Enjambment Types

The types detected by our automatic enjambment detection system correspond to the typology explained below.

First, the relevant elements of Quilis' (1964) and Spang's (1983) characterization of enjambment are provided.
Then, the enjambment types detected by our system are described. 

Theoretical framework for enjambment typology

The characterization of enjambment we adopted is based on constructs by Quilis (1964) and Spang (1983)

Although other criteria can be considered to characterize enjambment and its types (see Martínez Cantón's 2011 systematic review), the main criterion chosen here is the type of lexical or syntactic units that are "broken up" by a metrical pause. 

Quilis performed recitation experiments, and concluded that enjambment takes place when certain syntactic constituents, or certain part-of-speech sequences, are broken up across a metrical pause, as detailed below. Examples for each case in the typology are in the table below.

  • Phrase-bounded enjambment (encabalgamiento sirremático): It takes place between elements in the same phrase. 
    • noun + adjective
    • noun + prepositional complement modifying the noun
    • verb + adverb
    • article, determiner, clitic, conjunction, correlative adverbs + the element they introduce
    • complex verb tenses, verb chains
    • verb + suplemento (i.e. a lexically determined prepositional complement governed by the verb, known as suplemento or complemento de régimen in Spanish descriptive grammar)
    • adverb + adjective
  • Lexical enjambment (encabalgamiento léxico or tmesis): When it is a word iself that gets broken up by the metrical pause
  • Cross-clause enjambment (encabalgamiento oracional): Takes place when a noun-antecedent and the relative clause attached to it are separated by a metrical pause. 

Besides the syntactic contexts identified by Quilis, Spang noted that, even if the effect is less strong than for the environments identified by Quilis, it can feel unnatural for readers when the subject or direct object do not occur in the same line as their related verb. To distinguish these cases from enjambment itself, Spang referred to these cases as enlace, which we translate as expansion
  • verb + subject expansion
  • verb + direct object expansion

Types detected by our system

The enjambment types detected by the system are described below. 

For each type, the English and Spanish tag are provided, besides the description, a Spanish example, a relatively literal English gloss, and, for cases where the gloss is incomprehensible (e.g. with idioms), a possible English translation. 

In the examples, a poetry-line boundary is indicated with a forward slash, "/". 

 English Tag  Spanish Tag  Description
 Phrase-Bounded Types Tipos Sirremáticos   
 pb_adj_adv  sirrem_adj_adv  The metrical pause separates an adjective from an adverb  modifying it.
 - Example: El hombre siendo siempre muyadv / amableadj volvió el  rostro
 - Gloss: The man being always veryadv / friendlyadj turned his head
 pb_adj_noun  sirrem_adj_noun  The metrical pause separates a noun from an adjective  modifying it.
 - Example: la fama un tiempo resonó y el cultoadj / templonoun     tarpeyo, a quien el indio oculto
Gloss: fame echoed once and the highadj / templenoun of Tarpeia,  to whom the hidden Indian
 pb_adj_prep  sirrem_adj_prep  The metrical pause separates an adjective from the preposition  introducing a complement that modifies this adjective.
 - Example: dibujo locoadj / deprep remate
 - Gloss: drawing crazyadj / ofprep killing
 - Translation: totally crazy drawing
 pb_adv_prep  sirrem_adv_prep  The metrical pause separates an adverb from the preposition  introducing a complement modifying that adverb.
 - Example: nunca estaré lejosadv / deprep ti
Gloss: I will never be faradv / fromprep you
 pb_noun_prep  sirrem_noun_prep  The metrical pause separates a noun from the preposition  introducing a complement that modifies that noun.
 - Example: tronché columnas firmes, derrumbé la techumbrenoun /      deprep  la más alta noche
 - Gloss: I choppped firm columns, demolished the roofnoun /                   ofprep the darkest night
 pb_relword  sirrem_pal-rel  This is a broad category that occurs when the metrical pause  separates an article, determiner, unstressed  pronoun (clitic), a  conjunction or correlative particle from the element that those  words introduce.
 - Example: Geografía amorosa, tierras tan nobles comocorrelative /  [los  muros de aquel templo]noun_phrase donde al atardecer
 - Gloss: Geography of love, a land as noble ascorrelative / [the  walls of that  temple]noun_phrase where at dusk
 pb_verb_adv  sirrem_verb_adv  The metrical pause separates a verb from an adverb modifying  the verb
 - Example: Íbamos en la tarde que caíaverb / rápidamenteadv sobre    los caminos
 - Gloss: We walked as dusk fellverb / quicklyadv on the roads
 pb_verb_cprep  sirrem_verb_supl  The metrical pause separates a verb and a preposition  introducing a lexically determined prepositional argument  governed by that verb (known as  suplemento or complemento de  régimen in Spanish descriptive  grammar)
 - Example: Leíamos la luz y, al leerla, gozábamosverb / [deprep suma  perfección]suplemento
 - Gloss: We read the light and, reading it, we delightedverb /  [inprep   the  supreme perfection]suplemento
 pb_verb_chain  sirrem_perif_verb  The metrical pause separates components of a composed verb  tense, or verb sequences known as perífrasis verbal in Spanish  descriptive grammar, used to express aspectual notions like  progress or termination.
 - Example: Y las violetas ibanverb_1 / quedandoverb_2 en tu regazo        desordenadas, cándidas
 - Gloss: And the violets wentverb_1 / stayingverb_2 in your lap artless,       innocent 
 - Translation: And the violets kept piling up in your lap, artless,               innocent
 Cross-Clause Types Tipos Oracionales   
 cc_crossclause  oracional  The metrical pause separates the relative pronoun introducing a  relative clause from its antecedent.
 - Example: se oculta la avecilla en la enramadanoun /                              [querel_pron azota audaz  el  huracán violento]rel_clause
Gloss: the little bird hides in the boughnoun / [thatrel_pronoun the violent hurricane whips eagerly]rel_clause
 Expansion Types Tipos de Enlaces  
 ex_dobj_verb  enlace_od_verb  The verb and its direct object occur in two different lines.  Example: cuando con rostro cálido esclarecesverb / [la oscura  sombra del nocturno velo]dobj
 Gloss: when with warm countenance you brightenverb / [the dark  shadow  of the nightly veil]dobj
 ex_subj_verb  enlace_subj_verb  The verb and its subject occur in two different lines.
 Example: En el crepúsculo moríaverb / [un desfile de pájaros  marinos]subj
 Gloss: Against the sunset diedverb / [a parade of sea birds]subject
 Lexical Types  Tipos Léxicos  
 tm_tmesis  tmesis  The metrical pause occurs inside a word.
 Example: Y mientras [miserable / mente] se están los otros  abrasando
 Gloss: And while [miser / ably] the rest are roasting