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Family- Bufonidae (True Toads)

Toads of the family Bufonidae have a thick, warty and a glandular skin . There is a concentration of glands in the temporal-neck area forming the prominant Parotid gland. Adult Toads lack teeth in the upper jaw. The pupil of the eye is horizontal. They reproduce by depositing strands of eggs in water and the eggs hatch in to tadpoles. The tadpoles have keratinized mouthparts. In most species fertilization is external but few are known to fertilize internally. The family Bufonidae is distributed worldwide except Antarctica and Australia. More than 400 species are known throughout the world that belongs to 32 genera.
Bufonidae of Sri Lanka  
Sri Lanka is home to 8 species of Bufonids. The Bufonidae in Sri Lanka consisits of three genera: Adenomus, Bufo and Duttaphrynus. The genus Adenomus is endemic to Sri Lanka and therefore all Adenomus species are considered as relict species.
Genus -Adenomus Cope, 1860
Adenomus species are characterised by their slender habitus and moist  warty skin. They have comparatively long limbs and the finger edges are smooth. Species of Adenomus also lack the supra-orbital ridge which is prominant in Bufo species. Two species of Adenomus are found in Sri Lanka. 

Species of Adenomus in Sri Lanka
Adenomus kandianus (Gunther, 1872)E
Adenomus kelaartii  (Gunther, 1858)E

Both species are normally found to close to water bodies. Out of the two species A. kandianus was thought to be extinct until it was recently rediscovered from the Sripada Sanctuary.  It is restricted to the submontane forests of the Sripada sanctuary and Piduruthalagala range. Adenomus kelaartii is distributed in the lowland and sub-montane rainforests of Sri Lanka.

Genus- Bufo Laurenti, 1768
Five species of Bufo are known from Sri Lanka. Three species are endemic to Sri Lanka. They have a stout, stocky appearance with short legs. Their skin is dry and warty. The finger edges of Bufo are rough and they posess a prominant supra-orbital ridge. B. atukoralei and B. scaber are distributed in the lowlands of Sri Lanka. B. kotagamai is distributed in the lowland rainforests of Sri Lanka.
Species of Bufo in Sri Lanka
Bufo atukoralei Bogert and Senanayake, 1966E
Bufo kotagamai Fernando and Dayawansa, 1994E
Bufo scaber Schneider, 1799


Genus- Duttaphrynus Frost et al., 2006
Two species are known from Sri Lanka. These two species were previously placed in the genus Bufo. But in 2006 they were placed in the new genus Duttaphrynus based on  molecular evidence. They have a stout, stocky appearance with short legs. Their skin is dry and warty. Parotid glands are prominant.  Duttaphrynus species have prominent bony ridges, such as a canthal, a pre-orbital, a supraorbital, and a postorbital ridge, and a short orbito-tympanic ridge. Their snout is short and blunt, the interorbital space is broader than the upper eyelid and the tympanum is very small. The first finger of these toads extends beyond the second and the toes are half webbed. The finger edges of  Duttaphrynus are rough. D. melanostictus is the commonest of all toads and maybe th commonest amphibian in Sri Lanka and it is easily seen in home gardens and even inside houses. D. noellertii is distributed in the lowland rainforests of Sri Lanka.
Species of Duttaphrynus in Sri Lanka
Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider, 1799)
Duttaphrynus noellertii (Manamendraarachchi and Pethyagoda,1998E)
Abreviations in superscript
E- Endemic Species, Ex- Extinct species, Cr- Critically Endangered Species


Frost, Darrel R. 2009. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.3 (12 February, 2009). Electronic Database accessible at http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/
American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA.