Control over nanoscale organization is one of the main challenges of contemporary research. As increasingly complex functions are required, creation of complex functional nanoscale structures is critical. We believe that this challenge can be addressed using unique properties of hydrophobic interactions. In Nature, self-assembly in aqueous medium is responsible for robustness, complexity, and adaptivity, which characterize exceptionally efficient and diverse functionality of biological systems. Hydrophobic interactions play a key role as regards the structural and functional uniqueness of the living organisms. Despite their noncovalent nature, hydrophobic forces can be very strong. At the same time, attenuation of hydrophobicity through various mechanisms can lead to a high degree of adaptivity, resulting in unique structural and functional control.