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Many of the articles in this website are, admittedly, quite technical.  If you just want to read about psychology in more or less plain English, check out:  

Online Self-Help   
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  I'm going to change my focus.    My mother carried a diagnosis of schizophrenia, and I'm going to spend some time studying that affliction.      

Searching Google for "schizophrenia" found 49,600,000 references. 

Searching PubMed for "schizophrenia" found 135,287 references. 

    NOTE:  The number of references found varies with the search.  This search found 135,287, the next one found 117,767 using the same search criteria. 


Family Blog is a sporadic update on where, in My Dysfunctional Family,
I'm currently focusing most of my attention. 
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Table of Contents:  

Family Background    

    Emotional Habits   

Childhood Maltreatment    

Personality Disorders    
         Sociopath Psychobiology    
            7<13 SocioPsych   
            Sociopathy & Testosterone    
     Anger           Snarl    
    Predatory Behavior     

    Dependent Personality Disorder    
     Narcissistic Personality Disorder    


Artistic view of how the world feels like with schizophrenia - journal.pmed.0020146.g001.jpg
Self-portrait of a person with schizophrenia, representing their distorted perception of reality

Specialty Psychiatry, Psychology
Symptoms False beliefs, confused thinking, hearing voices others do not[2][3]
Usual onset Ages 16 to 30[3]
Duration Chronic[3]
Causes Environmental and genetic factors[4]
Risk factors Family history, cannabis use, problems during pregnancy, being raised in a city, older father[4]
Diagnostic method Based on observed behavior, reported experiences, and reports of others familiar with the person[5]
Differential diagnosis Substance misuse, Huntington's disease, mood disorders (bipolar disorder), autism[6]
Treatment Counselling, job training[2][4]
Medication Antipsychotics[4]
Prognosis 18–20 years shorter life expectancy[7][8] due to increases in suicide, heart and lifestyle disease[8]
Frequency ~0.5%[9]
Deaths ~17,000 (2015)[10]

Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal behavior, strange speech and a decreased ability to understand reality.[2] Other symptoms include false beliefs, unclear or confused thinking, hearing voices that do not exist, reduced social engagement and emotional expression and lack of motivation.[2][3] People with schizophrenia often have additional mental health problems such as anxiety, depressive or substance-use disorders.[11] Symptoms typically come on gradually, begin in young adulthood and in many cases never resolve.[3][5]

The causes of schizophrenia include environmental and genetic factors.[4] Possible environmental factors include being raised in a city, cannabis use during adolescence, certain infections, the age of a person's parents, and poor nutrition during pregnancy.[4][12] Genetic factors include a variety of common and rare genetic variants.[13] Diagnosis is based on observed behavior, the person's reported experiences and reports of others familiar with the person.[5] During diagnosis, a person's culture must also be taken into account.[5] As of 2013, there is no objective test.[5] Schizophrenia does not imply a "split personality" or dissociative identity disorder, conditions with which it is often confused in public perception.[14]

The mainstay of treatment is antipsychotic medication, along with counselling, job training and social rehabilitation.[2][4] It is unclear whether typical or atypical antipsychotics are better.[15] In those who do not improve with other antipsychotics, clozapine may be tried.[4] In more serious situations where there is risk to self or others, involuntary hospitalization may be necessary, although hospital stays are now shorter and less frequent than they once were.[16]

About 0.3% to 0.7% of people are affected by schizophrenia during their lifetimes.[9] In 2013, there were an estimated 23.6 million cases globally.[17] Males are more often affected and on average experience more severe symptoms.[2] About 20% of people eventually do well, and a few recover completely;[5] about 50% have lifelong impairment.[18] Social problems, such as long-term unemployment, poverty and homelessness, are common.[5][19] The average life expectancy of people with the disorder is 10–25 years less than that of the general population.[7] This is the result of increased physical health problems and a higher suicide rate (about 5%).[9][20] In 2015, an estimated 17,000 people worldwide died from behavior related to, or caused by, schizophrenia.[10]

1929     135,286<135,287   
    Some Recent Work on the Pathology of Schizophrenia.
No abstract available.     Free PMC Article     
  58 Similar articles  

1931    135439. 

1936    135,327<135,287      
    Free PMC Article     Similar articles      

1939    135313<135,287        

1945.    135285<135,287 


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