Home

My other websites:   Children of the Amphioxus    
Herrick Update      Early Behavior         

Many of the articles in this website are, admittedly, quite technical.  If you just want to read about psychology in more or less plain English, check out:  

Online Self-Help   
Online Psychology Compilations    
Psychodynamic Psychotherapy    


  
  I'm going to change my focus.    My mother carried a diagnosis of schizophrenia, and I'm going to spend some time studying that affliction.      


Searching Google for "schizophrenia" found 49,600,000 references. 

Searching PubMed for "schizophrenia" found 135,287 references. 

    NOTE:  The number of references found varies with the search.  This search found 135,287, the next one found 117,767 using the same search criteria. 

Schizophrenia


Family Blog is a sporadic update on where, in My Dysfunctional Family,
I'm currently focusing most of my attention. 
Historical Background & Free Book   tells where these websites began. 
Internal links are in green
To return to the home page of the website of whatever page you're viewing, click on the logo at the top of the page.   To reach the home page of one of the other websites, click on its link at the top of the current home page.  

Table of Contents:  

Family Background    


Emotion  
    Emotional Habits   
Displacement   
Entitlement    
Personality   

Incest    
Childhood Maltreatment    

Personality Disorders    
    Sociopathy
         Sociopath Psychobiology    
            7<13 SocioPsych   
            Sociopathy & Testosterone    
     Anger           Snarl    
         Sadism        
        Evil     
    Predatory Behavior     

    Dependent Personality Disorder    
     Narcissistic Personality Disorder    
     Psychosis                      




Schizophrenia   

Schizophrenia
Artistic view of how the world feels like with schizophrenia - journal.pmed.0020146.g001.jpg
Self-portrait of a person with schizophrenia, representing their distorted perception of reality
Pronunciation


Specialty Psychiatry, Psychology
Symptoms False beliefs, confused thinking, hearing voices others do not[2][3]
Usual onset Ages 16 to 30[3]
Duration Chronic[3]
Causes Environmental and genetic factors[4]
Risk factors Family history, cannabis use, problems during pregnancy, being raised in a city, older father[4]
Diagnostic method Based on observed behavior, reported experiences, and reports of others familiar with the person[5]
Differential diagnosis Substance misuse, Huntington's disease, mood disorders (bipolar disorder), autism[6]
Treatment Counselling, job training[2][4]
Medication Antipsychotics[4]
Prognosis 18–20 years shorter life expectancy[7][8] due to increases in suicide, heart and lifestyle disease[8]
Frequency ~0.5%[9]
Deaths ~17,000 (2015)[10]

Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal behavior, strange speech and a decreased ability to understand reality.[2] Other symptoms include false beliefs, unclear or confused thinking, hearing voices that do not exist, reduced social engagement and emotional expression and lack of motivation.[2][3] People with schizophrenia often have additional mental health problems such as anxiety, depressive or substance-use disorders.[11] Symptoms typically come on gradually, begin in young adulthood and in many cases never resolve.[3][5]

The causes of schizophrenia include environmental and genetic factors.[4] Possible environmental factors include being raised in a city, cannabis use during adolescence, certain infections, the age of a person's parents, and poor nutrition during pregnancy.[4][12] Genetic factors include a variety of common and rare genetic variants.[13] Diagnosis is based on observed behavior, the person's reported experiences and reports of others familiar with the person.[5] During diagnosis, a person's culture must also be taken into account.[5] As of 2013, there is no objective test.[5] Schizophrenia does not imply a "split personality" or dissociative identity disorder, conditions with which it is often confused in public perception.[14]

The mainstay of treatment is antipsychotic medication, along with counselling, job training and social rehabilitation.[2][4] It is unclear whether typical or atypical antipsychotics are better.[15] In those who do not improve with other antipsychotics, clozapine may be tried.[4] In more serious situations where there is risk to self or others, involuntary hospitalization may be necessary, although hospital stays are now shorter and less frequent than they once were.[16]

About 0.3% to 0.7% of people are affected by schizophrenia during their lifetimes.[9] In 2013, there were an estimated 23.6 million cases globally.[17] Males are more often affected and on average experience more severe symptoms.[2] About 20% of people eventually do well, and a few recover completely;[5] about 50% have lifelong impairment.[18] Social problems, such as long-term unemployment, poverty and homelessness, are common.[5][19] The average life expectancy of people with the disorder is 10–25 years less than that of the general population.[7] This is the result of increased physical health problems and a higher suicide rate (about 5%).[9][20] In 2015, an estimated 17,000 people worldwide died from behavior related to, or caused by, schizophrenia.[10]


1929     135,286<135,287   
    Some Recent Work on the Pathology of Schizophrenia.
No abstract available.     Free PMC Article     
  58 Similar articles  


1931    135439. 




1936    135,327<135,287      
    Free PMC Article     Similar articles      







1939    135313<135,287        


1945.    135285<135,287 







 




Oxytocin  
     Oxytocin Receptors       
    Oxytocin Receptor Distribution        
        276<278 OxRcpDistCite    
        73<278 OxRcpDistCite    
        Oxytocin Accumbens    
    Oxytocin Sociopathy   
         1<7 OxySoc   


Nucleus Accumbens Septi  
    Accumbens Frontal   
    Accumbens Frontal GABA    
    Ventral Tegmental Area  

Genetics    

Psychophysiology     
Human Endocrinology in General        
  Family Backup Log   



MDF Home:
181206 - 1032
191214 - 1541 Jan 14,2019 - 1542 MDF

MDF 
Jan 15, 2019  -  0932 
Jan 15, 2019  -  0955 
Jan 15, 2019  - 0340 
Jan 20, 2019  - 0949 
Jan 21, 2019  - 1946 

March 12, 2019 - 1252 


Subpages (39): View All