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Emotional Habits

Cross references:     
Boys without Fathers   Subcortical Brain 
Brain of the Tiger Salamander  
Herrick Update  
  Early Behavior  
Personality       Human Asymmetry   

    Searching Google for "emotional habits" found 11,300,000 references: 

    Searching PubMed for "emotional habits" found 1,463 to 1,495   references:

    Searching Google (?Yahoo?) for "PubMed/19621433" yielded many but an unspecified number of references including:   
    Habits of the heart: life history and the developmental ...

    I no longer remember the search terms for the two PubMed searches, above, which span 120 and 138 references respectively.  

The references for this topic are in chronological order taken from three different sources .   The format for the listed references is:  

        Year   -    Sequence   -    Subject 
        To see particular references, use the "Find" command on the "Sequence" tag. 

1967    -   1437<1463   -    Dependency     
    The generalization of dependency behavior from mother to stranger. 
No abstract available, but an interesting topic. 
105 Similar articles

1990     -    19<138        -     Formation of Anger  
    On the formation and regulation of anger and aggression. A cognitive-neoassociationistic analysis. 
"Negative affect tends to activate ideas, memories, and expressive-motor reactions associated with anger and aggression as well as rudimentary angry feelings."      
    "Experimental findings are also reported indicating that attention to one's negative feelings can lead to a regulation of the overt effects of the negative affect,"  

1992     -    117<120      -    Basic Emotions 
   Basic emotions, relations among emotions, and emotion-cognition relations. 
 "They argued that the so-called basic emotions were neither psychologically or biologically "primitive" nor "irreducible building blocks" for generating the "great variety of emotional experiences." In the biosocial theory tradition, researchers have identified multiple noncognitive activators of emotion and demonstrated the usefulness of defining the essential components of emotion as phenomena that do not require cognitive mediators or constituents.  
    In this framework, emotions are seen as basic because their biological and social functions are essential in evolution and adaptation. Particular emotions are called basic because they are assumed to have innate neural substrates, innate and universal expressions, and unique feeling-motivational states."   
    My bias
    emotion = right hemisphere
    cognition = left hemisphere
1992     -    117<120      
       Human Asymmetry       
37 Cited by's
    (1992     -    117<120}        

1994     -   116<120      -     Adrenocortical activity
     Adrenocortical activity and emotion regulation. 
"The body of research concerning the psychobiology of the HPA system strongly suggests that associations between emotion regulation styles and HPA activity are not merely correlations, that they do indeed reflect potential causal connections."
    HPA Axis      
    My bias
    emotion = right hemisphere       
    cognition = left hemisphere

1997    20<138 
Psychophysiology of anger and violent behavior. 
"These studies provide some initial support for underarousal in proactive/instrumental aggression and overarousal in emotional aggression."      

1998 114<120  
    Stress, memory, and emotion: developmental considerations from the study of child maltreatment. 
"The point of departure for this discussion is the study of maltreated children whose traumatic experiences have been linked to difficulties in emotional development."   
    "It is argued that maltreated children's association of affective stimuli with traumatic experiences and memories selectively alters the meaning of emotions for these children." 
110 Similar Articles
10 Cited by's
My comment:   
     These references may be especially relevant to the very cruel sexual abuse inflicted on my mother over many years starting when she was very young. 

    See:    Childhood Maltreatment   HPA Axis  

2002    984<1463 
Habits in everyday life: thought, emotion, and action 

"When participants were engaged in habitual behavior, defined as behavior that had been performed almost daily in stable contexts, they were likely to think about issues unrelated to their behavior, presumably because they did not have to consciously guide their actions. When engaged in nonhabitual behavior, or actions performed less often or in shifting contexts, participants' thoughts tended to correspond to their behavior, suggesting that thought was necessary to guide action."   
    103 Similar Articles

 2005    107<120   
Ancient origins of human developmental plasticity. 
"Considerable evidence now supports the view that the secretion of hormones critical to development (corticosteroid and thyroid hormones) is controlled by a common neuroendocrine stress pathway involving Corticotropin-releasing factor family (CRF)  and related peptides. CRF produced in the hypothalamus stimulates the biosynthesis and secretion of both thyroid and corticosteroid hormones, leading to accelerated tadpole metamorphosis. Similarly, in mammals CRF of fetal and placental origin has been shown to influence the timing of birth. Studies in several experimental animal models and in humans show that early life experience can have long-term phenotypic consequences."  
    "Furthermore, there is evidence that phenotypic expression is strongly influenced by the actions of stress hormones produced during development. The integrated neuroendocrine response to stress, and its role in timing critical life history transitions and establishing long-term phenotypic expression, arose early in the evolution of vertebrates."  
    Free PDF:  

Enhance immediate survival, studies of the
long-term effects of elevated corticosteroids
during gestation suggest that these early
survival benefits come at a cost. 


While accelerated metamorphosis increases
the probability of survival, the resultant
smaller size at transformation may be asso-
ciated with future fitness costs. Both field and
lab-based studies have shown that tadpoles
reared in ‘‘hostile’’ environments metamor-
phose at a smaller body size, and the juveniles
are thus more likely to exhibit slower growth
rates, inferior locomotor abilities, greater sus-
ceptibility to starvation, and higher mortality
this body size disadvantage at metamorphosis is
retained through the age at first reproduction,
thus compromising reproductive fitness
    These studies demonstrate the importance of
the tadpole environment for juvenile fitness; however,
our understanding of how the larval environ-
ment causes these effects in later life stages is
    Interestingly, the effects of environmental
stress on tadpole growth and development
parallel those of intrauterine stress on fetal
growth and development in mammals.
Maternal malnutrition or repeated acute
stress (e.g., shock, restraint) cause intrauter-
ine growth retardation and preterm birth, and both of
these factors have been associated with repro-
ductive dysfunction and increased susceptibil-
ity to disease later in life. These later-life
effects of the in utero environment are asso-
ciated with premature activation of the neuro-
endocrine stress axis in both mothers and
fetuses . This activation, which causes an eleva-
tion in plasma glucocorticoids during critical
windows of brain development, has been
shown to permanently alter the functioning

2007    16<138    
     Cognition, emotion, and neurobiological development: mediating the relation between maltreatment and aggression 
    " This review proposes that biases in cognitive, emotional, and neurobiological development mediate the relation between childhood maltreatment and the development of aggression. In addition, it is posited that physical abuse and neglect may have differential effects on development: Physical abuse may result in hypervigilance to threat and a hostile attributional bias, whereas neglect may result in difficulties with emotion regulation because of a lack of emotional interactions."   
    See:    Childhood Maltreatment    * 

2008    91<138     
    Models of anger: contributions from psychophysiology, neuropsychology and the cognitive behavioral perspective.         
    Once the conceptual ambiguity is addressed, data from the cognitive-behavioral, psychophysiological and neuropsychological literatures are reviewed with a focus on issues of laterality. Particular attention is given to research of appraisal theory from the cognitive literature, cortical arousal and related cerebral models from the psychophysiological literature, and functional cerebral systems from the neuropsychological literature.     

2008    114<138        Free PMC Article     
    Neurobiology of aggression and violence.   
 "Acts of violence account for an estimated 1.43 million deaths worldwide annually. While violence can occur in many contexts, individual acts of aggression account for the majority of instances.  
    In some individuals, repetitive acts of aggression are grounded in an underlying neurobiological susceptibility that is just beginning to be understood. The failure of "top-down" control systems in the prefrontal cortex to modulate aggressive acts that are triggered by anger provoking stimuli appears to play an important role. An imbalance between prefrontal regulatory influences and hyper-responsivity of the amygdala and other limbic regions involved in affective evaluation are implicated. Insufficient serotonergic facilitation of "top-down" control, excessive catecholaminergic stimulation, and subcortical imbalances of glutamatergic/gabaminergic systems as well as pathology in neuropeptide systems involved in the regulation of affiliative behavior may contribute to abnormalities in this circuitry.    
    Thus, pharmacological interventions such as mood stabilizers, which dampen limbic irritability, or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which may enhance "top-down" control, as well as psychosocial interventions to develop alternative coping skills and reinforce reflective delays may be therapeutic."  
100 Similar Articles
102 Cited by's
    See also:  Boys without Fathers   *      

  2008    116<138        Free PMC Article   
    Psychophysiological correlates of aggression and violence: an integrative review. 
 "Robust physiological correlates of persistent aggressive behaviour evident in this literature include low baseline heart rate, enhanced autonomic reactivity to stressful or aversive stimuli, enhanced EEG slow wave activity, reduced P300 brain potential response and indications from structural and functional neuroimaging studies of dysfunction in frontocortical and limbic brain regions that mediate emotional processing and regulation." 
    See also:  Boys without Fathers .   *   
    My comment:     
    I find it counter-intuitive that "low baseline heart rate, ... enhanced EEG slow wave activity...etc...are correlates of persistent aggressive behaviour "  I would have expected that they would correlate with reduced aggressive behavior.   

2008    750<1463 
    Habits, rituals, and the evaluative brain   
    Scientists in many different fields have been attracted to the study of habits because of the power habits have over behavior and because they invoke a dichotomy between the conscious, voluntary control over behavior, considered the essence of higher-order deliberative behavioral control, and lower-order behavioral control that is scarcely available to consciousness. A broad spectrum of behavioral routines and rituals can become habitual and stereotyped through learning. Others have a strong innate basis. Repetitive behaviors can also appear as cardinal symptoms in a broad range of neurological and neuropsychiatric illness and in addictive states.  
    This review suggests that many of these behaviors could emerge as a result of experience-dependent plasticity in basal ganglia-based circuits that can influence not only overt behaviors but also cognitive activity. Culturally based rituals may reflect privileged interactions between the basal ganglia and cortically based circuits that influence social, emotional, and action functions of the brain.   
    103 Similar articals

2009    ?  <1465      
     Cerebral processing of nonverbal affective stimuli: differential effects of cognitive and affective sets on hemispheric asymmetry    
    "The cerebral processing of emotion has been the subject of a number of recent studies, but results relating to hemispheric asymmetry have been quite mixed. The present study attempted to clarify and extend findings in this area by examining the differential effects of cognitive and affective sets on hemisphere asymmetry under conditions of nonverbal emotional stimulation. Electroencephalographic (EEG) data, recorded bilaterally, showed that differential hemispheric processing interacted with emotion (positive or negative), condition (cognitive or affective), and sex. In those emotion/condition combinations where hemispheric asymmetry was observed, there was greater activity in the left hemisphere than in the right. In addition, positive affect produced greater asymmetry than negative, and females showed greater activity in response to positive emotional stimuli than did males. Further, affective conditions yielded higher levels of activity than did cognitive. Finally, electrodermal activity showed lateralization effects as a differential function of cognitive and affective conditions.

2009    669<1465      Free PMC Article  
    Habits of the heart: life history and the developmental neuroendocrinology of emotion   
 "The centrality of emotion in cognition and social intelligence as well as its impact on health has intensified investigation into the causes and consequences of individual variation in emotion regulation. 
    Central processing of experience directly informs regulation of endocrine axes, essentially forming a neuro-endocrine continuum integrating information intake, processing, and physiological and behavioral response.  
    Two major elements of life history-resource allocation and niche partitioning-are served by linking cognitive-affective with physiologic and behavioral processes. Scarce cognitive resources (attention, memory, and time) are allocated under guidance from affective co-processing. Affective-cognitive processing, in turn, regulates physiologic activity through neuro-endocrine outflow and thereby orchestrates energetic resource allocation and trade-offs, both acutely and through time. Reciprocally, peripheral activity (e.g., immunologic, metabolic, or energetic markers) influences affective-cognitive processing.  
    By guiding attention, memory, and behavior, affective-cognitive processing also informs individual stances toward, patterns of activity in, and relationships with the world. As such, it mediates processes of niche partitioning that adaptively exploit social and material resources.   
    Developmental behavioral neurobiology has identified multiple factors that influence the ontogeny of emotion regulation to form affective and behavioral styles. Evidence is reviewed documenting roles for genetic, epigenetic, and experiential factors in the development of emotion regulation, social cognition, and behavior with important implications for understanding mechanisms that underlie life history construction and the sources of differential health.   
    Overall, this dynamic arena for research promises to link the biological bases of life history theory with the psychobehavioral phenomena that figure so centrally in quotidian experience and adaptation, particularly, for humans."

2009    9<138 
    The angry brain: neural correlates of anger, angry rumination, and aggressive personality 
     "These findings increase our understanding of the neural processes associated with the risk for aggressive behavior by specifying neural regions that mediate the subjective experience of anger and angry rumination as well as the neural pathways linked to different types of aggressive behavior."   

2010    659<1465    Free PMC Article   
    Human and rodent homologies in action control: corticostriatal determinants of goal-directed and habitual action.   
 "Recent behavioral studies in both humans and rodents have found evidence that performance in decision-making tasks depends on two different learning processes; one encoding the relationship between actions and their consequences and a second involving the formation of stimulus-response associations. These learning processes are thought to govern goal-directed and habitual actions, respectively, and have been found to depend on homologous corticostriatal networks in these species." 

2010    18<138   
   The anatomy of anger: an integrative cognitive model of trait anger and reactive aggression. 
    "This paper presents an integrative cognitive model, according to which individual differences in 3 cognitive processes jointly contribute to a person's level of trait anger and reactive aggression." 

2010    79<120   
    Feelings and the body: the Jamesian perspective on autonomic specificity of emotion. 
 "What is an emotion?" William James's seminal paper in Mind (1884) proposed the idea that physiological and behavioral responses precede subjective experience in emotions that are marked by "distinct bodily expression." This notion has broadly inspired the investigation of emotion-specific autonomic nervous system activity, a research topic with great longevity. The trajectory of this literature is traced through its major theoretical challenges from the Cannon-Bard, activation, and Schachter-Singer theories, through its rich empirical history in the field of psychophysiology. Although these studies are marked by various findings, the overall trend of the research supports the notion of autonomic specificity for basic emotions. The construct of autonomic specificity continues to influence a number of core theoretical issues in affective science, such as the existence of basic or 'natural kinds' of emotion, the structure of affective space, the cognition-emotion relationship, and the function of emotion. Moreover, James's classic paper, which stimulated the emergence of psychology from philosophy and physiology in the latter nineteenth century, remains a dynamic force in contemporary emotion research."  
    221 Similar Articles
     12 Cited by's

"William James - Wikipedia 

2011    8<138 
   Understanding impulsive aggression: Angry rumination and reduced self-control capacity are mechanisms underlying the provocation-aggression relationship. 
"These findings suggest that rumination following an anger-inducing provocation reduces self-control and increases aggression. Bolstering self-regulatory resources may reduce this adverse effect." 

2011    72<120      Free Article   
    Effects of early life stress on neuroendocrine and neurobehavior: mechanisms and implications. 
"Evidence continues to mount that adverse experiences early in life have an impact on brain functions. Early life stress can program the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and cause alterations of neurochemistry and signaling pathways involved in regulating neuroplasticity, with resultant neurobehavioral changes. Early life experiences and genetic factors appear to interact in determining the individual vulnerability to mental health disorders. We reviewed the effects of early life stress on neuroendocrine regulation and the relevance to neurobehavioral development."  
139 Similar Articles:   
4 Cited by's

2011        71<120 
    Evolutionary functions of early social modulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis development in humans. 
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21251923                     "Results indicate that difficult family environments and traumatic social events are associated with temporal elevations of cortisol, suppressed reproductive functioning and elevated morbidity."   

2012    51<120   
    The multiple systems model of angry rumination. 
138 Similar articles
(sorted by Link rather than by publication date) 
4 Cited bys:     

2012    36<138   
    Don't look back in anger: neural correlates of reappraisal, analytical rumination, and angry rumination during recall of an anger-inducing autobiog...    
"Reappraisal produced the least self-reported anger followed by analytical rumination and angry rumination." 

2012    466<1465 
    Heart rate variability is associated with emotion recognition: direct evidence for a relationship between the autonomic nervous system and social communication .  
"It is well established that heart rate variability (HRV) plays an important role in social communication."  

My comment:     
      This is a very long, very complex article.  Probably for experts only. 

2013    53<120        Free PMC Article   
    Affective neuronal selection: the nature of the primordial emotion systems. 
"Our model stresses phylogenetic origins of emotional systems, which we believe is necessary for a full understanding of the functions of emotions and additionally suggests that emotional organizing systems play a role in sculpting the brain during ontogeny" 
    My comment:    * 
    I'm particularly interested in "phylogenetic origins".        

2014    286<1465 
    Habit learning and memory in mammals: behavioral and neural characteristics. 
"Goal-direct behavior and habit learning represent two forms of instrumental learning; whereas the former is rapidly acquired and regulated by its outcome, the latter is reflexive, elicited by antecedent stimuli rather than their consequences.  
    Habit learning can be generally defined as the acquisition of associations between stimuli and responses. Habits are acquired via experience-dependent plasticity, occurring repeatedly over the course of days or years and becoming remarkably fixed.  
    The distinction between habit learning, as a product of a procedural learning brain system, and a declarative learning system for encoding facts and episodes is based on the hypothesis that memory is composed of multiple systems that have distinct neuroanatomy and operating principles.  
    Here we review recent research analyzing the main behavioral and neural characteristics of habit learning. In particular, we focus on the distinction between goal-directed and habitual behavior, and describe the brain areas and neurotransmitters systems involved in habit learning. The emotional modulation of habit learning in rodents and primates is reviewed, and the implications of habit learning in psychopathology are briefly described. "
136 Similar Articles:
    My comment:    ** 
I'm particularly interested in "...  implications of habit learning in psychopathology  ...".   
    "In lower animals and humans, stress/anxiety can enhance dorsal striatal-dependent habit memory,at the expense of hippocampal-dependent cognitive memory."  

2015    173<1465 
    Effects of Genotype and Sleep on Temperament. 
"After controlling for demographics and both previous and concurrent maternal depression, multiple linear regression analyses revealed a significant interaction effect of average sleep duration for the first 3 years of life and 5-HTTLPR genotype on child negative emotionality/behavioral dysregulation such that the effects were exclusive to those with low-expressing 5-HTTLPR genotypes."  

2015   155<1465 
    Glucocorticoid enhancement of dorsolateral striatum-dependent habit memory requires concurrent noradrenergic activity.    
"Taken together, the findings indicate an interaction between glucocorticoid and noradrenergic mechanisms in DLS-dependent habit memory. "  

2016    32<138   
      Bidirectional-Compounding Effects of Rumination and Negative Emotion in Predicting Impulsive Behavior: Implications for Emotional Cascades. 
"These findings are consistent with the emotional cascade model in suggesting that momentary rumination and negative emotion progressively propagate and magnify each other over time in impulsive people, promoting impulsive behavior."  

2018    1<103   Sorted by Publication Date 
            Free PMC Article       PMID:2959359   
    NOTE  All of the articles with a "xx<103" label are one of the
"103 Similar Articles" mentioned above.

Emotional Habits 
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