Lessons 04 | 02 of 02

Files and Folders

01. File
A computer file is a collection of information that is stored in a computer system and can be identified by its full path name. Computer files are so
called because they are the computer equivalent of card, paper, or microfiche files in the traditional office environment. Computer files provide a way to organize the resources used to permanently store information inside a computer.

More formally, a file system is a set of abstract data types that are implemented for the storage, hierarchical organization, manipulation, navigation, access, and retrieval of data.

02. Computer File Management
The term computer file management refers to the manipulation of documents and data in files on a computer. Specifically, one may create a new
file or edit an existing file and save it; open or load a pre-existing file into memory; or close a file without saving it. Additionally, one may group related files in directories or folders.

A file manager is a computer program that provides a user interface to work with file systems. They are very useful for speeding up interaction with files. The most common operations on files are create, open, edit, view, print, play, rename, move, copy, delete, attributes, properties, search/find, and permissions.

Typically files are displayed in a hierarchy. File managers may contain features inspired by web browsers, including forward and back navigational buttons.

03. Folder
A graphical user interface is a method of interacting with a computer through a metaphor of direct manipulation of graphical images and widgets
in addition to text.

Or

A file folder is a kind of folder that holds loose papers together for organization and protection.

Special Folders:
On Microsoft Windows operating systems, Special Folders are folders which are presented to the user through an interface as an abstract
concept, instead of an absolute folder path. This makes it possible for an application to ask the operating system where an appropriate location for certain kinds of files can be found, regardless of what version or language of operating system is being used.

04. Subfolder
Subfolders are folders within a folder. See picture on page one.

05. Files & Folders: Folder Tree
It is easy to get lost among the pile of folders on most hard disks unless you can actually see the ways the folders are related to each other. The
folder tree is just such a helpful diagram.

The folder tree shows all of the computer's drives and folders in a nested arrangement.

A small plus sign marks drives and folders which contain other things. Clicking this symbol expands this branch of the folder tree.

A minus sign marks something that is already expanded to show its contents. Clicking it will collapse this branch of the folder tree

06. Windows Explorer
Windows Explorer displays the hierarchical structure of files, folders, and drives on your computer. It also shows any network drives that have
been mapped to drive letters on your computer. Using Windows Explorer, you can copy, move, rename, and search for files and folders. For example, you can open a folder that contains a file you want to copy or move, and then drag the file to another folder or drive.

There are other places in Windows where you can view and work with files and folders. My Documents is a convenient place to store documents, graphics, or other files you want to access quickly. You can also view My Network Places, which lists other computers that are connected to your local area network (LAN). When you delete files or folders from your hard disk, Windows places them in the Recycle Bin, where you can retrieve them, until you empty the Recycle Bin. Files or folders deleted from a floppy disk or a network drive are permanently deleted and are not sent to the Recycle Bin.

Open Windows Explorer.

To open Windows Explorer, click Start, point to All Programs, point to Accessories, and then click Windows Explorer.

07. To Change the Name of a File or Folder
Open My Documents.
If the file or folder you want to rename is not located in My Documents or its subfolders, use Search to find it. To open Search, click Start, and
then click Search.

Click the file or folder you want to rename.
Under File and Folder Tasks, click Rename this file or Rename this folder.
Type the new name, and then press ENTER.

To open My Documents, click Start, and then click My Documents.
Some programs cannot interpret long file names. The limit for programs that do not support long file names is eight characters. File names
cannot contain the following characters:
\ / : * ? " < > |.

You can also rename a file or folder by right-clicking it and then clicking Rename.
The names of system folders such as Documents and Settings, Windows, or System32 cannot be changed. They are required for Windows to
run properly.

08. To Copy a File or Folder
Open My Documents.
If the file or folder you want to copy is not located in My Documents or its subfolders, use Search to find it. To open Search, click Start, and then
click Search.

Click the file or folder you want to copy.
Under File and Folder Tasks, click Copy this file or Copy this folder.
In Copy Items, select the drive or folder you want to copy to, and then click Copy.
Notes

To open My Documents, click Start, and then click My Documents.
You can copy more than one file or folder at a time.
To select consecutive files or folders, click the first item, press and hold down SHIFT, and then click the last item. To select
onconsecutive files or folders, press and hold down CTRL, and then click each item.

09. To Delete a File or Folder
Open My Documents.
If the file or folder you want to delete is not located in My Documents or its subfolders, use Search to find it. To open Search, click Start, and then
click Search.

Click the file or folder you want to delete.
Under File and Folder Tasks, click Delete this file or Delete this folder.

To open My Documents, click Start, and then click My Documents.
You can also delete files or folders by right-clicking the file or folder and then clicking Delete.
To retrieve a file you have deleted, double-click the Recycle Bin icon on your desktop. Right-click the file you want to retrieve, and then click
Restore.
To permanently delete a file, press and hold down SHIFT and drag it to the Recycle Bin. The item is permanently deleted and cannot be retrieved
from the Recycle Bin.

10. Folder Options Overview
With Folder Options, you can specify how your folders function and how content is displayed.

For example, you can indicate that you want your folders to display hyperlinks to common tasks, other storage locations, and detailed file information. You can also choose to open items with either a single or a double click.

You can change the program that opens a file type. You can also change the items that appear on your desktop.

To change folder options settings, open Folder Options in Control Panel. Or, to open Folder Options from a folder window, click Tools, and then click Folder Options.

Changes you make in Folder Options apply to the appearance of folder contents. However, Folder Options settings do not apply to the folder toolbars

11. To Move Files by Dragging
Open Windows Explorer.
Find the file or folder you want to move.
Make sure the destination for the file or folder you want to move is visible. For example, if you are moving a file from the My Documents folder to
the desktop, you might need to resize Windows Explorer so the desktop is visible.
Drag the file or folder to the destination.

To open Windows Explorer, click Start, point to All Programs, point to Accessories, and then click Windows Explorer.
If you drag an item while pressing the right mouse button, you can move, copy, or create a shortcut to the file in its new location.
To copy the item instead of moving it, press and hold down CTRL while dragging.
If you drag an item to another disk, it is copied, not moved. To move the item, press and hold down SHIFT while dragging.
Dragging a program to a new location creates a shortcut to that program. To move a program, right-click and then drag the program to the new
location. You must be logged on as an administrator to move a program.

12. To Put a Shortcut on the Desktop
Open My Computer.
Double-click a drive or folder.
Click the item you want, such as a file, program, folder, printer, or computer.
On the File menu, click Create Shortcut.
Resize the window so you can see the desktop.
Drag the new shortcut to the desktop.

To open My Computer, click Start, and then click My Computer.
You can also drag an item to the desktop with the right mouse button, and then click Create Shortcut(s) Here.
To change the shortcut's properties, right-click the shortcut, and then click Properties.
When you delete a shortcut to an item, the original item is not deleted. It still exists on your computer in its original location.

13. Recycle Bin Overview
The Recycle Bin provides a safety net when deleting files or folders. When you delete any of these items from your hard disk, Windows places it
in the Recycle Bin and the Recycle Bin icon changes from empty to full. Items deleted from a floppy disk or a network drive are permanently deleted and are not sent to the Recycle Bin.

Items in the Recycle Bin remain there until you decide to permanently delete them from your computer. These items still take up hard disk space and can be undeleted or restored back to their original location. When it fills up, Windows automatically cleans out enough space in the Recycle Bin to accommodate the most recently deleted files and folders.

If you're running low on hard disk space, always remember to empty the Recycle Bin. You can also restrict the size of the Recycle Bin to limit the amount of hard disk space it takes up.

Windows allocates one Recycle Bin for each partition or hard disk. If your hard disk is partitioned, or if you have more than one hard disk in your computer, you can specify a different size for each Recycle Bin.

14. To Select Multiple Files and Folders
Open My Documents.
Do one of the following:
To select consecutive files or folders, click the first item, press and hold down SHIFT, and then click the last item.
To select nonconsecutive files or folders, press and hold down CTRL, and then click each item.
To select all the files and folders in the window, on the Edit menu, click Select All.

To open My Documents, click Start, and then click My Documents.
If you have selected all files or folders and then want to clear the selection, click in a blank area in the folder window.

15. To Show or Hide the Toolbar in a Folder Window
On the View menu of a folder or program window, click Toolbars and then click the toolbar you want to show or hide.

Toolbars that are currently displayed have a check mark next to them on the View menu.
Some programs may not allow you to hide toolbars; in this case, Toolbars will not appear on the View menu.