Grouper

Groupers are from the Serranidae family. They are the real sea basses. Members of Serranidae family typically have opercles (gill covers) with three spines; one main spine with a lesser spine above and below. There are 64 genera and approximately 475 species worldwide. Malaysia is represented by 15 genera and approximately 68 species. Groupers can attain up to 3 m maximum length and weights of up to 400 kg.

The name "grouper" comes from the Portuguese name "garoupa" for the fish. In Malaysia and Indonesia, it is called "kerapu". Contrary to their name which suggests the fish stays in group, they are actually the solitary type. Unlike snappers which move in groups, they are intolerant of the same species or other similar fishes. Most species gather together in pairs or aggregations only for spawning. Many species are hermaphrodites, meaning that they can change their sex. They start out as females and change to male at a later stage.

Groupers are mostly demersal (benthic or bottom-oriented) fishes of tropical and subtropical areas, ranging from shallow coastal waters to moderate depths; the great majority of species occur in less than 200 m.They are usually found over coral reefs, and rocky bottoms along the coasts.

Typical groupers have a stout body and a large mouth. They do not have many teeth on the edges of their jaws, but they have heavy crushing tooth palates inside they pharynx. Their mouth and gills form a powerful sucking system that can suck their prey in from a distance. They habitually eat fish, squid, and crustacean. They swallow prey rather than biting pieces of it and that makes them easy to get hook by bait. Normally a squid bait can be used over and over again.

Their coloration and ability to change hues and shades to blend in with their surroundings allow them to camouflage and lie in wait for prey rather than chasing in open water. They will ambush, dash and strike the prey in short distance. Right after they suck the bait, they will normally go into the rocks or structure that is surrounding them. When threatened, they use their mouth to expand their gill covers digging them into rock cave sides to form their shelters. Their gill muscles are so powerful that it is very difficult to pull them out of a cave.




Common Name: Bluespotted Hind
Scientific Name: Cephalopholis cyanostigma   (Valenciennes, 1828)
Mandarin Name: 石斑魚 (Shí bān yú)
Local Malay Name: Kerapu Bintik Biru, Kerapu Karang
Remarks: These groupers were caught in Pulau Tinggi








Common Name: Bluelined Grouper, Bluelined Hind, Bluelined Rockcod
Scientific Name: Cephalopholis formosa  (Shaw, 1812)
Mandarin Name: 石斑魚 (Shí bān yú), 蓝线石斑 (Lán xiàn shí bān)
Local Malay Name: Ikan Kerapu Garis Biru
Local Hokkien: Thee Swa Gau
Local Teochew: Gao Hu
Local Cantonese: Seck Pan






Common Name: Barred Soapfish
Scientific Name: Diploprion bifasciatum  Cuvier, 1828
Local Malay Name: Kerapu Sebekah, Sebekah Laut






Common Name: Areolate Grouper
Scientific Name: Epinephelus areolatus  (Forsskål, 1775)
Mandarin Name: 石斑魚 (Shí bān yú), 西星斑 (Xi xīng bān)
Local Malay Name: Kerapu Ekor Putih, Kerapu Bintik Bulat
Local Hokkien: Koay Gau
Local Teochew: Gao Hu
Local Cantonese: Seck Pan






Common Name: Duskytail Grouper
Scientific Name: Epinephelus bleekeri  (Vaillant, 1878)
Mandarin Name: 石斑魚 (Shí bān yú), 红点油班 (Hóng diǎn yóu bān)
Local Malay Name: Ikan Kerapu Ekor Gelap
Local Hokkien: Koay Gau
Local Teochew: Gao Hu
Local Cantonese: Seck Pan






Common Name: Orange-spotted Grouper, Goldspotted Rockcod, Brownspotted Grouper, Estuary Cod.
Scientific Name: Epinephelus coioides  (Hamilton, 1822)
Mandarin Name: 石斑魚 (Shí bān yú), 红点石斑 (Hóng diǎn shí bān)
Local Malay Name: Ikan Kerapu bintik jingga, Kerapu Pinang, Kerapu Balong, Kerapu Rintek, Kerapu Pakpanang
Local Hokkien: Chia Gau
Remarks: Looks almost like Dusky Tail Grouper. The difference is clear in the tail fin.






Common Name: Coral Grouper
Scientific Name: Epinephelus corallicola (Valenciennes, 1828)
Mandarin Name: 石斑魚 (Shí bān yú)
Local Malay Name: Ikan Kerapu Karang, Kerapu Pisang
Remarks: This grouper is caught in Pulau Tinggi






Common Name: Cloudy Grouper, Cloudy Rockcod,.Garoupa
Scientific Name: Epinephelus erythrurus  (Valenciennes, 1828).
Mandarin Name: 石斑魚 (Shí bān yú), 石头斑 (Shítou bān)
Local Malay Name: Ikan Kerapu Tompok Awan, Kerapu Combat
Local Hokkien: Koay Gau
Local Teochew: Gao Hu
Local Cantonese: Seck Pan






Common Name: Rock Grouper, Red Banded Grouper
Scientific Name: Epinephelus fasciatomaculosus  (Peters, 1865)
Mandarin Name: 石斑魚 (Shí bān yú), 青眼斑 (Qīng yǎn bān)
Local Malay Name: Ikan Kerapu Batu, Tongkah
Local Hokkien: Koay Gau, Gau Hu
Local Teochew: Gao Hu
Local Cantonese: Seck Pan








Common Name: Blacktip Grouper
Scientific Name: Epinephelus fasciatus  (Forsskål, 1775)
Mandarin Name: 石斑魚 (Shí bān yú), 赤石斑鱼 (Chìshí bān yú)
Local Malay Name: Ikan Kerapu Sirip Hitam, Kerapu Merah
Remarks: This grouper was caught in Pulau Tinggi






Common Name: Giant Grouper, Brindlebass, Brown Spotted Cod, Bumblebee Grouper, Queensland Groper
Scientific Name: Epinephelus lanceolatus  (Bloch, 1790)
Mandarin Name: 石斑魚 (Shí bān yú), 鞍帶石斑魚(Ān dài shí bān yú), 龙旦 (Lóng dàn)
Local Malay Name:Ikan Kertang, Kerapu Pertang
Local Cantonese: Long Tan








Common Name: Longfin Grouper
Scientific Name: Epinephelus quoyanus  (Valenciennes, 1830)
Mandarin Name: 石斑魚 (Shí bān yú), 蜜蜂斑 (Mìfēng bān)
Local Malay Name:Ikan Kerapu Cicak, Kerapu Tukul
Local Teochew: Gao Hu
Local Cantonese: Seck Pan






Common Name: Sixbar Grouper, Garoupa
Scientific Name: Epinephelus sexfasciatus  (Valenciennes, 1828)
Mandarin Name: 石斑魚 (Shí bān yú), 糯米石斑 (Nuòmǐ shí bān)
Local Malay Name: Ikan Kerapu Bebeh
Local Hokkien: Koay Gau
Local Teochew: Gao Hu
Local Cantonese: Seck Pan






Common Name: Greasy Grouper, Garoupa
Scientific Name: Epinephelus tauvina  (Forsskål, 1775)
Mandarin Name: 石斑魚 (Shí bān yú), Global - 鱸滑石斑魚(Lú huá shíbānyú)
Local Malay Name: Ikan Kerapu Hitam, Kerapu Bunga
Local Hokkien: Koay GauLocal Teochew: Gao Hu
Local Cantonese: Seck Pan






Common Name: Barcheek Coral Trout, Spotted Coral Grouper
Scientific Name: Plectropomus maculatus  (Bloch, 1790)
Mandarin Name: 石斑魚 (Shí bān yú), 东星斑 (Dōng xīng bān)
Local Malay Name: Ikan Kerapu sunoh pisang, Kerapu Bara
Local Hokkien: Chut Bee Gau, Ang Gau






Common Name: Roving Coral Grouper
Scientific Name: Plectropomus pessuliferus  (Fowler, 1904)
Mandarin Name: 石斑魚 (Shí bān yú), 七星斑 (Qīxīng bān)
Local Malay Name: Ikan Kerapu sunoh pisang, Kerapu Bara
Local Hokkien: Chut Bee Gau, Ang Gau






Common Name: White-edged Lyretail, White-edged Lunartail
Scientific Name: Variola albimarginata  Baissac, 1953
Mandarin Name: 石斑魚 (Shí bān yú), 白缘星鲙 (Bái yuán xīng kuài)
Local Malay Name: Kerapu Sabit Putih





References:

Heemstra. P.C. (2002). Perciformes: Percoidei: Serranidae in: Carpenter, K.E. (ed.). THE LIVING MARINE RESOURCES OF THE WESTERN CENTRAL ATLANTIC Volume 2 Bony fishes part 1 (Acipenseridae to Grammatidae). Rome, FAO. 2002. pp.1308-1369

Mohd Azmi Ambak, Mansor Mat Isa, Mohd Zaidi Zakaria and Mazlan Abd Ghaffar (2010) Fishes of Malaysia. Universiti Malaysia Trengganu, Malaysia. Penerbit UMT.

Family Serranidae - Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets. Fishbase. Available at:
http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/FamilySummary.php?ID=289