by a GSh-30K twin-barrel 30 mm gun (with 750 rounds) in a semi-cylindrical pack on the starboard side of the nose. The bottom of the nose smoothly faired above and forward of the sensors. The alternative Mi-24G has a gun on the starboard side. (See also Mi-35P.)
Mi-24P-2: (?) Upgraded Mi-24P.
-- Designation mistake, confused with the Mi-24PK-2.
Mi-24F: (Not the Hind-A model described earlier) This was a designation mistake, confusing Mi-24P and "Hind-F".
Mi-24G: Custom Mi-24P with gun on the starboard side.
-- No such aircraft was built. It was a designation mistake.
Mi-24TECh-24 "Mobile Repair Shop": In the mid-1980s, one Hind-F was experimentally fitted out as a "mobile repair shop" to assist in recovery of downed helicopters, and designated "Mi-24TECh-24". The scheme was not put into production.
-- One source says it was a "Hind-E", not the "Hind-F". (See other entry towards bottom of the page)
Mi-24PK-1: Night and all weather upgrade of Mi-24P.
Mi-24PK-2: Second night and all weather upgrade of Mi-24P.
Mi-24PN: Preliminary tests reportedly under way in mid-2000. Presumed to be a 30 mm cannon-armed "Hind-F" upgraded with Geofizika FLIR, new laser range-finder, mission computer and NVG-compatible cockpit. Possibly equivalent to Mi-24VN.
-- Export Mi-35PM.
Mi-24PS: Special version for Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs; prototype exhibited at Moscow Air Show '95. Equipment includes undernose FLIR, searchlight on port side, loadspeaker pack on starboard side; hoist, climbdown ropes, stations for radio operator.
Patrul'nospasatelny: patrol/rescue. A transport/law enforcement/SAR variant for the Russian Ministry of the Interior. Production or series conversion status unknown. The first prototype was converted from a Mi-24P, retaining it’s 30 mm cannon and wing endplate pylons. The undernose LLTV/FLIR was replaced by a downward-pointing loudspeaker group and the ATGM guidance antenna by a FPP-7 searchlight. The nose was cut away to allow the installation of a weather radar and EO turret. LPG-4 winch (120 kg or 264 lb capacity) installed aft of the starboard cabin door, grab rails, foot rests and rappel attachment points around the sides of the doors. Four of a six-man squad carried can rappel from the aircraft simultaneously. Satellite communications, secure encrypted voice radios and special police-band radios. Second prototype similar (albeit painted white, with blue cheatlines and Militia titles) but that was converted from a Mi-24V, with the USPU-24 turret replaced by a FLIR ball. Marketed as Mi-35PS for export.
Mi-24R 'Hind-G 1': fitted with wingtip 'grapplers' or 'clutching hands' apparently used in connection with NBC technology, the Mi-24R was first reported in 1986 after the Chernobyl disaster
Mi-24RKR ('Hind-G1'): Identified at Chernobyl after April 1986 accident at nuclear power station; no undernose electro-optical or RF missile guidance pods; instead of wingtip weapon mounts, has 'clutching hand' mechanisms on lengthened pylons, to obtain six soil samples per sortie for NBC (nuclear/biological/chemical) warfare analysis; air samples sucked in via pipe on port side, aft of doors; datalink to pass findings to ground; lozenge-shaped housing with exhaust pipe of air filtering system under port side of cabin; bubble window on starboard side of main cabin; small rearward-firing marker flare pack on tailskid; crew of four wear NBC suits; six helicopters are deployed per regiment throughout RFAS ground forces. Designation (also appearing as Mi-24RCh) indicates Razvedchik: reconnaissance/chemical. About 150 built 1983-89.
(Izdelie 2462) Also referred to as Mi-24R. A dedicated NBC reconnaissance aircraft to replace the Mi-8VD. RKhR = dlya Radiatseeonno-Khimeccheskoi Razvedki (NBC reconnaissance). Identified at Chernobyl after the April 1986 accident at the nuclear power station. No undernose electro-optical and RF missile guidance pods, strike camera deleted, but the pylons for underwing stores were retained: instead of the wingtip weapon mounts, it has “clutching hand” excavator mechanisms on lengthened pylons, to obtain six soil samples per sortie, for NBC (nuclear/biological/chemical) warfare analysis. Air samples sucked in via a pipe on the port side, forward of the doors exhausting through a horizontal slit above. Datalink to pass the findings to groundstations. Lozenge-shape housing with an exhaust pipe of the air filtering system under the port side of the cabin. A bubble window on the starboard side of the main cabin. A small rearward-firing marker flag/flare pack on the tailskid. The crew of four wear NBC suits. It was deployed six per helicopter regiment throughout the Russian Federation and Associated States (CIS) ground forces. There were about 152 built between 1983-89.
-- Known by multiple designations, some possible mistakes:
Mi-24R, Mi-24HR, Mi-24RKR, Mi-24RKhR, Mi-24RXR, Mi-24Rh, Mi-24RCh, Mi-24Ch or CH, Mi-24RK.
Mi-24RR: Derivative of Mi-24R for radiation reconnaissance.
Mi-24RA 'Hind-G1' Mod: (Izdelie 2462 or 2463) A new series of conversions from the Mi-24V. It retained it’s strike camera in the wingroot and lacked the wingtip excavators, Sometimes seen with a pod on the port station. The crew reduced to three with improved (presumably automated) processing and data transfer. It probably had a slightly different and more specialised role: There was only one known in the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany, for example.
Mi-24K (korrektirovchik: corrector) ('Hind-G2'): As Mi-24R, but with large camera in cabin, f8/1,300mm lens on starboard side; six per helicopter regiment for reconnaissance and artillery fire correction; gun and B-8V-20 rocket pods retained. No target designator pod under nose; upward hingeing cover for IR sensor. About 150 built 1983-89.
(Izdelie 201) The K in the designation stands for korrektirovchik: corrector. A dedicated artillery spotter/fire correction aircraft to replace the Mi-8TARK. As the Mi-24R, but with a large A87P or AFA-100 camera in the cabin, with a f8/1,300 mm lens on starboard side. Six per helicopter regiment for reconnaissance and artillery fire correction. The gun and B-8V-20 rocket pods were retained. No target designator pod under nose. An upward-hinging cover for the IRIS wide-angle IR and optical sensor system. Rita reconnaissance and spotting system with optical target identification, computer and data processor. There were about 163 built between 1983-1989.
Mi-24KD: (?) Specialized version of the Mi-24K, but without the camera inside the cabin.
Mi-25: Export Mi-24D, including those for Afghanistan, Angola, Cuba, India and Peru. Also Mi-35D.
Mi-35: Export Mi-24V also known as Mi-25V.
Mi-35P: Export Mi-24P.
Mi-35M: Upgraded Mi-24/35 designed to meet the latest air mobility requirements of the Russian Army.
Upgraded night-capable version of the Mi-24/35. It is the export counterpart of the Mi-24M. It was designed to meet the latest air mobility requirements of the Russian Army. Features include Mi-28 main and tail rotors and transmission. 1,636 kW (2,194 shp) Klimov TV3-117VMA engines. New avionics, a reduced empty weight resulting from a new titanium main rotor head, composites rotor blades, shortened stub-wings and non-retractable landing gear. A 23 mm GSh-23-2 twin-barrel gun in a nose turret, with 470 rounds, up to 16 radio-guided 9M114 (AT-6 ‘Spiral”), or laser-guided 9M-120 anti-tank, 9M-120F blast fragmentation or 9A-220 air-to-air versions of Ataka (AT-12) missile or a range of armament options including GUV gun/grenade pods, UPK-23-250 gun pods, B-8V-20A and B-13L rocket pods, S-24B rockets and KMGU pods of anti-armour and anti-personnel mines. The Night Operation Capable Avionics System (NOCAS) by Sextant Avionique and Thomson-TTD Optronic integrates a Chlio FLIR ball with a TMM-1410 display, providing night vision for target acquisition and identification, missile guidance and gun aiming. Other equipment includes a VH-100 HUD, NVGs, liquid-crystal MFD, Nadir 10 mission management and navigation system, laser-gyro INS and GPS. The FLIR ball is mounted outboard of the standard missile guidance pod. Ability to carry Igla V air-to-air missiles is optional. The non-flying demonstrator was first displayed at the 1995 Paris Air Show.
Mi-35U: Training variant of Mi-35 series.
Mi-35M1: Upgrade of latest production standard of Mi-24VP.
Mi-35M2: The Venezuelan Army ordered and received this version mid 2006. No details known yet, but it is expected to be a minor update to the Mi-35M.
Mi-35M3: Export Mi-24VM.
Mi-35M4U: (?) Proposed training version of Mi-35M4
Mi-24M: Designation mistake (not to be confused with the naval project "Mi-24M").
Mi-24M: Project (possibly prototype) airborne maritime helicopter, the Ka-29TB competitor.
Originally a navalized model proposed as a ship-bourne multi-role helicopter; not developed.
Mi-24M naval attack helicopter project (izdeliye 247): Production Hinds (Mi-24A, Mi-24D, Mi-24V, Mi-24P and Mi-24VP) were used for general battlefield duties. Their typical missions were assault (including tank busting, CAS for ground troops or assault groups, and destruction of enemy fortifications and assault groups), transport (including insertion of heliborne assault groups and replenishment in the forward area), and medevac (the troop/cargo cabin could accommodate two stretcher patients, two walking wounded and one medical attendant). Yet the Mil OKB continued working on specialized versions of the helicopter, since the high power-to-weight ratio and spacious cabin which could hold mission equipment gave the Mi-24 ample development potential.
A multi-role naval version designated Mi-24M (morskoy - naval) or izdeliye 247 was developed in 1970. Yet, unlike some other Soviet designers, Mikhail L. Mil was not a proponent of cutthroat competition, and the project was shelved at his bidding so as not to undermine the position of the Kamov OKB, which was the Soviet Navy's traditional supplier of maritime helicopters.
Mi-24V Ecological Survey Version: Modification by Polyot industrial research organisation, to assess oil pollution on water and seasonal changes of water level. First seen 1991 with large flat sensor 'tongue' projecting from nose in place of gun turret; large rectangular sensor pod on outer starboard underwing pylon; unidentified modification replaces rear cabin window on starboard side.
-- Also known as Mi-24E, Mi-24EN, 24VEN, and Mi-24 ESV. Some are possible mistakes.
Tamam Mi-24 HMOSP (Mi-24 "Mission-24"): Israeli upgrade configuration. US$20 million contract placed for upgrade of 25 (possibly Indian) Mi-24s based on existing Helicopter Multimission Optronic Stabilised Payload System, with TV, FLIR and automatic target tracker, integrated with helmet sight, digital moving map, integrated DASS and a new mission planning system. Cockpits can be reorganised to put pilot in front, weapon operator in rear.
ATE 'Super Hind': Upgrade configuration proposed by South Africa's Advanced Technologies and Engineering. Derived from Denel/Kentron PZL W-3WB Huzar upgrade. Extended nose in front of cockpit with undernose Kentron IR/EO sight and 20mm chain gun, cheek fairing to port for ammunition feed, designator, improved displays, new night vision systems and provision for Denel/Kentron Ingwe or Mokopa ATMs. Prototype ZU-BOI rolled out at Grand Central Airport, Midrand, by 15 February 1999.
-- Variants include Mk.II, Mk.III, Mk. IV, and Mk.V.
Mi-24 engine testbed: On 30 May 2000 the Mil OKB began trials of a Mi-24 converted into an engine testbed. The helicopter is fitted with Klimov VK-2500 turboshafts - the latest version of the proved TV3-117 (originally the engine was known as TV3-117VMA-SB3, but then someone decided the designation was much too long). The VK-2500 is rated at 2,400 shp for take-off, with a 2,700 shp contingency rating; engine life is increased to 7,500 hours and time to first overhaul is 3,000 hours (twice that of the basic TV3-117V).
Mi-24TECh-24 mobile maintenance shop: In 1981 the Rostov Helicopter Plant experimentally converted a Mi-24V into a mobile repair shop for servicing and repairing other Mi-24s in the field (e.g. when a helicopter was damaged and could not be flown or otherwise transported to a stationary overhaul shop). This version was designated Mi-24TECh-24 (tekhniko-eksplooatatseeonnaya chahst' [dlya mi-]dvadtsat' chetyre - maintenance facility for Mi-24s). However, like its predecessor, the Mi-8TECh-24 of 1977, this 'Mi-24 tech' (as one might be tempted to call it) did not reach production.
Mi-24H: Designation for an Mi-24 variant supplied to Poland and differing in weapons carrying capabilities.
-- But a variant of which model?
Mi-24XR: Designation reported for a radioactive contamination recce version.
-- Please note this might be another mistake confused with the Mi-24R.
?: One source says that in the 80's, the Mi-24D / V was tested with a flat canopy, new anti-dust filter, the carrier partially composite rotors, tail rotors in X-shape, and Klimov VK-2500th engines.
5th "The helicopter fighter": (?) Helicopters from the 90's to destroy airborne targets. Part of the production was developed at Rostvertol plant of Rostov-on-Don to Moscow's independent business center Mil.
Mi-24.10 Sinij Drakon: (?) Final fighter helicopter. Radar Skorpion of the rotor, R-90 missile, down turned tail, and joists nitrogen cooling system.
Mi-Gidro 24.57: (?) Versions of experimental weaponry.
Mi-24VPI Karnozavr: (?) Helicopter escort for domination of the battlefield and attack ground and air targets. New sensors and armor and nitrogen cooling system.
Mi-24VPT Tirannozavr: (?) Mi-24VPI rebuilt to a special anti-tank helicopter with millimeter radar site Arbalet nose turret and a movable arm with a 30 mm gun GS-30K under the fuselage.
Mi-24RKM Anaconda: (?) Reconnaissance variant with reduced detectability. Fenestron has turned tail and down the beam, do not have wings. Missile weapons are carried on sliding racks in the cargo area.
-- I have never heard of these designations before. I'm currently searching for more information.
-Jane's Helicopter Markets and Systems
-Mil Mi-24 'Hind' Attack Helicopter, Yefim Gordon & Dmitriy Komissarov