Personality

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Cortisol & Testosterone & Serotonin  
Oxytocin   
   
                 As mentioned in  Historical Background & Free Book , the book "Personality and Behavior" by Jesse E. Gordon was a very powerful, early influence on my study of psychology.  Although it's more than 50 years old, it's still available online for just a little over $5 .      


Searching Google for "personality" identified 145,000,000 references: 
https://www.google.com/search?q=personality&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8 


Personality psychology - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personality_psychology    
    "Personality psychology is a branch of psychology that studies personality and its variation among individuals. Its areas of focus include:
  • construction of a coherent picture of the individual and their major psychological processes
  • investigation of individual psychological differences
  • investigation of human nature and psychological similarities between individuals

"Personality" is a dynamic[clarification needed] and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely[clarification needed] influences their environment, cognitions, emotions, motivations, and behaviors in various situations. The word "personality" originates from the Latin persona, which means mask.

Personality also refers to the pattern of thoughts, feelings, social adjustments, and behaviors consistently exhibited over time that strongly influences one's expectations, self-perceptions, values, and attitudes. It also predicts human reactions to other people, problems, and stress.[1][2] Gordon Allport (1937) described two major ways to study personality: the nomothetic and the idiographic. Nomothetic psychology seeks general laws that can be applied to many different people, such as the principle of self-actualization or the trait of extraversion. Idiographic psychology is an attempt to understand the unique aspects of a particular individual.

The study of personality has a broad and varied history in psychology with an abundance of theoretical traditions. The major theories include dispositional (trait) perspective, psychodynamic, humanistic, biological, behaviorist, evolutionary, and social learning perspective. However, many researchers and psychologists do not explicitly identify themselves with a certain perspective and instead take an eclectic approach. Research in this area is empirically driven, such as dimensional models, based on multivariate statistics, such as factor analysis, or emphasizes theory development, such as that of the psychodynamic theory. There is also a substantial emphasis on the applied field of personality testing. In psychological education and training, the study of the nature of personality and its psychological development is usually reviewed as a prerequisite to courses in abnormal psychology or clinical psychology.

Contents


Searching PubMed for "personality" identified 380,047 references:
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=personality   

Searching PubMed for "personality physiology " identified 59,684 references:  
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=personality+physiology   

Searching PubMed for "personality endocrinology " originally identified 711 references. 
This later rose, first to 714 , and then to 719.      
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=personality+endocrinology   

1986    706<719 
Psychosomatic medicine: past and present. Part III. Current research. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3948100    
    "Special emphasis is given to the most prominent areas of investigation, i.e. psychophysiology, psychoendocrinology, psychoimmunology, and studies of the impact of stressful life events on health."  
   
1989    693<719 
Vasotocin improves intelligence and attention in mentally retarded children.  
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2634261    
    "Since there was a significant inverse correlation between the pretreatment levels of the IQ and attention scores and their increase after AVT, and since the AVT effects tend to be more intense in autistic children, we hypothesize that the more affected the attention mechanisms, the more they are sensitive to AVT."  
    81 Similar articles
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?linkname=pubmed_pubmed&from_uid=2634261   

1993    679<719 
Short-lasting behavioural effects of thyrotropin-releasing hormone in depressed women: results of placebo-controlled study. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8416053    
    "These findings suggest that TRH has rapid positive effects on depression and that they depend more on patients' emotional state than on the function of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis."  
    130 Similar articles
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?linkname=pubmed_pubmed&from_uid=8416053   

1995    675<719   
Long-term effects of L-thyroxine therapy for congenital hypothyroidism. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7869196       
    "A higher starting dose of L-thyroxine is beneficial for subsequent intellectual outcome in children with congenital hypothyroidism but may be associated with internalizing behavior problems."  

1998    652<719 
Emotional aspects of hyperprolactinemia. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9667060    
    "(1) prolactin acts upon the central nervous system and variations in its concentrations do affect mood, emotions and behavior; (2) most actions of prolactin are directed to metabolical and behavioral adaptation to pregnancy and the care of the young;" 

*1999    648<719   
The biology of human parenting: insights from nonhuman primates. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9989428    
    "A review of recent findings of primate research on the neurobiological regulation of parental responsiveness, the causes of variability in parenting styles, and the determinants of infant abuse suggests that primate parenting is more sensitive to neuroendocrine mechanisms than previously thought."  
    98 Similar articles
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?linkname=pubmed_pubmed&from_uid=9989428   

*2003    587<719   
Pediatric stress: hormonal mediators and human development. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12649570    
    " The principal effectors of the stress system are corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), arginine vasopressin, the proopiomelanocortin-derived peptides alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and beta-endorphin, the glucocorticoids, and the catecholamines norepinephrine and epinephrine."  
    358 Similar articles:   
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?linkname=pubmed_pubmed&from_uid=12649570   
    62 Cited by's
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?linkname=pubmed_pubmed_citedin&from_uid=12649570   

2003    575<719   
Serum cholesterol and impulsivity in a large sample of healthy young men. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14561435    
    "Taken together, these findings suggest that, in healthy young men, a relationship between cholesterol and impulsivity emerges only when the statistical analysis focuses on subjects with very low levels of cholesterol."  

2003    578<719   
Natural variations in maternal care are associated with estrogen receptor alpha expression and estrogen sensitivity in the medial preoptic area.   
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12959970    
    "These findings suggest that natural variations in maternal care are associated with differences in ER alpha expression in the MPOA and that such differences are transmitted from the mother to her female offspring."  

2004    576<719   
Repeated exposure to social stress has long-term effects on indirect markers of dopaminergic activity in brain regions associated with motivated be...  
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14980394    
    "These findings suggest that natural variations in maternal care are associated with differences in ER alpha expression in the MPOA and that such differences are transmitted from the mother to her female offspring."  

2004    566<719   
Effects of testosterone on mood, aggression, and sexual behavior in young men: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study.  
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15181066        
    "TU treatment did not increase aggressive behavior or induce any changes in nonaggressive or sexual behavior."  

2005    556<719 
Gender differences in testosterone and cortisol response to competition.  
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15358443    
    "Inter-individual differences in testosterone and cortisol were differentially associated with social affiliation with teammates but rarely with dominance or competitiveness."  

2005    549<719    
   
The effects of iodine on intelligence in children: a meta-analysis of studies conducted in China. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15734706    
    "The intelligence damage of children exposed to severe ID was profound, demonstrated by 12.45 IQ points loss and they recovered 8.7 IQ points with iodine supplementation or IS before and during pregnancy."  

2005   548<719   
Dehydroepiandrosterone monotherapy in midlife-onset major and minor depression. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15699292    
    "We find DHEA to be an effective treatment for midlife-onset major and minor depression."     

2005    526<719 
Influence of timing and dose of thyroid hormone replacement on mental, psychomotor, and behavioral development in children with congenital hypothyr...  
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16356429    
    "Overtreatment may advance cognitive development in 5-1/2- to 7-year-olds."  

2006    507<719 
Salivary alpha-amylase response to competition: relation to gender, previous experience, and attitudes. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16624493      
    "Regression analyses revealed that alpha-amylase reactivity explained individual differences in dominance and team bonding above and beyond that associated with cortisol reactivity, and that joint inactivation in alpha-amylase and cortisol reactivity to competition (low-low) was associated with high perceived dominance."  

2006    501<719   
Altered coordination of the neuroendocrine response during psychosocial stress in subjects with high trait anxiety.   
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16690188    
    "Factor analysis revealed that one common factor grouped blood pressure, catecholamine concentrations in blood and heart rate in non-anxious subjects, while three distinct factors separated these parameters in anxious subjects."  
   
2009    444<719   Free PMC Article   
Insulin, leptin, and food reward: update 2008. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18945945    
    "The hormones insulin and leptin have been demonstrated to act in the central nervous system (CNS) as regulators of energy homeostasis at medial hypothalamic sites."  

2009    443<719      Free PMC Article   
Can sustained arousal explain the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome? 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19236717    
    "We suggest that sustained arousal can originate from different precipitating factors (infections, psychosocial challenges) interacting with predisposing factors (genetic traits, personality) and learned expectancies (classical and operant conditioning)."  

*2009    426<719     
Free full text   
Hypothalamic orexin stimulates feeding-associated glucose utilization in skeletal muscle via sympathetic nervous system   
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19945404    
    "Orexin and its receptor in VMH thus play a key role in the regulation of muscle glucose metabolism associated with highly motivated behavior by activating muscle sympathetic nerves and beta(2)-adrenergic signaling."  

**2010    421<719 
The endocrinology of exclusion: rejection elicits motivationally tuned changes in progesterone. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20424105   
    118 Similar articles
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?linkname=pubmed_pubmed&from_uid=20424105   
    7 Cited by's
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?linkname=pubmed_pubmed_citedin&from_uid=20424105 

2010    420<719    Free PMC Article   
Individual differences in reactivity to social stress predict susceptibility and resilience to a depressive phenotype: role of corticotropin-releas... 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20160137      
    "Together, these data suggest that inherent differences in stress reactivity, perhaps as a result of differences in CRF regulation, may predict long-term consequences of social stress and vulnerability to depressive-like symptoms."  

***2010    413<719 
Neuroendocrinology of coping styles: towards understanding the biology of individual variation. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20382177   
    "The neurobiology reveals important differences in the homeostatic control of the serotonergic neuron and the neuropeptides vasopressin and Oxytocin in relation to coping style."  

***2010    410<719   
Personality in nonhuman primates: a review and evaluation of past research. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20568079    
    "When measured at the level of broad dimensions, Extraversion and Dominance generally demonstrated the highest levels of inter-rater reliability, with weaker findings for the dimensions of Agreeableness, Emotionality, and Conscientiousness."  

2011    367<719   
Effects of intranasal
Oxytocin on 'compassion focused imagery'.  
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21707149       
    "Participants higher in self-criticism, lower in self-reassurance, social safeness, and attachment security had less positive experiences of CFI under Oxytocin than placebo, indicating that the effects of Oxytocin on affiliation may depend on attachment and self-evaluative styles."  

2012    364<719    Free PMC Article   
Endogenous testosterone levels are associated with assessments of unfavourable health information.  
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22348295    
    "This study provides preliminary evidence that individual differences in assessments of threatening health information may be associated with neurobiological characteristics."  

**2012    362<719      Free PMC Article   
Ghrelin influences novelty seeking behavior in rodents and men. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23227170   
    "This study provides the first evidence for a role of ghrelin in novelty seeking behavior in animals and humans, and also points to an association between food reward and novelty seeking in rodents."  

2012    361<719  
Distinct dopaminergic personality patterns in patients with prolactinomas: a comparison with nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma patients and age- and...  
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22343218    
    "Personality patterns such as extraversion and novelty seeking have been associated with an altered dopaminergic activity in healthy subjects."  

*2012    354<719   
Ghrelin interacts with neuropeptide Y Y1 and opioid receptors to increase food reward. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22210742   
    "Thus, we identify central NPY and opioid signaling as the necessary mediators of food intake and reward effects of ghrelin and localize these interactions to the mesolimbic VTA."  


***2012    353<719   
The animal and human neuroendocrinology of social cognition, motivation and behavior. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22504348   
    "Extensive animal and recent human research have helped inform neuroendocrinological models of social cognition, motivation and behavior.  
    In this review, we first summarize important findings regarding
Oxytocin, arginine vasopressin and testosterone in the domains of affiliation, social cognition, aggression and stress/anxiety. We then suggest ways in which human research can continue to profit from animal research, particularly by exploring the interactive nature of neuromodulatory effects at neurochemical, organismic and contextual levels.  
    We further propose methods inspired by the animal literature for the ecologically valid assessment of affiliative behavior in humans. We conclude with suggestions for how human research could advance by directly assessing specific social cognitive and motivational mechanisms as intermediate variables. We advocate a more comprehensive look at the distinct networks identified by social neuroscience and the importance of a motivational state, in addition to approach and avoidance, associated with quiescence and homeostatic regulation"  
    114 Similar articles
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?linkname=pubmed_pubmed&from_uid=22504348      
    51 Cited by's
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?linkname=pubmed_pubmed_citedin&from_uid=22504348 

2012    350<719    Free Article      
Cognitive impairment and psychopathology in patients with pituitary diseases. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22859416    
    "This review aims to address the effects of the treatment of pituitary disease on quality of life and neuropsychological functioning."  

2013    338<719      Free Article   
Increased prevalence of anxiety-associated personality traits in patients with Cushing's disease: a cross-sectional study.  
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22572774    
    "Patients with CD showed a distinct pattern of personality traits associated with high anxiety in combination with traits of low externalizing behaviour."   

*2013    324<719   
Endocrinology of sociality: comparisons between sociable and solitary individuals within the same population of African striped mice. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23648775    
    "Striped mice of both sexes had significantly lower corticosterone levels after switching from group- to solitary-living. Solitary males - but not solitary females - had higher testosterone levels than group-living conspecifics. Our results suggest that group-living results in physiological stress and can induce reproductive suppression, at least in philopatric males. The switch to solitary-living may thus be a tactic to avoid reproductive competition within groups, and is associated with decreased stress hormone levels and onset of independent reproduction."  

2014    256<719 
Testosterone across successive competitions: evidence for a 'winner effect' in humans? 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25001950    
    "Results are discussed within a comparative perspective, drawing parallels with the winner effect and the challenge hypothesis observed in non-human animals. "  

*2015    225<719 
Increased serum prolactin in borderline personality disorder. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25930735    
    "In addition to somatic symptoms, acromegalic patients demonstrate psychosocial and personality deficits, as well as common co-occurrence of mental disorders."  

2015    222<719      Free Article   
The quality of life and psychological, social and cognitive functioning of patients with acromegaly. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25923102    
    "In addition to somatic symptoms, acromegalic patients demonstrate psychosocial and personality deficits, as well as common co-occurrence of mental disorders."  

***2015    198<719    Free PMC Article   
Oxytocin tempers calculated greed but not impulsive defense in predator-prey contests. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25140047    
    "Thus, whereas oxytocin does not incapacitate the impulsive ability to protect and defend oneself, it lowers the greedy and more calculated appetite for coming out ahead. "   

***2015    197<719   
Increased testosterone levels and cortisol awakening responses in patients with borderline personality disorder: gender and trait aggressiveness ma...  
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25796037    
    "The results revealed increased saliva testosterone levels in female and male patients with BPD as well as elevated cortisol awakening responses in female, but not male patients with BPD compared to healthy volunteers. Cortisol awakening responses were positively related to anger and aggressiveness in female patients with BPD, but no associations were found with testosterone levels."   

*2015    179<719      Free Article    
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS) and emotional processing - A behavioral and electrophysiological approach.  
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26122298    
    "Furthermore, higher DHEAS/DHEA ratios were related to reduced processing of negative emotional stimuli which may eventually constitute a protective mechanism against negative information overload."  

2015    157<719   
Adult attachment style is associated with cerebral μ-opioid receptor availability in humans. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26046928    
    "Our results suggest that the endogenous opioid system may underlie interindividual differences in avoidant attachment style in human adults, and that differences in MOR availability are associated with the individuals' social relationships and psychosocial well-being."  

2015    152<719   
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia and risk for psychiatric disorders in girls and women born between 1915 and 2010: A total population study.    
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26184920    
    "A statistically significant positive correlation was found between BMI and irritable temperament, and insulin and HADS depression scores in patients with PCOS."  

2015    150<719 
Evaluation of affective temperament and anxiety-depression levels of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.   
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26241866    
    "A statistically significant positive correlation was found between BMI and irritable temperament, and insulin and HADS depression scores in patients with PCOS."  

****2015    128>719   
Salivary
Oxytocin in adolescents with conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits.  
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26433370    
    Abstract
    "Callous-unemotional (CU) traits correlate with the severity and prognosis of conduct disorder in youth. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has been linked to prosocial behaviors, including empathy and collaboration with others. This study discusses a possible role for OT in the biology of delinquent behavior.
    We hypothesized that in delinquent youth OT secretion will correlate with the severity of conduct problems and specifically with the level of CU traits.  
    The study group included 67 male adolescents (mean age 16.2 years) undergoing residential treatment, previously assessed by an open clinical interview and history for the psychiatric diagnosis. Staff based Inventory of Callous-Unemotional traits for psychopathy and Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire were administered, and patients’ medical and social personal files were systematically coded for previous history of antisocial acts using the Brown-Goodwin Questionnaire. Salivary OT was assayed by ELISA.  
    Salivary OT levels were inversely correlated with conduct problems severity on Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (r = −0.27; p ≤ 0.01). Recorded history of antisocial acts did not correlate with current OT levels. Odds ratio (OR) for significant CU traits among subjects with conduct problems was increased in low-OT (OR = 14, p ≤ 0.05) but not in high-OT subjects (OR = 6, p ≥ 0.05).  
    Children with conduct problems and low levels of salivary OT are at risk for significant CU traits. These results suggest a possible role for salivary OT as a biomarker for CU traits and conduct problems severity.
    Abbreviations
BGQ    Brown Goodwin questionnaire    
CD       Conduct disorder    
CP       Conduct problems   
CU       Callous-unemotional   
ICU      Inventory of callous-unemotional traits   
OT       Oxytocin   
OXTR  Oxytocin receptor   
SDQ    Strength and difficulties questionnaire   
SNP     Single nucleotide polymorphism 
    280 Similar articles:   
and 
    1 Cited by:
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27734260

*2016     83<719   
Cortisol and testosterone associations with social network dynamics.  
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26836773    
    "This study integrates behavioral endocrinology and network science to explore links between hormones and social network dynamics. Specifically, we examine how cortisol (C) and testosterone (T) are associated with creation of new friendships and maintenance of existing friendships"   

2016    76<719 
Glucocorticoids  mediate stress-induced impairment of retrieval of stimulus-response memory. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26923851    
    " These findings show that stress may affect memory processes beyond the hippocampus and that these stress effects are due to the action of glucocorticoids. "  

2016    69<719   
The Impact of Parental Personality on Birth Outcomes: A Prospective Cohort Study.  
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27331908    
    "We found that specific parental personality traits can be associated with birth outcomes."  

2016    52<719    Free PMC Article   
Oxytocin's inhibitory effect on food intake is stronger in obese than normal-weight men. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27553712    
    "Animal studies and pilot experiments in men indicate that the hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin limits food intake, and raise the question of its potential to improve metabolic control in obesity."  

*2016    51<719   
Enduring Changes in Decision Making in Patients with Full Remission from Anorexia Nervosa. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27578322    
    "Deficits in neuropsychological functioning have consistently been identified in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN)."  

2016    40<719    Free PMC Article   
Type II diabetes and personality; a study to explore other psychosomatic aspects of diabetes. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27981040    
    "According to data, Extraversion and conscientiousness can help control blood sugar while anxiety and negative emotions have detrimental effects on glycemic control."  

**2017    34>719   
Pathway- and Cell-Specific Kappa-Opioid Receptor Modulation of Excitation-Inhibition Balance Differentially Gates D1 and D2 Accumbens Neuron Activity.  
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28056342    
    "In conclusion, we describe a circuit-based mechanism showing differential gating of afferent control of D1 and D2 MSN activity by KORs in a pathway-specific manner."  


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