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Infancy and Toddlerhood

    This stage marks the physical growth during the first two years. It is also considered as one of the most remarkable and busiest times of Development. Rapid changes in the infant's body and brain support learning, motor skills, and perpetual capacities.


Body Growth
   Physical growth occurs rapidly during the first 2 years of life. The transition from infancy to toddlerhood - the period that spans the second year of life-is marked by the infant's switch from crawling to walking.

Changes in Body Size
   1. During the first 2 years, the body grows more rapidly than at any time after birth.
   2. By the end of the first year the infant's length is 50 percent greater than it was at birth,
        and by 2 years of age it is 75 percent greater.
   3. Birth weight has doubled by 5 months of age, tripled by I year, and quadrupled at 2 years.
   4. Research indicates that these height and weight gains occur in little growth spurts.
   5. In infancy, girls are slightly shorter and lighter than boys.

Changes in Body Proportions
   1. The cephalocaudal trend is an organized pattern of physical growth and motor control that proceeds from head to tail; growth of  the head and chest occurs before that of the trunk and legs.
   2. The proximodistal trend is a pattern of physical growth and motor control that proceeds from the center of the body outward; growth of the arms and legs occurs             before that of the hands

Skeletal Growth

   Children of the same age differ in rate of physical growth; some make faster progress toward a mature body size than others. But current body size is not enough to tell us how quickly a child's physical growth is moving along.

General Skeletal Growth

The best way of estimating a child's physical maturity is to use skeletal age, a measure of development
of the bones of the body. Body growth is controlled by a complex set of hormonal secretions released by
the pituitary gland and regulated by the hypothalamus. Individual and cultural differences in body size and rate of maturation are influenced by both heredity and environment. Physical growth is an asynchronous process because different body systems have their own unique, carefully timed patterns of maturation
. The embryonic skeleton is first formed out of soft, pliable tissue called cartilage. In the sixth week of pregnancy, cartilage cells begin to harden into bone, a gradual process that continues throughout childhood and adolescence (Moore & Persaud, 2008). Just before birth, special growth centers, called epiphyses, appear at the two extreme ends of each of the long bones of the body. Cartilage cells continue to be produced at the  growth plates of these epiphyses, which increase in number throughout childhood and then, as growth continues, get thinner and disappear. After that, no further growth in bone length is possible. Skeletal age can  be estimated by X-raying the bones to determine the number of epiphyses and the extent to which they are fused.

Growth of the Skull:
   When a baby is born, its skull is not the solid single piece of bone it will become later in life. To allow the baby to pass through the birth canal, as well as to allow for additional brain growth, the skull is initially separated into several different parts. While these separations are necessary in early life, they make an infant's head particularly fragile.
Because of the large increases in brain size, skull growth during the first 2 years is very rapid. An infant's skull is made up of six bones. During the first few years of life, these bones are not fused but held together by a type of stretchy tissue called cranial sutures. There are two spaces in the skull that are not covered by bone but only by the cranial sutures. These spaces are called fontanels, or soft spots.



   A. During the first 2 years, the organization of sleep and wakefulness changes and fussiness and crying also decline.
   B. Over time, infants remain awake for longer daytime periods and need fewer naps.
   C. Although brain maturation is largely responsible for changes in sleep and wakefulness, the social environment also contributes. Melatonin secretion in the brain is greater at night by the middle of the first year.
   D. Even after infants sleep through the night, they continue to wake occasionally for the next few years.

   1.Catch-up growth is physical growth that returns to its genetically determined path after being delayed by environmental factors.
   2.When environmental conditions are adequate, height and rate of physical growth are largely determined by heredity.
   3.Weight is also affected by genetic make-up. However, the environment- especially nutrition- does play an important role.


   1. A baby's energy needs are twice as great as those of an adult.
   2. Twenty-five percent of an infant's caloric intake is devoted to growth. If a baby's diet is deficient
        in either quantity or quality of nutrients, growth can be permanently stunted.
   3. Breast - versus Bottle-Feeding:
      a. Today, nearly two-thirds of American mothers breastfeed their babies.
      b. Breast-feeding offers many nutritional and health advantages over bottle feeding.
      c. Breast-fed babies in impoverished regions of the world are less likely to be malnourished and
        more likely to survive the first year of life.
      d. Some mothers cannot nurse because of physiological or medical reasons.
      e. Breast milk is easily digestible and, as a result, breast-fed babies become hungry more often than bottle-fed infants.
      f. Breast- and bottle-fed youngsters do not differ in psychological adjustment.
   4. Are Chubby Babies at Risk for Later Overweight and Obesity?
      a. Only a slight correlation exists between fatness in infancy and obesity at older ages.
      b. Infant and toddlers can eat nutritious foods freely, without risk of becoming too fat.
      c. Physical exercise also guards against excessive weight gain.
   5. Malnutrition:
      a. Recent evidence indicates that 40 to 60 percent of the world's children do not get enough to eat.
      b. Marasmus is a wasted condition of the body usually appearing in the first year of life that is caused by a diet low in all essential nutrients.
      c. Kwashiorkor is a disease usually appearing between I and 3 years of age that is caused by a diet low in protein. Symptoms include an enlarged belly, swollen feet,              hair loss, skin rash, and irritable, listless behavior.
      d. Children who survive these forms of malnutrition grow to be smaller in all body dimensions and their brains can be seriously affected.


   Emotional Well-Being

   1. Non-organic failure to thrive is a growth disorder usually present by 18 months of age that is caused by lack of parental love.
   2. If the disorder is not corrected in infancy, some children remain small and have lasting cognitive and emotional problems.

Learning Capacities

   Learning is the process that results in relatively permanent change in behavior based on experience. Infants learn in a variety of ways.

  Classical Conditioning 

   In classical conditioning (Pavlovian), learning occurs by association when a stimulus that evokes a certain response becomes associated with a different stimulus that originally did not cause that response. After the two stimuli associate in the subject's brain, the new stimulus then elicits the same response as the original.

   • An unconditioned stimulus (UCS), say, a nipple inserted into the mouth, elicits a reflexive unlearned response (unconditioned response, UR), sucking.
   • The infant can become conditioned to the nipple (now a conditioned stimulus, CS) so that sucking occurs as soon as the baby sees a nipple (now a conditioned                  response, CR).

   For example Little Albert was conditioned to be afraid of white rats.
    –Loud noise (UCS) = fear (UCR)
    –Loud noise (UCR) + white rat (CS) = fear
    –White rat (CS) = fear (CR)

Operant Conditioning

   Operant conditioning is a form of learning in which a spontaneous behavior is followed by a stimulus that changes the probability that the behavior will occur again.
A reinforcer is a stimulus that increases the occurrence of a response. The removal of a desirable stimulus or the presenting of an unpleasant one to decrease the occurrence of a response is called punishment. Operant conditioning allows researchers to determine what stimuli babies perceive and which ones they prefer. Sudden infant death syndrome , a major cause of infant mortality, may result when problems in brain function prevent babies from learning certain lifesaving responses.

Some key concepts in operant conditioning:

 Reinforcement is any event that strengthens or increases the behavior it follows.

  There are two kinds of reinforcers:

   Positive reinforcers are favorable events or outcomes that are presented after the behavior. In situations that reflect positive reinforcement, a response or behavior is strengthened by the addition of something, such as praise or a direct reward.

   Negative reinforcers involve the removal of an unfavorable events or outcomes after the display of a behavior. In these situations, a response is strengthened by the removal of something considered unpleasant.

In both of these cases of reinforcement, the behavior increases.


   Habituation refers to a gradual reduction in the strength of a response due to repetitive stimulation. Looking, heart rate, and breathing rate may all decline, which indicates a loss of interest (Berk, 2007). For example, sounds in your environment such as street noise might initially draw your attention, but after repeated exposure to those sounds, you will become accustomed to, and pay less attention to them [1]. Habituation and recovery make learning more efficient by enabling us to focus our attention on those aspects of the environment we know the least about. Researchers investigating infants' understanding of the world rely on habituation and recovery more than any other learning capacity (Berk, 2007).

Habituation research reveals that infants learn and retain a wide variety of information just by watching objects and events (Berk, 2007). They are especially attentive to the movements of objects and people, and have been reported to be able to habituate themselves to the actions of older people for up to seven weeks after they were first introduced to the actions in the first place.

In another habituation research, it was revealed that newborn babies required a long time to habituate and recover to novel visual stimuli, usually about three or four minutes (Berk, 2007). Once the infants reached four or five months of age, they required as little as five to ten seconds to recognize different visual stimuli (Slater et al., 1996). Psychologists believe that a reason for young babies' habituation times being so long is that they have a hard time disengaging their attention from interesting stimuli (Colombo, 2002).

Psychologists monitor habituation to determine whether infants hear a difference between two sounds (Kalat, 2005). For example, infants who have become habituated to the sound ba will increase their sucking rate when they hear the sound pa. Apparently, they are able to tell the difference, which is important for later language comprehension (Eimas, Siqueland, Jusczyk, & Vigorito, 1971).

There are studies that show that infants who have habituated to hearing one language, such as Dutch, dishabituate when they hear a different language such as Japanese (Kalat, 2007). By age 5 months, however, babies dishabituate when they hear an adjustment from Dutch to English, apparently because the sounds and rhythms are relatively similar (Jusczyk, 2002). These type of studies show that children can distinguish relevant language sounds before they even know what the words mean. When a change in a stimulus increases a previously habituated response, we say that the stimulus produced dishabituation (Kalat, 2007).

Habituation can even be seen as early as the third trimester of pregnancy. A fetus shows sensitivity to external stimuli in the third trimester of pregnancy by showing changes in fetal heart rate when various repeated sounds are presented (Berk, 2007).


   Newborn babies come into the world with a primitive ability to learn through imitation—by copying the behavior of another person. Infants from 2 days to several weeks old imitating adult facial expressions (Field et al., 1982; Meltzoff & Moore, 1977). The human newborn’s capacity to imitate extends to certain gestures, such as head movements, and has been demonstrated in many ethnic groups and cultures (Meltzoff & Kuhl, 1994). As the figure reveals, even the newborns of chimpanzees, our closest evolutionary ancestors, imitate some facial expressions: tongue protrusion, mouth opening, and lip protrusion (Myowa-Yamakoshi et al., 2004) (Berk).
imitation is more difficult to induce in babies 2 to 3 months old than just after birth. Therefore, some investigators regard the capacity as little more than an automatic
response that declines with age,much like a reflex. Others claim that newborns imitate a variety of facial expressions and head movements with apparent effort and determination, even after short delays—when the adult is no longer demonstrating the behavior. Furthermore, these investigators argue, imitation does not decline, as reflexes do.Human babies several months old often do not imitate an adult’s behavior right away because they try to play social games they are used to in face-to-face interaction—mutual gazing, cooing, smiling, and waving their arms. When an adult models a gesture repeatedly, older human infants soon get down to business and
imitate (Meltzoff & Moore, 1994). Similarly, imitation declines in baby chimps around 9 weeks of age, when mother–baby mutual gazing and other face-to-face exchanges increase. (Laura Berk)


A. The Sequence of Motor Development
1. Gross motor development refers to control over actions that help an infant move around in the environment, such as crawling, standing, and walking.
2. Fine motor development involves smaller movements such as reaching and grasping.
3. Although the sequence of motor development is fairly uniform across children, there are large individual differences in rate of motor progress.
4. Motor control of the head precedes control of the arms and trunk which precedes control of the legs .
5. Head, trunk, and arm control appears before coordination of the hands and fingers .



Object Perception
  1. Size and Shape Constancy:

     a. To accurately perceive objects, we must translate changing retinal images into a single representation.
     b. Size constancy is the perception that an object's size is the same, despite changes in its retinal image size.
     c. Shape constancy is perception that an object's shape is stable, despite changes in the shape projected on the retina.
     d. Both of these perceptual capacities appear to be innate and assist babies in detecting a coherent world of objects.
  2. Perception of Objects as Distinct, Bounded Wholes:
     a. The movement of objects relative to one another and to their background enables infants to construct a visual world of separate objects.
     b. At first, motion and spatial arrangements help infants identify objects. Then, as babies visually track moving objects, they pick up additional information about an           object's boundaries, such as its distance from their eye, shape, and color.

 Intermodal Perception

   1. Intermodal perception combines information from more than one modality, or sensory system.
   2. Recent evidence indicates that babies perceive the world in an intermodal method from the beginning. For example, newborn behaviors suggest that they expect                sight, sound, and touch to go together.

  Key Piagetian Concepts
  1. Piaget believed children move through four stages of development between infancy and adolescence.
  2. During the sensorimotor stage, infants and toddlers "think" with their eyes, ears, hands, and other sensorimotor equipment.
  3. What Changes With Development:
      a. Piaget believed a child's schemes change with age.
      b. Schemes are action-based at first and later will move to a mental level.
  4. How Cognitive Change Takes Place:
      a. Adaptation  1) Adaptation is the process of building schemes through direct interaction with the environment,
                                2) Assimilation is a part of adaptation in which the external world is interpreted through existing schemes.
                                3) Accommodation is the part of adaptation in which new schemes are created or old ones adjusted to produce a better fit with the environment.
                                4) Equilibrium exists when children are not changing very much and they are in a steady, comfortable cognitive state; assimilation is used more than                                         accommodation.
                                5) Disequilibrium is the state of cognitive discomfort which occurs during times of rapid change; accommodation is used more than assimilation.
                                6) Back-and-forth movement between equilibrium and disequilibrium leads to the development of more effective schemes.
      b. Organization 1) Organization is an internal process of rearranging and linking together schemes to form an interconnected cognitive system.
                                   2) Schemes reach a true state of equilibrium when they become part of a broad network of structures that can be jointly applied to the surrounding                                              world.

The Sensorimotor Stage

   1. Piaget based the sensorimotor stage on his observations of his own children.
   2. The Circular Reaction:
        a. Circular reactions are the means by which infants explore the environment and build schemes by trying to repeat chance events caused by their own motor                         activity.
        b. These reactions are first centered on the infant's own body. Subsequently, they change to manipulating objects and then to producing novel effects in the                             environment.
   3. Substage 1: Reflexive Schemes -
                                a. Piaget regarded newborn reflexes as the building blocks of sensorimotor intelligence.
                                b. At first, babies suck, grasp, and look in much the same way, no matter what the circumstances.
   4. Substage 2: Primary Circular Reactions - The First Learned Adaptations -
                                a. Infants develop simple motor skills and change their behavior in response to environmental demands.
                                b. The first circular reactions are primary in that they are oriented towards the infants' own bodies and motivated by basic needs.
   5. Substage 3: Secondary Circular Reactions-Making Interesting Sights Last -
                                a. Circular reactions of this substage are secondary in that the infants repeat actions that affect the environment.
                                b. Infants can imitate actions that they have practiced many times.
   6. Substage 4: Coordination of Secondary Circular Reaction -
                                a. Intentional, or goal directed, behavior is the combination of schemes to solve problems.
                                b. Piaget regarded mean send action sequences as the first sign that babies appreciate physical causality.
                                c. Object permanence is the understanding that objects continue to exist when they are out of sight; it is not yet complete in this substage.
                                d. AB search errors are committed by infants in this substage. Infants 8- to 12-months-old only look for an object in hiding place A after the object is
                                    moved from A to hiding place B.
   7. Substage 5: Tertiary Circular Reactions-Discovering New Means Through Active Experimentation -
                                a. Circular reactions in this substage are tertiary in that the infant repeats actions with variation-exploring the environment and bringing about new                                         outcomes.
                                b. Experimentation leads to a more advanced understanding of object permanence. Toddlers no longer make the AB search error.
   8. Substage 6: Mental Representation-Inventing New Means Through Mental Combinations -
                                a. Mental representations are internal images of absent objects and past events.
                                b. The toddler can now solve problems through symbolic means instead of trial-and-error.
                                c. Representation allows deferred imitation-the ability to copy the behavior of models who are not immediately present.
                                d. Functional play is motor activity with or without objects during the first year and a half in which sensorimotor schemes are practiced.
                                e. At the end of the second year, representation permits toddlers to engage in make-believe play.


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    Vygotsky, formulated a theory that children first develop lower mental functions such as simple perceptions, associative learning, and involuntary attention; then, through social interactions with more advanced peers and adults, they eventually develop high mental functions such as language, counting, problem solving skills, voluntary attention, and memory schemas. Central to Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development is his theoretical construct of the zone of proximal development. He proposed that a child's immediate potential for cognitive growth is bounded on the lower end by what the child can accomplish on his/her own and on the upper end by what the child can accomplish with the help of a more knowledgeable other, such as a peer or teacher. This region of immediate potential is the zone of proximal development. As a child learns to complete tasks with less and less assistance, the child's cognitive skills develop. Vygotsky's ideas concerning the zone of proximal development provide strong support for the inclusion of cooperative learning strategies in classroom instruction. The five components of cooperative learning (positive interdependence, face-to-face interaction, individual accountability, small groups and interpersonal skills, and group self-evaluation) are discussed in the context of Vygotsky's theories, and a series of suggestions for using cooperative learning are included. The paper concludes that cooperative learning is an effective formal education strategy for presenting social and cultural experiences in a systematic manner.

    On average, children say their first word at around 12 months of age, with a range of 8 to 18 months. Between 1.5 and 2 years, toddlers combine two words; soon their utterances increase in length and complexity.

 There are three Theories of Language Development

 1. The Behaviorist Perspective: a. This perspective regards language development as entirely due to environmental influences.
                                                            b. Through operant conditioning, parents reinforce their baby's sounds that most sound like words.
                                                            c. Imitation combines with reinforcement to promote language development.
 2. The Nativist Perspective: a. This view assumes that children are born with a biologically-based system-called the language acquisition device -for mastering language.
                                                    b. Chomsky maintained that the LAD contains a set of rules common to all languages; thus, children speak in a rule-oriented way from the                                                              beginning.
                                                    c. Children all over the world tend to master language milestones in a similar sequence- evidence that fits with Chomsky's ideas.
                                                    d. Can Great Apes Acquire Language?  Findings reveal that the ability of chimps to acquire a human like language system is limited. Even                                                              pygmy chimps, a highly intelligent species, require several extra years of training to attain the basic grammar understood by human
                                                         2- and 3-year-olds.
                                                    e. Language Areas in the Brain: Humans have evolved specialized regions in the brain that support language skills. Broca's area, located in                                                            the frontal lobe, controls language production. Wernicke's area, located in the temporal lobe, controls language comprehension.
                                                    f. Limitations of the Nativist Perspective: Researchers have had difficulty identifying the single system of grammar believed to underlie all                                                            languages. Research indicates that language acquisition is not immediate but occurs in a steady and gradual manner.
  3. The Interactionist Perspective: a. This view emphasizes that language achievements emerge through the interaction of innate abilities and environmental influences.                                                                b. Native capacity, a strong desire to interact with others, and a rich linguistic and social environment contribute to budding a child's                                                                       language capacities.
                                                               c. A great deal of evidence supports the interactionist position.

YouTube Video

  Getting Ready to Talk

   1. Cooing and Babbling: Around 2 months, babies make vowel-like noises called cooing. About 6 months, consonants combine with vowels and the baby begins                       babbling. Babies must hear human speech for babbling to develop further. Adult-infant interaction increases the amount of spoken language a baby is exposed to.
  2. Becoming a Communicator: By 4 months, infants and adults follow each other's gaze. The adults label what is seen. Experiencing this joint attention often speeds up        language development. Simple infant games such as pat-a-cake and peek-a-boo demonstrate conversational turn-taking. At the end of the first year, infants use               preverbal gestures to influence the behavior of others.

  First Words
  1 . Children's first words usually refer to important people, objects that move, familiar actions, or outcomes of familiar actions.
  2. Under extension is a vocabulary error in which a word is applied to a smaller number of objects and events than is appropriate.
  3. In contrast, over extension occurs when a word is applied to a wider collection of objects and events than is appropriate.

The Two-Word Utterance Phase

  1. Vocabularies slowly build from age 12 to 18 months. However, between 18 and 24 months, children may add from 10 to 20 new words a week.
  2. Telegraphic speech is the two-word utterance phase of toddlers which leaves out smaller and less important words.

 Comprehension versus Production

  1 . Production is the words and word combinations that children use.
  2. Comprehension is the language that children understand.
  3. At all ages, comprehension develops ahead of production. Comprehension only necessitates recognition of word meaning, whereas production requires active recall        of the word and its meaning.


  Development of Some Basic Emotions

  Basic emotions are those that can be directly inferred from facial expressions, such as happiness, interest, surprise, fear, anger, sadness, and disgust.
A. Happiness: a. Happiness binds parent and baby and fosters the infant's developing competence.
                          b. The social smile-the smile evoked by the stimulus of the human face-first appears between 6 and 10 weeks.
                          c. Laughter first appears around 2 to 4 months in response to active stimuli.
B. Anger and Fear: a. Anger is expressed during the first months when babies cry in response to unpleasant experiences.
                                   b. Both fear and anger rise during the second half of the first year.
                                   C. Stranger anxiety is an expression of fear in response to unfamiliar adults. it depends on the infant's temperament,                                              past experiences with strangers, and the situation in which baby and stranger meet.
                                   d. Researchers believe that anger and fear have special survival value as infants' motor capacities improve.


Understanding and Responding to the Emotions of Others

   Between 7 and 10 months, infants perceive facial expressions as organized patterns, and they can match the emotional tone of a voice with the appropriate face of a speaking person. Social referencing occurs when an infant relies on a trusted person's emotional reaction to decide how to respond in an uncertain situation. Social referencing provides infants with a method of learning about the environment through indirect experience. By toddlerhood, children use emotional signals to infer others' internal states and guide their own actions.

 Emergence of Self-Conscious Emotions

  Self-conscious emotions appear at the end of the second year. They involve injury to or enhance ment of the sense of self and include shame, embarrassment, guilt, envy, and pride. Self-conscious emotions assist children in acquiring socially valued behaviors and goals.

 Beginnings of Emotional Self-Regulation
  1. Emotional self-regulation refers to the strategies used to adjust emotional states to a comfortable level of intensity.
  2. By the end of the first year, babies' ability to move around permits them to regulate feelings more effectively by approaching or retreating from various stimuli.
  3. Mothers encourage baby's positive feelings far more often than their negative ones.
  4. Infant boys get more training in hiding their unhappiness than do girls.
  5. Growth in representation and language permits toddlers to describe their emotions

  A. Temperament refers to stable individual differences in quality and intensity of emotional reaction, activity level, attention, and emotional self-regulation.
  B. Thomas and Chess initiated the New York Longitudinal Study which was a comprehensive examination of temperament. Results indicated:
       1. temperament is predictive of psychological adjustment.

       2. parenting practices can modify children's emotional styles
  C. The Structure of Temperament
       1. Three types of children described the majority of the Thomas and Chess sample: Easy children quickly establish regular routines, are cheerful,               and adapt easily to new experiences. Difficult children are irregular in daily routines, slow to accept new experiences, and tend to react                           negatively and intensely. Slow-to-warm-up children are inactive, have mild, low- key reactions to stimuli, and adjust slowly to new experiences.
      2. 35 percent of children did not fit any of these categories, demonstrating blends of characteristics instead.
      3. The difficult temperamental type places children at risk for adjustment problems.
  D. Measuring Temperament
     1. Assessments of Behavior: Temperament is often assessed through parent interviews and questionnaires, behavior ratings by medical                             professionals or caregivers, and direct researcher observation. Parent ratings have been criticized for being biased and subjective. Most measures can assess                     temperament across only a narrow age range because the way temperament is expressed changes with development.
     2. Assessments of Physiological Reactions: Inhibited, or shy, children react negatively to and withdraw from novel stimuli. Uninhibited, or sociable, children                            display positive emotion to and approach novel stimuli. Heart rate, hormone levels, and EEG waves in the frontal cortex differentiate children with inhibited and              uninhibited temperamental styles.
  E. Stability of Temperament
      1. Early in life children show marked individual differences in temperament, indicating the important role that biological factors play in determining temperamental             styles.
      2. However, the changes shown by children suggest that temperament can be modified by experience.
  F. Genetic Influences
      1. Findings of twin studies reveal that identicals are more similar than fraternals across a wide range of temperamental traits and personality measures.
      2. About half of the individual differences among us can be traced to differences in our genetic make-up.
      3. Chinese and Japanese infants tend to be less active, irritable, and vocal than Caucasian infants.
      4. Boys tend to be more active and daring than girls.
  G. Environmental Influences
      1. Some differences in early temperament are encouraged by cultural beliefs and practices. For example, Japanese mothers do more comforting and American                      mothers more stimulating.
     2. Parents more often encourage infant sons to be physically active and daughters to seek help and physical closeness.
     3. Research indicates that when one child in a family is viewed as easy, another is likely to be perceived as difficult, even though the second child might not be very                 difficult when compared to children in general.

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   Attachment is the strong affectional tie that we feel toward special people in their lives. Infant
attachment behaviors include seeking closeness to the mother, following her about, and crying and calling in her absence.

 Early Theories of Attachment

  1. Psychoanalytic theory regards feeding as the central context in which caregivers and babies build emotional bonds.
  2. According to the behaviorist drive reduction explanation, as the mother satisfies the baby's hunger, her presence becomes a secondary or learned drive because it is          paired with tension relief.
  3. Research indicates the attachment bond is not solely dependent on satisfaction of the infant's hunger.
  4. Human infants can also become attached to people who do not feed them as well as to soft, cuddly objects.

 Bowlby's Ethological Theory

  1. Today, ethological theory of attachment is the most widely accepted view of attachment.

  2. Bowlby's ethological theory views the infant's emotional tie to the mother as an evolved response that promotes survival.
  3. The human infant is endowed with a set of built-in behaviors that keep the parent nearby, which increases the chances that the infant will be protected from danger.
  4. The development of attachment takes place in four phases: The pre-attachment phase -built-in signals such as smiling and crying help bring the newborn into                    close contact with other humans. The "attachment-in-the-making" phase -infants begin to respond differently to a familiar caregiver than to a stranger. The phase of       "clear-cut" attachment -attachment to the familiar caregiver is evident. Babies exhibit separation anxiety when they become upset at the departure of a familiar                   caregiver. They use caregivers as a secure base from which they can explore the environment and return to for emotional support. d. Formation of a reciprocal
       relationship - separation anxiety decreases; instead, toddlers try to persuade caregivers not to leave.
  5. An internal working model is a set of expectations derived from early care giving experiences concerning the availability of attachment figures and their likelihood of       providing support during times of stress. This becomes a guide for all future close relationships.

  Measuring the Security of Attachment

   1.The Strange Situation is a procedure for measuring the quality of attachment between 1 and 2 years of age. It involves short separations from and reunions with the           parent. Secure attachment characterizes infants who may or may not cry at parental separation but are easily comforted by the parent when she returns. Avoidant           attachment describes infants who are usually not distressed by parental separation and who avoid the parent when she returns. Resistant attachment identifies                   infants who remain close to the parent before departure and display angry, resistive behavior when she returns. d. Disorganized/disoriented attachment                               characterizes infants who respond in a confused, contradictory way when reunited with parents. This pattern seems to reflect the greatest insecurity.
  2. The Attachment Q-Sort is suitable for children between I and 5 years of age. Descriptors regarding attachment-related behaviors are sorted into categories ranging           from highly descriptive to not at all descriptive of the child. Then, a computed score permits assignment to secure or insecure groups.

  Stability of Attachment and Cultural Variations

   1. When families experience major life changes, the quality of attachment often changes.
   2. German parents encourage their infants to be independent, which may explain why more German infants show avoidant attachment than American babies.
   3. Japanese infants display more resistant attachment responses. Japanese mothers rarely leave their babies in the care of strange people, which might cause the                   Strange Situation to be more stressful for these infants.
   4. The secure attachment pattern is the most common in all societies studied.

  Factors that Affect Attachment Security

   1. Maternal Deprivation: In a series of studies, Spitz observed that institutionalized infants experienced emotional difficulties, wept and withdrew from their                           surroundings, lost weight, and had difficulty sleeping. Institutionalized babies had emotional difficulties not because they were separated from their mothers, but              because they were prevented from forming a bond with one or a few adults. It is possible that fully normal attachment development depends on establishing
      close bonds with caregivers during the first few years of life.
   2. Quality of Caregiving: Research findings indicate that securely attached infants have mothers who engage in sensitive caregiving - responding promptly to infant                signals, expressing positive emotion, and handling their babies tenderly and carefully. Insecurely attached infants have mothers who dislike physical contact, handle         them awkwardly, and behave in a "routine" manner when meeting the baby's needs. Interactional synchrony is best described as a sensitively tuned "emotional                dance," in which the caregiver responds to infant signals in a well timed, appropriate fashion and both partners match emotional states, especially the positive ones.
        Although secure attachment depends on attentive caregiving, its association with immediate contingent interaction is probably limited to certain cultures. Avoidant         infants tend to receive caregiving that is overstimulating and intrusive. Child abuse and neglect are associated with all three forms of insecure attachment.
   3. Infant Characteristics: Prematurity, birth complications, and newborn illness are linked to attachment insecurity in poverty-stricken, stressed families. The precise           role that temperament plays in attachment security has been debated. Some evidence indicates that sensitive caregiving can override the impact of infant                           characteristics on attachment security.
   4. Family Circumstances: In families where there is stress and instability, insecure attachment is especially high. Availability of social supports reduces stress and               fosters attachment security.
   5. Parents 'lnternal Working Models: Parents bring to the family context a long history of attachment experiences, out of which they construct internal working models         that they apply to the bonds established with their babies. Mothers who show objectivity and balance in discussing their childhoods tend to have securely attached            infants. Mothers who dismiss the importance of early relationships or describe them in angry, confused ways usually have insecurely attached babies.
   6. Attachment in Context: a. Many factors influence the development of attachment-infant and parent characteristics, quality of the marital relationship, family                   stressors, social support, parents'internal working models, and child care arrangements. b. Attachment can only be fully understood within an ecological systems               perspective.

  Multiple Attachments

   1. Bowlby believed that infants are predisposed to direct their attachment behaviors to a single attachment figure. This preference typically declines over the second               year of life.
   2. Fathers: Fathers' sensitive caregiving predicts secure attachment - an effect that becomes stronger the more time they spend with their babies. Mothers spend                    more time in physical care, while fathers spend more time in playful interaction. As a result, babies tend to look to their mothers when distressed and to their                    fathers for playful stimulation. Highly involved fathers are less gender stereotyped in their beliefs, have sympathetic, friendly personalities, and regard                                parenthood as an especially enriching experience. A warm, gratifying marital relationship supports both parents' involvement with babies, but it is particularly                important for fathers.
   3. Siblings: Eighty percent of American children grow up with at least one sibling. Conflict between siblings increases when one member of a sibling pair is emotionally         intense or highly active. Secure infant-mother attachment and warmth toward both children are related to positive sibling interaction, whereas coldness is                             associated with sibling friction. Setting aside special times to devote to the older child supports sibling harmony.

  From Attachment to Peer Sociability

    1. Between 1 and 2 years, coordinated peer interaction occurs more often, typically in the form of mutual physical play and imitation.
    2. Some limited peer sociability is present in the first 2 years, and it is fostered by the early caregiver child bond.

   Attachment and Later Development

   1. Quality of attachment to the mother in infancy is related to cognitive and social development in early childhood.
   2. Continuity of caregiving may determine whether attachment insecurity is linked to later problems.
   3. A child whose parental caregiving improves or who has compensatory affectional ties outside the immediate family can bounce back from adversity.

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