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Sadism

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04-28-16                  

Unlike the fatherless boys I considered in   Boys without Fathers  ,  my mother was more Aggressive  than Impulsive  , so I'm going to try to apply what I learned about the endocrinology of the Aggression  exhibited by fatherless boys to my mother's Sadism  while ignoring the fatherless boys'  Impulsivity .   
    
                                                           
Up until now, the references I've found for  My Dysfunctional Family  have been almost entirely descriptive.  They've described symptoms and life events without asking about the underlying physiology.  In contrast, most of the references reported in Boys without Fathers  are firmly rooted in physiology.  Since the aggression discussed in   Boys without Fathers  seems similar to the aggression discussed in Sadism  I'm going to assume that they have similar underlying physiologies and copy the references which seem relevant from Boys without Fathers to Sadism .    



Searching PubMed for "Sadism" revealed 635 references .   
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=sadism   

Searching Google for "Sadism" revealed 1,030,000 references: 
https://www.google.com/search?q=sadism&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8        

Sadism - Wikipedia 
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sadism  
"Sadism may refer to: 
    Sadomasochism, consenting partners willingly engaging in aspects of pain or humiliation for sexual pleasure. Also, BDSM
    Sadistic personality disorder, obsolete term proposed for individuals who derive pleasure from the suffering of others.
        Also Antisocial personality disorder.
    Sexual sadism disorder, medical/psychological condition for sexual arousal from inflicting pain/humiliation on unwilling, non-consenting victims."  
    My comment
Of the three or four subtopics listed above, the subtopic I found most interesting, "Sadistic personality disorder" ,  is now considered "obsolete" by Wikipedia.  However:     


Searching Google for "Sadistic personality disorder" discovered 173,000 references: 
https://www.google.com/search?q=Sadistic+personality+disorder&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8

so let's see what else Wikipedia has to say on the topic.  

Sadistic personality disorder - Wikipedia   
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sadistic_personality_disorder      
    "Sadistic personality disorder is a personality disorder diagnosis involving sadism which appeared in an appendix of the revised third edition of the APA's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III-R).[1] The later versions of the DSM (DSM-IV, DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5) do not include it."  
     Contents  
1 Definition
2 Comorbidity with other personality disorders
3 Removal from the DSM
4 Subclinical sadism in personality psychology
5 See also
6 References
7 External links     

1 Definition
     Sadism involves gaining pleasure from seeing others undergo discomfort or pain. The opponent-process theory explains the way in which individuals not only display, but also take enjoyment in committing sadistic acts.[2][clarification needed] Individuals possessing sadistic personalities tend to display recurrent aggression and cruel behavior.[3][4] Sadism can also include the use of emotional cruelty, purposefully manipulating others through the use of fear, and a preoccupation with violence.[5]
     Theodore Millon claimed there were four subtypes of sadism, which he termed Enforcing sadism, Explosive sadism, Spineless sadism, and Tyrannical sadism.[6][7][8]   


2 Comorbidity with other personality disorders    
   Sadistic Personality Disorder is found to occur in unison with other personality disorders. Studies have also found that sadistic personality disorder is the personality disorder with the highest level of comorbidity to other types of psychopathological disorders.[5] In contrast, sadism has also been found in patients who do not display any or other forms of psychopathic disorders.[9] One personality disorder that is often found to occur alongside sadistic personality disorder is conduct disorder, not an adult disorder but one of childhood and adolescence.[5] Studies have found other types of illnesses, such as alcoholism, to have a high rate of comorbidity with sadistic personality disorder.[10]
    Researchers have had some level of difficulty distinguishing sadistic personality disorder from other forms of personality disorders due to its high level of comorbidity with other disorders.[5]


3 Removal from the DSM
    Numerous theorists and clinicians introduced Sadistic Personality Disorder to the DSM in 1987 and it was placed in the DSM-III-R as a way to facilitate further systematic clinical study and research. It was proposed to be included because of adults who possessed sadistic personality traits but were not being labeled, even though their victims were being labeled with a self-defeating personality disorder.[11]  
    Theorists like Theodore Millon wanted to generate further study on SPD, and so proposed it to the DSM-IV Personality Disorder Work Group, who rejected it.[6]  

looking more closely:   

    Searching Google for "DSM-IV Personality Disorder Work Group sadism" discovered 12,500 references:
    https://www.google.com/search?q=+DSM-IV+Personality+Disorder+Work+Group&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8#q=DSM-IV+Personality+Disorder+Work+Group+sadism    


4 Subclinical sadism in personality psychology   
   
There is renewed interest in studying sadism as a non-disordered personality trait.[4][12] Everyday sadism joins with subclinical psychopathy, narcissism, and Machiavellianism to form the so-called "dark tetrad" of personality.[4][13] 

See also

Antisocial personality disorder
Evil Genes
Malignant narcissism
Psychopathy
Sadism and masochism
Schadenfreude
Self-defeating personality disorder (masochistic personality disorder)
Sexual sadism disorder
Zoosadism  


Since we've been given a list of related topics, let's see what they say:

Antisocial personality disorder

   Antisocial personality disorder (also known as dissocial personality disorder, psychopathy, and sociopathy) is a personality disorder, characterized by a pervasive pattern of disregard for, or violation of, the rights of others. An impoverished moral sense or conscience is often apparent, as well as a history of crime, legal problems, and/or impulsive and aggressive behavior.[1]

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is the name of the disorder as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM). Dissocial personality disorder is the name of a similar or equivalent concept defined in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), where it states that the diagnosis includes antisocial personality disorder. Both manuals have similar but not identical criteria for diagnosing the disorder.[2] Both have also stated that their diagnoses have been referred to, or include what is referred to, as psychopathy or sociopathy, but distinctions have been made between the conceptualizations of antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy, with many researchers arguing that psychopathy is a disorder that overlaps with but is distinguishable from ASPD.[3][4][5][6][7] 

Contents (for ASPD) 



Since I'm interested in physiology, the sub-sub-topic which interests me the most is: 
  • 3.1 Hormones and neurotransmitters 

    "Traumatic events can lead to a disruption of the standard development of the central nervous system, which can generate a release of hormones that can change normal patterns of development.[26] Aggressiveness and impulsivity are among the possible symptoms of ASPD. Testosterone (
    Criminal Testosterone ) is a hormone that plays an important role in aggressiveness in the brain.[27] For instance, criminals who have committed violent crimes tend to have higher levels of testosterone than the average person.[27] The effect of testosterone is counteracted by cortisol (Criminal Cortisol ) which facilitates the cognitive control on impulsive tendencies.[27]

    One of the neurotransmitters that have been discussed in individuals with ASPD is serotonin (
    Criminal Serotonin), also known as 5HT.[26] A meta-analysis of 20 studies found significantly lower 5-HIAA levels (indicating lower serotonin levels), especially in those who are younger than 30 years of age.[28]

    J.F.W. Deakin of University of Manchester's Neuroscience and Psychiatry Unit has discussed additional evidence of a connection between 5HT (serotonin) and ASPD. Deakin suggests that low cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of 5-HIAA, and hormone responses to 5HT, have displayed that the two main ascending 5HT pathways mediate adaptive responses to post and current conditions. He states that impairments in the posterior 5HT cells can lead to low mood functioning, as seen in patients with ASPD. It is important to note that the dysregulated serotonergic function may not be the sole feature that leads to ASPD but it is an aspect of a multifaceted relationship between biological and psychosocial factors.[citation needed]

    While it has been shown that lower levels of serotonin may be associated with ASPD, there has also been evidence that decreased serotonin function is highly correlated with impulsiveness and aggression across a number of different experimental paradigms. Impulsivity is not only linked with irregularities in 5HT metabolism but may be the most essential psychopathological aspect linked with such dysfunction.[29] Correspondingly, the DSM classifies "impulsivity or failure to plan ahead" and "irritability and aggressiveness" as two of seven sub-criteria in category A of the diagnostic criteria of ASPD.[8]

    Some studies have found a relationship between monoamine oxidase A and antisocial behavior, including conduct disorder and symptoms of adult ASPD, in maltreated children.[citation needed] " *
    My comment
The relationship between   SerotoninTestosterone   and aggression is discussed in Boys without Fathers  .   I need to copy some of those references to this discussion.  Criminal Hormones      Criminal Cortisol    Criminal Serotonin    Criminal Testosterone   





Some of the references for  Aggression 

Criminal Hormones   
    "
There are three different human characteristics being considered here:  "Impulsive", "Aggressive" and "criminal".  Although the three are not exactly the same, much criminality is impulsive and/or aggressive and much impulsivity and/or aggression is criminal, so, for the time being, I'm considering them together.  After I've done more reading and become more sophisticated, I may try to consider each of them separately.  "      


Criminal Testosterone  
    "Inmates who had committed personal crimes of sex and violence had higher Testosterone levels than inmates who had committed property crimes of burglary, theft, and drugs."   


Criminal Serotonin      
    "Recidivists who committed a new violent offense or arson had significantly lower Cerebrospinal Fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and homovanillic acid (HVA) concentrations and blood Glucose nadirs after oral glucose challenge than did nonrecidivists."  
   "Pharmacological challenges pinpoint 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(1B) receptors as key players in the modulation of offensive aggression."       


Criminal Cortisol  
    "A negative relationship between the magnitude of behavioral deviation and  Cortisol level has been observed in adults"      
    " Cortisol concentration showed a significant negative correlation with the child’s Conduct Disorder (CD) symptom count."   


Criminal Vasopressin    
    "Together, our results indicate that dopamine and vasopressin in the anterior hypothalamus (AH) may be involved in the regulation of enduring aggression associated with pair bonding in male prairie voles."  


Criminal Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone   
    "Abusive mothers had significantly higher CSF concentrations of CRH and 5-HIAA than controls."  
My comment
    "The results of this study are contrary to what one would expect from the results reported in   Testosterone & Serotonin  where a correlation was found between decreased  5-HIAA  and increased impulsivity."  


Criminal Testosterone & Serotonin    
    "The Serotonin function was inversely correlated more strongly with Impulsivity than with Aggression. Plasma Testosterone correlated positively with aggressive acts."   



Criminal Cortisol & Testosterone   
    "The delinquent group, which was characterized by flamboyant dress, drug use, and violence, had significantly higher Testosterone levels than the college students did, but the two groups did not differ regarding  Cortisol levels."      


Criminal Testosterone & Vasopressin       
    "Testosterone facilitates the onset of offensive aggression, at least partly, through an activation of Arginine Vasopressin receptors within the ventrolateral hypothalamus." 


Cortisol, Testosterone & Dominance   
    "It has been established that subordinate males have reduced serum Testosterone (T) and higher Corticosterone (CORT) relative to Dominant and singly housed control males."


Criminal Vasopressin & Serotonin      
    "Central Arginine Vasopressin may play a role in enhancing, while Serotonin plays a role in inhibiting, aggressive behavior in personality-disordered individuals. 


Criminal Testosterone, Serotonin & ACTH     
    "Alcoholic, impulsive offenders with antisocial personality disorder had low mean  Cerebrospinal Fluid  (CSF) 5-hydroxyindoleaceticacid (5-HIAA) and corticotropin ( ACTH ) levels and high mean CSF Testosterone concentrations.   


Criminal CRH & Vasopressin   
    "These experiments show that the behavioural effects of CRF and arginine  Vasopressin (AVP) on social interaction have different profiles, and that the effects of each peptide differ when it is given into the ventricles (See:  Ventricular System ) or directly into the Amygdala . There is also clear evidence for synergistic effects of the two peptides on behavior after infusion by either route."   


Rodent AVP, 5-HT and Aggression     
    "Animal studies show that arginine vasopressin facilitates aggression, while serotonin (5-HT) inhibits aggression by blocking the activity of the vasopressin system.    






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