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Psychophysiology


Searching Google for "psychophysiology" located 845,000 references: 
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Psychophysiology - Wikipedia 
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychophysiology   
    "Psychophysiology  is the branch of psychology that is concerned with the physiological bases of psychological processes.[1] While psychophysiology was a general broad field of research in the 1960s and 1970s, it has now become quite specialized, and has branched into subspecializations such as
    social psychophysiology,  
    cardiovascular psychophysiology,  
    cognitive psychophysiology, and
    cognitive neuroscience
Contents  
    1 Background
     2 Measures
     3 Uses
     4 Emotion 
    "It has long been recognized that emotional episodes are partly constituted by physiological responses.[9] Early work done linking emotions to psychophysiology started with research on mapping consistent autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses to discrete emotional states. For example, anger might be constituted by a certain set of physiological responses, such as increased cardiac output and high diastolic blood pressure, which would allow us to better understand patterns and predict emotional responses. 
     Some studies were able to detect consistent patterns of ANS responses that corresponded to specific emotions under certain contexts, like an early study by Paul Ekman and colleagues in 1983:  
    “Emotion-specific activity in the autonomic nervous system was generated by constructing facial prototypes of emotion muscle by muscle and by reliving past emotional experiences. The autonomic activity produced distinguished not only between positive and negative emotions, but also among negative emotions”.[10]  
    However, as more studies were conducted, more variability was found in ANS responses to discrete emotion inductions, not only among individuals but also over time in the same individuals, and greatly between social groups.[11] Some of these differences can be attributed to variables like induction technique, context of the study, or classification of stimuli, which can alter a perceived scenario or emotional response. However it was also found that features of the participant could also alter ANS responses.
    Factors such as
        basal level of arousal at the time of experimentation or between test recovery,    
        learned or conditioned responses to certain stimuli,
        range and maximal level of effect of ANS action, and 
        individual attentiveness
can all alter physiological responses in a lab setting.[12]  
     Even supposedly discrete emotional states fail to show specificity. For example, some emotional typologists consider fear to have subtypes, which might involve fleeing or freezing, both of which can have distinct physiological patterns and potentially distinct neural circuitry.[13] As such no definitive correlation can be drawn linking specific autonomic patterns to discrete emotions, causing emotion theorists to rethink classical definitions of emotions."
     5 Psychophysiological inference and physiological computer games
     6 See also
     7 References 


Searching PubMed for "emotions physiology" found 64,770 references"
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=emotions+physiology   

Searching PubMed for "emotions endocrine system" found 2,052 references" 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=emotions+endocrine+system       

1951    2027<2052 
A psychosomatic approach to the climacteric.  
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14821818  
   
Two major aspects of the climacteric in women are endocrinological changes with their effects upon the sympathetic nervous system, and psychological factors leading to anxiety with its effect upon the sympathetic nervous system. Depending upon the circumstances in each case, the interruption of the vicious cycle thereby established may require hormonal therapy, psychotherapy, or both. The mere correction of hormonal imbalance may fall far short of effective treatment. 
   
Free PMC Article   



Psychophysiology  MDF 
170819 - 1824 











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