Personality and Emotion Research Laboratory

When I was in the Psychology Department at California State University, Fullerton, I started the Personality and Emotion Research Laboratory (PERL).  Several students (designated with an "*") were involved in presentations at professional conferences:
 Looking into the lab A view out the lab window Another view in the lab



Even after I left California and students went on to doctoral programs, I kept collaborating with students from the lab.
Here's what's happening with the lab since I've moved back to Illinois.



Scott Klappa 
is a first year Clinical Counseling Masters student at RFUMS. He earned his B.A. in Psychology from Saint Mary’s University of Minnesota, Winona.  His areas of interest include motivation factors, personality traits and cognitive self-mechanisms at play between the individual and groups. Scott's current research looks at personality and the influence of ego depletion on risk taking behavior.

Lauren Drandorff will be an RFUMS Clinical Psychology Ph.D. student working in the lab starting in the fall of 2014. Lauren earned her B.S. in Psychology from University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and her M.S. in Rehabilitation Counseling from Illinois Institute of Technology, specializing in Psychiatric Rehabilitation and Assistive Technology. Lauren has previously worked as a Research Assistant in Dr. Barbara Fredrickson’s Positive Emotions and Psychophysiology Laboratory and in Dr. Jonathon Larson’s Psychiatric Rehabilitation Laboratory. Clinically, she has worked with a variety of clients within the private practice and nonprofit realm, with a focus on veterans and individuals with anxiety disorders. Lauren has been published in the Journal of Neurotherapy and Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation on research she has done related to burnout, client adherence, and quality of work life, as well as Individual Placement and Support and serious mental illness. Lauren has also presented training workshops on Motivational Interviewing and how practitioners can implement this therapeutic technique when working with clients who are ambivalent to change. Her areas of interest include anxiety disorders, personality disorders and traits, individual differences, quantitative psychology, positive psychology, burnout, client adherence, emotions and emotion-related experiences, and psychiatric rehabilitation.

Sarah Bragg will be a volunteer in the lab starting in June 2014. She will graduate with her B.S. in Psychology from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in May.  Her areas of interest include emotional and personality factors contributing to the development and maintenance of mood disorders, as well as the creation of effective therapies for culturally diverse clients.

This could be you!  I am looking for individuals interested in pursuing graduate training in clinical psychology at Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science to be Research Assistants in the Personality and Emotion Research Laboratory starting in the Fall of 2015.  Knowledge of contemporary personality and emotion theory and research, statistics, and/or computer programming is helpful.  If you're interested, please contact me.

Ego Depletion Materials

  • Baumeister, R.F., Bratslavsky, E., Muraven, M., & Tice, D.M. (1998). Ego depletion: Is the active self a limited resource? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1252-1265. (pdf)
  • Carter, E. C., & McCulough, M. E. (in press). Is ego depletion too incredible?  Evidence for the overestimation of the depletion effect. (pdf).
  • Fisher, P., Kastenmüller, A., & Asal, K. (2012). Ego depletion increases risk-taking. The Journal of Social Psychology, 152(5), 623-638. (pdf)
  • Inzlicht, M., & Schmeichel, B. J. (2012). What is ego depletion? Toward a mechanistic revision of the resource model of self-control. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7(5), 450-463. (pdf)
  • Lynam, D.R., Smith, G.T., Whiteside, S.P., & Cyders, M.A. (2006). The UPPS-P: Assessing five personality pathways to impulsive behavior (Technical Report). West Lafayette: Purdue University. (pdf coming soon) (scale)
  • Muraven, M. (in press). Ego-depletion: Theory and evidence. In R. M. Ryan (Ed.), Oxford handbook of motivation. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (pdf)
  • Tice, D. M., Baumeister, R. F., Shmeuli, D., & Muraven, M. (2007). Restoring the self: Positive affect helps improve self-regulation following ego depletion. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43,379-384. (pdf)
  • Unger, A., & Stahlberg, D. (2011). Ego-depletion and risk behavior:  Too exhausted to take a risk.  Social Psychology, 42(1), 28-38. (pdf)


Some Other Useful Theory Readings

  • Clark, L. A., & Watson, D. (1991). Tripartite model of anxiety and depression: Psychometric evidence and taxonomic implications. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 316-336. (pdf)
  • Fleeson, W., Malanos, A., & Achille, N. (2002). An intra-individual, process approach to the relationship between extraversion and positive affect: Is acting extraverted as “good” as being extraverted? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 1409-1422. (pdf)
  • Insel, T.Cuthbert, B.Garvey, M.Heinssen, R.Pine D.S.Quinn, KSanislow, C, & Wang, P. (2010). Research domain criteria (RDoC): toward a new classification framework for research on mental disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry167(7), 748-751. (pdf) 
  • Joiner, TE., Steer, RA., Beck, AT., Schmidt, NB., Rudd, MD., & Catanzaro, SJ. (1999). Physiological hyperarousal: Construct validity of a central aspect of a tripartite model of depression and anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108, 290-298. (pdf)
  • Kirsch, I. (1978). The placebo effect and the cognitive-behavioral revolution. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 2, 255-264. (pdf)
  • Mearns, J. (2009). Social learning theory. In H. Reis & S. Sprecher (Eds.), Encyclopedia of human relationships (vol. 3) (pp. 1537-1540). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. (pdf
  • Ng, W., & Diener, E. (2009). Personality differences in emotions does emotion regulation play a role? Journal of Individual Differences, 30, 100-106. (pdf)
  • Reiss, S. (1991). Expectancy models of fear, anxiety, and panic. Clinical Psychology Review, 11, 141-153. (pdf)
  • Reiss, S., & McNally, R. J. (1985). The expectancy model of fear. In S. Reiss & R. R. Bootzin (Eds.). Theoretical issues in behavior therapy. (pp. 107-121). New York: Academic Press. (pdf). 
  • Revelle, W., & Scherer, K. R. (2009). Personality and emotion. In D. Sanders & K. Schere (Eds.)., Handbook of personality and affective science (pp. 304-305). New York:  Oxford University Press. (Revelle's preprint; Miller's scan of the book)
  • Smillie, L. D., Cooper, A., Wilt, J., & Revelle, W. (2012). Do extraverts get more bang for the buck? refining the affective-reactivity hypothesis of extraversion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 103(2), 306-326. (pdf)
  • Smillie, L.D., Geaney, J., Wilt, J., Cooper, A.J., Revelle, W. (in press) Aspects of extraversion are unrelated to pleasant affective reactivity: Further examination of the affective reactivity hypothesis. Journal of Research in Personality. (pdf)
  • Watson, D., & Clark, L. A. (1984). Negative affectivity: The disposition to experience aversive emotional states.Psychological Bulletin, 96(3), 465-490. (pdf)
  • Watson, D. (2002). Positive affectivity: The disposition to experience pleasurable emotional states. In . C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), The handbook of positive psychology. (pp. 77-114). New York: Oxford University Press. (pdf)
  • Watson, D.  (2009).  Differentiating the mood and anxiety disorders:  A quadripartite model.  Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 5, 221-247. (pdf)
  • Zelenski, J. M., Santoro, M. S., & Whelan, D. C. (2012). Would introverts be better off if they acted more like extraverts? Exploring emotional and cognitive consequences of counter-dispositional behavior. Emotion, 12(2), 290-303. (pdf)
With Bill Revelle at the Association for Psychological Science (APS) convention in Washington, D.C., in 2011.  Bill does great work on personality and emotion. With Sam Catanzaro and Jeff Laurent, two researchers of the tripartite model of anxiety and depression and of negative mood regulation expectancies.  They (and Lenny Schmaltz) were my master's thesis committee.Yes, that is Albert Bandura's bobo doll.  Dan Kruger is in the upper left.

Some Readings on Measures We Commonly Use

  • Bryant, F. B. (2003). Savoring Beliefs Inventory (SBI): A scale for measuring beliefs about savoring. Journal of Mental Health, 12(2), 175-196. (pdf) 
  • Carver, C. S., & White, T. L. (1994). Behavioral inhibition, behavioral activation, and affective responses to impending reward and punishment: The BIS/BAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 319-333. (pdf)
  • Catanzaro, S. J., & Mearns, J. (1990). Measuring generalized expectancies for negative mood regulation: Initial scale development and implications. Journal of Personality Assessment, 54, 546-563. (pdf)
  • Grös, D. F., Antony, A. A., Simms, L. J., & McCabe, R. E. (2007). Psychometric properties of the state-trait inventory for cognitive and somatic anxiety (STICSA): Comparison to the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Psychological Assessment, 19(4), 369-381. (pdf) (doc)
  • John, O. P., & Srivastava, S. (1999). The Big Five trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and theoretical perspectives. In L. A. Pervin & O. P. John (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (2nd ed., pp. 102-138). New York: Guilford. (pdf
  • Peterson, R. A., & Reiss, S. (1987). Test manual for the Anxiety Sensitivity Index. Orland Park, IL: International Diagnostic Systems. (link
  • Reiss, S., Peterson, R. A., Gursky, D. M., & McNally, R. J. (1986). Anxiety sensitivity, anxiety frequency, and the prediction of fearfulness. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 24, 1 - 8. (pdf)
  • Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of Positive and Negative Affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54,1063-1070. (pdf) (doc) (SPSS scoring)
  • Watson, D., Weber, K., Assenheimer, J. S., Clark, L. A., Strauss, M. E., & McCormick, R. A. (1995). Testing a tripartite model: I. Evaluating the convergent and discriminant validity of anxiety and depression symptom scales. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104, 3-14. (pdf)
  • Watson, D., Clark, L. A., Weber, K., Assenheimer, J. S., Strauss, M. E., & McCormick, R. A. (1995). Testing a tripartite model: II. Exploring the symptom structure of anxiety and depression in student, adult, and patient samples. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104, 15-25. (pdf)
  • Watson, D., O'Hara, M. W., Simms, L. J., Kotov, R., Chmielweski, M. McDade-Montez, E., Gamez, W., & Stuart, S. (2007). Development and validation of the Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms (IDAS). Psychological Assessment, 19, 253-268. (pdf)
  • Watson, D., O'Hara, M. W., Chmielewski, M., McDade-Montez, E. A., Koffel, E., Naragon, K., & Stuart, S. (2008). Further validation of the IDAS:  Evidence of convergent, discriminant, criterion, and incremental validity. Psychological Assessment, 20, 248-259. (pdf)
  • Physiological Hyperarousal - Trait Form (PHAT) available here. (doc)
  • Some syntax for a project on which we're currently working.

Statistical Articles for the Lab 

 A colleague of mine went to a conference and saw this.  He said he had to get it for me. I taught a course in Structural Equation Modeling while I was in California.  Many students from that class went on to become quantitative psychologists.  Several students from that course and my lab went to APS with me in 2008 and gave me this shirt.I didn't write this book.  In fact, the first edition was written before I was born.  The publisher found me online and contacted me to see if I wanted to write a third edition. I should have kept my mouth shut and not told her that I was a different "Steve Miller."



In addition to research on personality and emotion research, we also address some statistical and methodological issues.  Here's a couple papers useful to the first project I'd like to work on in the fall.
  • Bandalos, D. L., & Gagné, P. (2012). Simulation methods in structural equation modeling. In R. H. Hoyle (Ed.), Handbook of structural equation modeling (pp. 92-110). New York: The Guilford Press. (pdf)
  • Bauer, D. J., Sterba, S. K., & Hallfors, D. (2008). Evaluating group-based interventions when control participants are ungrouped. Multivariate Behavioral Research43, 210-246. (pdf)
  • Fai, A. H. T., & Cornelius, P. C. (1996). Approximate F-tests for multiple degree of freedom hypotheses in generalized least squares analysis of unbalanced split-plot experiments. Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation, 54, 363-378. (pdf)
  • Hallgren, K. A. (2013). Conducting simulation studies in the R programming environment. Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 9(2), 43-60. (pdf)
  • Johnson, P. E. (2013). Monte Carlo analysis in academic research. In T. D. Little (Ed.), Oxford Handbook of Quantitative Methods (pp. 454-479). New York: Oxford University Press. (pdf)
  • Kenward, M. G., & Roger, J. H. (1997). Small sample inference for fixed effects from restricted maximum likelihood. Biometrics, 53, 983-997. (pdf)
  • Mooney, C. Z. (1997). Monte Carlo simulation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. (pdf)
  • Muthén, L.K. and Muthén, B.O. (2002).   How to use a Monte Carlo to decide on sample size and determine power. Structural Equation Modeling, 4, 599-620. (pdf)
  • Paxton, P., Curran, P. J., Bollen, K. A., Kirby, J., & Chen, F. (2001). Monte carlo experiments: Design and implementation.  Structural Equation Modeling, 8(2), 287-312. (pdf)
  • Schaalje, G. B., McBride, J. J., & Fellingham, G. W. (2002). Adequacy of approximation to distributions of test statistics in complex mixed linear models. Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics, 7, 512-524. (pdf)

Recently, going to grad school has received a bad rap from a few sources.  For more about what it will be like (and because the lab sometimes deals with expectancy about emotion), click here.  Also, here's an interesting piece on the rejection that comes with academia (and why it's not necessarily a bad thing)

In the near future, I anticipate submitting a grant and the space here includes material for that submission.