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Theoretical Development of Classical and Quantum ElectrodynamicsIntroduction
Classical electrodynamics which is based on Maxwell's formulas, successfully explains all the phenomena in electrodynamics to the point where the physics began to accumulate facts, which were in conflict with it. For example, classical electrodynamics are argued that the energy of an electromagnetic wave, regardless of its length, is carried by a continuous wave front, while the experiments showed that the higher the frequency of the electromagnetic wave the more evident is the fact that the energy of such a wave is transferred quantumly. In other words, Classical Electrodynamics takes into account only the properties of the continuous electromagnetic field meanwhile quantum electrodynamics is based on the idea that the electromagnetic field has also discontinuous (discrete) properties, which are created by quanta of the field, photons.
Thus, experiments in physics indicate that there is a boundary in the electrodynamics of Maxwell's theory. But this is not surprising, because any truth, any concept, any theory is always relative, i.e., They have a meaning only within that base, to which they are defined (The Law of Sufficient Ground). And if physicists encounter electrical phenomena that go beyond this sufficient ground, then it is said that the old theory (Maxwell's theory), which is correct for the old foundation, should be replaced by a new theory, built on a new sufficient ground, which should be the opposite the old one. The trouble is that sometimes a new theory comes into existence based on a wrong sufficient ground. Hence, it turns out that the new theory resolves the problem in one or in several places and in others leaves the problem unsolved. In other words, although the theory is the new one but it did not introduce any systematic understanding of all the associated physical phenomena. It happened with quantum electrodynamics. Its existence is scientifically indisputable, but it is based on a false sufficient ground.
The interaction of electromagnetic radiation with charged particles in quantum electrodynamics is considered as the absorption and emission of particles, photons.
The sufficient ground of the theory of Maxwell.
The situation in which Maxwell's theory was in relation to the quantum electrodynamics, is similar to the situation of the Euclidean geometry versus to Lobachevsky geometry. Euclid geometry is based on assumption that through a given point not on a given line exactly one line can be drawn parallel to a given line. This postulate is qualitative ground on which Euclid geometry was built. From this geometry follows the assertion that the sum of the angles of a triangle on the plane is equal to180 degrees. But Lobachevsky came and said that the statement of Euclid about 180 degrees true only for the plane, where can be drawn through a point lying outside a given line only one straight line parallel to this one. Because Lobachevsky geometry is based on assumption that through a given point not on a given line there are more than two lines can be drawn parallel to this line through this point. More than two lines could mean 10,20,100,..N (where N is any number > than 2).
This postulate is the qualitative ground on which Lobachevsky geometry was built. Then it is fair to claim that the sum of the angles of a triangle on the plane will be less than 180 degrees. In both cases both mathematicians built their geometry by using the same formal logic regarding of the fact that logic of Euclid geometry is different from the logic of Lobachevsky geometry.
Thus we see that in spite of the correctness of the two theories in geometry, Euclidean and non-Euclidean, they are relatively controversial. In other words, Euclidean geometry has a meaning only within its qualitative ground, on which it is built, that through a point lying outside the line on the plane, you can spend just one straight line parallel to this one, but outside of that reason, it becomes quite inapplicable, i.e.. unscientific.
Generally speaking, any science is being built on the grounds of the opposite. Within each qualitative ground any scientific theory, which is limited to those grounds, is a coherent formal logic system. But as time goes by, science begins to accumulate facts that are unexplained in terms of existing scientific theories, there is a need for birth of a new scientific theory, which will be built on the qualitative ground which is opposite to the base on which is built the old one. It is this commonality in the development of science and philosophy grasps, the science about formal and dialectical logic, and their ratio. (See my philosophical articles on this topic: "Formal and Dialectical Logic as Unity of Opposites or Development of Classical Philosophy," "The development of laws of formal logic of Aristotle," etc.
Let's consider the grounds on which the classical and quantum electrodynamics are built.
Classical electrodynamics is based on the following basis: there are positive and negative charge, which forms a constant electrostatic field. And on this simple basis, the entire universe of classical electrodynamics is built. It is interesting to note that already in classical electrodynamics the question of the environment in which electromagnetic waves propagate is raised. This approach was quite logical, because any waves, which were familiar to physicists of the time, were distributed in a particular environment. For example, a medium for the propagation of sound waves was the air, and ground for the spread of water waves is water in the lake, rivers, seas, etc. . But the physics of that time could not find a medium for electromagnetic waves, even though there have been attempts in this direction: they assumed the existence of the ether.
Research in this direction was quite deserted with the advent of relativity theory Einstein. "Theory of Relativity is often used for distinguishing the views of Einstein, Minkowski, and their followers, completely eliminating from consideration the concept of the electromagnetic ether from the looks and the results of their predecessors, like Lorentz and Poincare (not to mention the delimitation of the work of other physicists, entirely inconsistent with her ). " (Internet, Vikipideya). And despite the various reasons for termination of the search by physicists for the medium in which electromagnetic waves propagate, this environment - is not recognized by any of the physicists - all the time, was quietly present throughout the development of classical electrodynamics. It was a constant electrostatic field, because the later is qualitative ground on which the classical electrodynamics is built. As a result of the system logic Classical Electrodynamics considers only the continuous properties of the electromagnetic field.
False Qualitative ground on which Quantum Electrodynamics is built.
In contrast to classical electrodynamics, quantum electrodynamics are concerned with discontinuous properties of the electromagnetic field. And for this reason it has to be constructed on the basis that the opposite of the base upon which the classical electrodynamics are built.
Physicists unknowingly violated the above law of thought, the relationship between formal and dialectical logic and took for the foundations of quantum electrodynamics their invented particle photon. These photons localize the energy of a light wave in such quanta particles that move independently of each other, even if the wave is continuously distributed in space.
Let's start with the most important that the photon theory contradicts the laws of logic thinking.
1. Every leap in the qualitative development means transformation of the qualitative basis in its opposite. Photons are not the opposites of the charge and its constant electrostatic field.
2. Inventing the photon for the explanation of photoelectric effect creates a dual nature of light relative to the same base, which is a violation of the fundamental law of thought of formal logic: the law of identity. Let's take, for example, a charge. It also defined as the opposite properties of + and -, but in the relation of each charge, the later is uniquely identified as + or as a minus. Dual definition of light as an electromagnetic wave and the corpuscular on one and the same qualitative ground violates the logic law. How do you perceive my statement when I say that you are at the same time a man and a woman? The absurdity of this logic is evident in everyday life, but when such a statement carried on the theoretical level of physics it makes this illogical statement admissible.
The same story is with light: any color light consists of electromagnetic waves and its opposite particle photon.
3. The trick with the photon does not stop there, because it must be reconciled with the theory of relativity. According to the latest the energy of the particle with zero rest mass, with approach of the particle velocity to the speed of light has to grow indefinitely. But as the photon energy is finite, then it means that the photon does not have zero mass, but it does have inertial mass. But Einstein needs the particle to explain transmitting of energy instantly from the electromagnetic wave to photo electrons, which in his view is possible only when particles collide. So, we are talking about the old way of mechanical power transmission at a qualitatively new level, where the energy transfer is quite different.
Rather than to investigate the new method of instant transmission of energy under the interaction of an atomic particles and electromagnetic wave, Einstein went on the famous old way, the collision of particles, and thus made a scientific theoretical mistake by assuming the existence of a particle photon.
But enough talk about a photon as a false basis, let's talk about the real qualitative ground and how within it the photoelectric effect and other such things are explained.
Quantum Variable electrostatic field
This field is formed by a dipole charge as it rotates. Dipole at rest forms a constant electrostatic field. If a test charge is placed in this field at a great distance from the dipole, then the dipole charges will act on the probe charge with very little force. For example, the field strength at a distance R from the dipole, i.e., at a point A will always be proportional to the dipole moment p and inversely proportional to the cube of the distance R from the dipole. (Fig. 1)
Since the basis for quantum electrodynamics, according to dialectical logic, should be quantitative ground, which is opposite the base of classical electrodynamics, then we should not have to deal with the charges at rest but with charges in motion. Therefore, let's consider the dipole charge as it rotates.
To simplify the explanation let's put the end of the line R to the point of the dipole, where the charge + e is, and the dipole itself let's put on the extension of the line R to the left, as shown in Figure 2.
L R E
In Figure 2, L - length of the dipole, R - the distance from A to the charge + e. Now we'll turn the dipole in the horizontal plane in a circle with a center at e +. In this case, our charge-e will make a circular motion around the charge + e. In relation to point A the charge, as it moves around all the time, would then approach the point A and then would move away from it. Consequently, the field strength at a point A will oscillate from a maximum to its minimum. The value of E will be minimal when the charge -e will be the furthest away from the point A, as shown in Figure 2, and the absolute value of E is maximum when the charge -e will take at its rotation the closest location to the point A.
In this case, we are not interested in the direction of the vector of the electric force of the dipole, but we are interested in the fact that the constant tension E of the point A under the dipole in rest, becomes a variable one under the rotating dipole, ie voltage at a point A starts to oscillate at a certain frequency, which is determined by the speed of rotation of the charge-e. It is easy to see that in terms of the dipole moment the variable intensity E of the field at the point A is very small, because it is inversely proportional to the cube of the distance from the center of the dipole to the point A and therefore physicists think that the energy at this point is very, very small. But in fact, at very high frequency oscillations of the absolute value of the E at the point A the energy field at this point may be very, very large, because the energy at the point A will be determined not by the dipole moment and the distance of the point A, but the frequency of oscillation of the intensity E . This energy is equal to Planck's constant times the frequency of the electric field. In this formula, the value of intensity E is completely absent, because the energy depends only on the frequency of oscillation.
If in classical electrodynamics (CED), the energy of constant electric field is mainly determined by the magnitude of the charge, in quantum electrodynamics an energy of the variable electrostatic field is determined by frequency of oscillation of the charge creating the electric field. Thus, we can create a lot of energy in the variable electrostatic field not by increasing the electrical charge but by increasing the frequency of it oscillation. Graphically, the electrical oscillations in our point A are depicted in Figure 3. In this figure, we can see that they are the pulse oscillation of one polarity, negative. In our illustration we see six pulses, which are numbered. In other words, the energy of variable electrostatic field is a quantum energy contained in each pulse, which is determined by the frequency of the pulse.
Why do I say that we are dealing in this case with a pulse of one polarity, namely the negative? Because these variations are caused by the circular motion of the negative charge of the dipole, -e. The positive charge of our dipole + e revolves only around its axis, so its distance from point A is always the same at any time. Therefore, at point A positive field intensity remains constant. If we deploy our dipole at 180 degrees, that is, swap our charges (See Figure 4.), Then the positive charge + e will turn around the negative charge, and voltage fluctuations at the point A will be positive. But in this case, the field strength of the negative charge-e is a constant and will not undergo oscillations. See Figure 5. In this figure, there are six positive pulses and negative pulses are absent.L R E
In the last example we will rotate around the center of the dipole, in this case, the positive and negative charges of the dipole at the same time will make a circular motion around the center of the dipole. Then the field strength, positive and negative, at the point A will experience a simultaneous fluctuation in value. In this case, we will have both the positive and negative vibrations of the variable field, which will be synchronized. Graphically, this is shown in Figure 6, where we have six positive and six negative pulses.
At any point in space, in relation to which the charges of the dipole are approaching and passing away, there are oscillations of the electric field, which are created by positive and negative charge of our dipole.
Electromagnetic wave in a quantum variable electrostatic field.
In classical electrodynamics, the electromagnetic wave is considered in the form of sinusoidal waves in various forms, for example, as shown in Figure 7, where we have represented only the electrical part of the wave.
But this view is correct only for classical electrodynamics. In the later the energy of the electromagnetic wave is composed of electric field energy and the energy of the magnetic field, which are determined by the magnitude of intensity E and H. But along with this energy a source, generating electromagnetic waves, expends its energy to form the frequency of the electromagnetic wave. At low frequencies, this energy is very small compared with the energy of the waves, concluded in its electric and magnetic fields, so the physicists of classical electrodynamics did not take into account and did not pay attention to her. However, with high-frequency of electromagnetic waves the frequency energy becomes the dominant factor over the energy of the electric and magnetic field of the wave. Figuratively speaking frequency energy becomes Queen of energies.
Consequently, our understanding of the electromagnetic wave in the form sinusoidal oscillations, as we know it in classical electrodynamics, has to change, when its frequency is comparable to the oscillation frequency of the variable electrostatic field, ie with the frequency of oscillation of the electrons in the atom. The same electromagnetic wave we have to represent in the form of the polarized pulses, which are depicted in Figure 4. In other words EMW takes shape corresponding to the environment in which it is distributed, ie, form of the polarized pulses of the variable electrostatic field. Therefore, the environment in which EMW is distributed, defines it as a form of a sine wave if the wave propagates in a constant electrostatic field, or as the polarized pulses if the wave propagates in a variable electrostatic field.
In reality, the EMWs all the time are being distributed in a variable electrostatic field (VEF). But since the low-frequency waves are indifferent to the high-frequency oscillations of VEF, so far we alternating electrostatic field consider as a constant electrostatic field (CEF). For example, a big ship did not feel small waves in the sea. For it, this sea is calm and the ship sails in a straight line. Meanwhile, the same waves will swing the small boat like a chip. Its straight course will be made in the form of sinusoidal fluctuations.
Explanation of the photoelectric effect without photon theory
Compton effect without photons
Until now, the Compton effect is explained as follows: "Under the collision of particles-photons with free electrons they are elastically repeled from electrons, This leads to the appearance of the scattered rays. Under the collision of a photon with an electron part of the energy transferred to the electron, the energy of the scattered photon E'
p becomes less than the initial energy: E'p <Ep. Frequency y' of the scattered photon is related to its energy by ratio hy' = E'p where from inequality E'p < Ep follows that frequency y' < y. Thus, we immediately obtain that the wavelength of ray scattered in the Compton experiment, must be greater than the wavelength of the primary rays ... "(general physics course, T 3, pp. 404, SE Frisch and A, B, Timoreva, Fizmatgiz 1962)
In other words, under the radiation of X-rays of short wavelength, in the scattering material it is not a mechanical collision of photons with free electrons takes place but the electric interaction of polarized pulse with a free electron. In this interaction, the polarized pulse repels from a negatively charged electron, but this can only happen when our pulse has a negative polarity. In such a situation polarized pulse gives part of their energy to negative electrons (through negative electric field of electron), so the scattered polarized impulse has a lower energy than the initial one E'ph <Eph. Frequency y, scattered polarized impulse, is related to its energy by ratio hy'= E'ph where from inequality E'ph < Eph follows that the frequency of y' < y. Thus, we immediately obtain that the wavelength of scattered rays, must be greater than the wavelength of the primary radiation.
On the other hand, the energy that a free electron gets in the form of momentum from polarized impulse causes it to accelerate. This gives rise to the recoil electrons.
From these considerations it is clear that the electrical interaction of polarized pulse with a free electron in a scattering material does not affect the calculations and the results of the experiment that are made by Compton. But they make a correct representation of reality.
Moreover representation of electromagnetic wave (EMW) in the form of polarized pulse very logically consistent with the formula of quantum Planck energy E = hy, because in that pulse energy is distributed over its entire length and is not concentrated in a single point of EMW as a photon.
Until 1925 Bohr was not a supporter of the photon. He was very prone to the idea that the interaction of X-ray waves and the body takes place not due to the mechanical interaction of photons and electrons but due to the electric interaction of electromagnetic waves and electrons (negative charge). But he could not create a theory that would be in harmony with the Compton effect. And so he, in the end, joined the camp of supporters of photon theory. (If you can't beat the enemy, join them.)
From the above it is clear that the same result from the physical experiment can be explained correctly or wrongly. In the first case, you get a scientific representation of the real world, in the second case - the false notion, because it violates the laws of logic of our thinking. The development of scientific understanding of the real world maintains the system formal logic. False representation leads to a violation of the system logic within the qualitative ground and much artificially complicates the real world, which is already complicated. It depends up to you, Theoretical physicists, what theory you take as a qualitative ground: a theory that violates the laws of logic or theory that hold them. The choice is yours.
P.S. Photon Theory "led to the quantum revolution in physics and earned Einstein the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921". With publication of this article it is not difficult to note that Einstein's Photon theory is completly wrong.
The fact that electromagnetic waves (EMW) can increase the speed of the spinning of the electron around the atomic nucleus due to the transfer of their energy, and getting it out of the atom if the frequency of oscillation of this electron, i.e. its electromagnetic field around the nucleus approaches to the oscillation frequency of EMW, - forces us to make the assumption that any rotating particle in the nucleus of an atom can be split not only by mechanical collision with another particle, accelerated to enormous speeds, but with EMWs as well, the oscillation frequency of which is close to the frequency of oscillation of the electromagnetic field of the rotating particles in the nucleus of an atom. And the last approach is much more effective than mechanical one. For example, instead of using a huge Collider (CERN) in tens of kilometers, built in Geneva, which serves for the acceleration of charged particles to velocities approaching the speed of light, with a purpose to their mechanical collision, one can create high-frequency generator with the size of a few meters, which will generate EMWs frequency of which will be compared with the oscillation frequency of the atomic particles that we want to split.