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1G. L. Carey, "Clement of Alexandria," The New International Dictionary of the Christian Church (NIDCC) (Grand Rapids: The Zondervan Corporation, 1978), page 234; Zane Hodges, "1 John," The Bible Knowledge Commentary (BKC), New Testament edition (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1983), page 881; D. F. Wright, "Irenaeus," NIDCC, page 516; Wright, "Tertullian," NIDCC, page 960. This web page has depended upon Hodges' commentaries heavily, but not completely.

2Irenaeus, Against Heresies (Galaxie Software: Garland, TX), book 3, chapter 1, paragraph 1.

3Zane C. Hodges, The Epistles of John (EJ): Walking in the Light of God's Love (Irving, TX: Grace Evangelical Society, 1999), pages 26, 107.

4Glenn W. Barker, "1 John," The Expositor's Bible Commentary (Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1981), volume 12, page 301; Charles Caldwell Ryrie, Ryrie Study Bible (RSB), NIV, Expanded Edition (Chicago: Moody Press, 1994), pages 1924, 1933, 1937.

5Lewis Sperry Chafer, Systematic Theology (Dallas: Dallas Seminary Press, 1948), volume VII, pages 11-12.

6Charles Caldwell Ryrie, The Holy Spirit (Chicago: Moody Press, 1965), pages 72-73.

7Hodges, BKC, page 892.

8So suggests Hodges, page 881. Here are some of the candidates suggested by commentators:

Cerinthus taught that God had not created the world, that Jesus was a normal man upon whom Christ descended at his baptism and from whom Christ left prior to the crucifixion, and that Jesus would bring a sensuous millennium upon his return (G. L. Carey, "Cerinthus," NIDCC, page 207).

Docetism taught that Jesus Christ was not a real man (G. W. Grogan, "Docetism," NIDCC, page 305).

Some followers of Gnosticism lived loose lives because they believed their salvation was based on secret knowledge rather than on righteousness. Others would not get married because they believed women were the origin of evil and children should not be born into bondage to dark powers (E. Yamauchi, "Gnosticism," NIDCC, pages 416-417).

One can also not help but wonder if the false theological system utilized the worship of idols (1 John 5:21).

9For the discussion on rhetorical structure, see Hodges, EJ, pages 31-33. For one of the many examples of inclusio, see page 123, 173, 246.

10Ibid., page 32.


12Ibid., page 75.

13Robert P. Lightner, Evangelical Theology: A Survey and Review [ET] (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1986), page195.

14Hodges, EJ, pages75-79. The direct quote is from page 76. See also Joseph C. Dillow, The Reign of the Servant Kings [RSK] (Hayesville, NC: Schoettle Publishing Co., 2006), pages 165-166: "The apostle Paul used the word 'know' in a similar sense when he said, 'I want to know Christ and the power of His resurrection and the fellowship of His sufferings' (Phil. 3:10). Paul already knows Christ in the sense of possessing justification, but he wants to know Him intimately, to have continual fellowship with Him." 

15Ibid., pages 75-79.

16C. Brown, "Remain," The New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology [NIDNTT] (Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1978), volume 3, pages 224-225.

18W. F. Moulton, A. S. Geden, and H. K. Moulton, A Concordance to the Greek Testament according to the Texts of Westcott and Hort, Tischendorf and the English Revisers (Edinburg: T. & T. Clark, 1963), page 629.

19Hodges, EJ, page 32.

20Colin Brown, general editor, "Child, Boy, Servant, Son, Adoption," NIDNTT, volume 1, page 280.

21William F. Arndt and F. Wilbur Gingrich, "veavias, veaviskos**, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature [A&G] (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1957), page 536.

22P. Trutza, "Marriage," The Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible (Zondervan Publishing House: Grand Rapids, 1975), volume 5, page 96.

23Kenneth W. Bowles, "Hebrew Poetry and Music," June 7, 2002, online posting, Spiritual Insights Page, March 20, 2004,

24Colin Brown, general editor, "Earth, Land, World," NIDNTT, volume 1, page 517.

25A&G, page 447.

26Philip R. Williams, Grammar Notes on the Noun and the Verb and Certain Other Items [GN] (Tacoma, WA: Northwest Baptist Seminary Press, 1976), page 3-4.

27John F. Walvoord, Major Bible Prophecies: 37 Crucial Prophecies that Affect You Today (Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1991), pages 315-316.

28The words, "went out from us," are not found in the NASV but are found in the NIV and the KJV. There is much more support for leaving the words in than for taking them out. See the apparatus in Kurt Aland, Matthew Black, Carlo M. Martini, Bruce M. Metzger, and Allen Wikgren, The Greek New Testament, Second Edition (Stuttgart: Württenberg Bible Society, 1968), page 477 and Zane C. Hodges and Arthur L. Farstad, The Greek New Testament According to the Majority Text (Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1982), page 427.

29Hodges, EJ, pages 108-110.

30Ibid., page 32.

31So used in Classical Greek according to G. Braumann, "parousia," NIDCC, page 898.

32John F. Walvoord, "Eschatological Problems IV: New Testament Words for the Lord's Coming," Bibliotheca Sacra, July 1944, pages 285-286.

33This is a Type B conditional clause. See Eugene Van Ness Goetchius, The Language of the New Testament (Charles Scribner's Sons: New York, 1965) paragraphs 350, 353. Goetchius says: "Conditional clauses of Type B express conditions which are believed by the speaker to be generally true in the present or probably realizable in the future (future conditions are more often expressed by clauses of Type B than by clauses of Type A) [paragraph 353]." Other grammar's label a Type B conditional clause as a third class conditional clause. Both are the same type of conditional clause.

34"The NAS New Testament Greek Lexicon," n.d., online posting,, March 26, 2004,

35Millard J. Erickson, Christian Theology [CT] (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1985), volume 3, page 942, quoted in ET, page 338.

36The table is an expansion of the one found at CT, page 339.

37A&G, page 76.

38EJ, pages 145-146.

39Ibid., page 135-136.

40The following sources list it without any helping word: Ernest De Witt Burton, Syntax Moods and Tenses (Edinburg: T. & T. Clark: 1898), paragraph 12; H. E. Dana and Julius R. Mantey, A Manual Grammar of the Greek New Testament (Toronto: The Macmillan Company, 1957), paragraph 173(2); A. T. Robertson, A Grammar of the Greek New Testament in the Light of Historical Research (Nashville: Broadman Press, 1934), page 880; and GN, page 27. But none of these grammas provide a translated example of habitual usage that closely corresponds to the NASV translation of the verses. NASV and these grammars seem to define a habitual (customary) present different that the usage in the NASV. The next sources list it only with a helping word. In some cases they have sources not available to this author: James Erwin, "Perfection and Sinlessness: A Survey of Approaches to 1 John 3:6, 9, March 2002. Online posting. 10 March 2003; BKC, pages 894-895; and EJ, pages 143-144 and the footnotes. The next source does not believe the present tense is habitual in the subject verses: Bob Wilkin, "Do Born Again People Sin?" n.d. Online posting. 6 March 2003

41EJ, page 143. Embedded in the quote is a footnote to C. H. Dodd, The Johannine Epistles, HNTC (New York: Harper & Row, 1946), pages 72-73.

42EJ, page144.

43Ibid., pages 152-153. See also Dillow, RSK, p. 173: "In other places in John's epistle, when that phrase stands by itself, as it does here, it means that he is not of God in the sense that the source of his behavior is not of God, not that he is unregenerate. For example, the apostle in reference to the apostolic band says, 'We are of God . . .,' ek tou theou (1 Jn. 4:6). He means their source of authority is God. In a similar way we might say today, 'That man is of God' or 'We really feel this suggestion is of God' or 'It seems evident that this situation is of God (RSK, p. 173).'" Dillow also says in a foot note that this same concept occurs in 1 John 4:1, 3, 6-7.

44W. Günther and H.-G. Link, "Love," NIDNTT, volume 2, pages 538, 546.

45EJ, page 157.

46Ibid., page 158.

47Ibid., page 162.

48Ibid., page 183.

49A&G, page 393.

50EJ, page 197.

51J. Dwight Pentecost, Things to Come, a Study in Biblical Eschatology (Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1958), page 220.

52Ibid., page 223.

53Ibid., pages 220-221.

54Ibid., page 225.

55Hodges, EJ, page 200.

56Ibid., page 201.

57Bruce M. Metzger, The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration (New York: Oxford University Press, 1968), page 101.

58William MacDonald, Believer's Bible Commentary (Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1995), page 2323. EJ, page 218, indicates that Cerinthus also held this false doctrine. See footnote 8, above.

59EJ, page 219.

60Dillow, RSK, page 162.

61John MacArthur Jr., "Tests of Assurance from 1 John Part 3," n.d., online posting, Believers Web, February 24, 2011, "So John writes this epistle then to give us instruction that we might know that our salvation is genuine."  See also John MacArthur, 1, 2, 3 John & Jude (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 2007), page 75: ". . . he wrote this epistle to give believers confidence that they possessed eternal life."