Satyendra Nath Bose

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This page is a collection of news, articles, links, and other material available on Bose, Bose Einstein Condensation, and other related topics. It is presented for interested parties, as well as researchers.

If you have information or links you think should be on this page, please email us!


Satyen Bose in Berlin - Dr. Purnima Sinha
Not much is known about Bose's two-year stay in Europe in 1925-6. Dr. Purnima Sinha, a student and biographer of Bose, has written many articles and books on Bose. In Satyen Bose in Berlin, Dr. Sinha interviews those what knew Bose and spent time with him in Europe. What transpires is a fascinating portrait of a man whose keen intellect, engaging personality, and unique blend of European and Indian culture won him many friends and admirers, including some of the leading intellectual and scientific figures of the day. Dr. Sinha interviewed one such famous scientist, Professor Herman Mark, internationally renowned chemist who first met Bose in Berlin in 1926. Mark and Bose became very close. Their 50-year friendship lasted the rest of their lives. 

Herman Mark: Oh! He was very friendly. He was a real gentleman. And he would tell his jokes to everybody and had excellent sense of humour. Ah! Wonderful! He was very benevolent! He could only do good things! We always called him our Buddha (laughter).

Read more


The Most Famous Bengali That No One Knows: An Interview with Falguni Sarkar, grandson of Satyendra Nath Bose

Banga Sammelen - 27th North American Bengali Conference (NABC 2007), Detroit Michigan, USA, June 29-July 1, 2007 English language brochure.



Video - Bose Einstein Condensation Explained (on YouTube!) 

 This short video clip from what looks like a BBC report or documentary (need to research where its from - email us if you know) explains Bose-Einstein Condensation to the lay person ("at low temperatures some atoms go through an identity crisis."). It is rather will done, and fun to watch. I've also posted it on the S N Bose Blog.


The Man Behind the Statistics (Physics Today Feature Article) (pdf 570 kb)

A rich Bengali cultural tradition, a British-Indian politics, and a two-year stint in Europe all helped Satyendra Nath Bose become a renaissance man as well as the originator of quantum statistics.

Professor Kameshwar Wali is an emeritus and research professor in the department of physics at Syracuse University in Syracuse, New York.

This feature article is an extended version of the Physics Today newsletter article posted below (see Bose and Einstein below). Wali is the well known biographer on S. Chandrasekhar having written Chandra: A Biography of S. Chandrasekhar (University of Chicago Press, 1990).

I've talked a little bit about the contact between Chandra and Bose in a blog entry on January 23, 2007.


Bose and Einstein (History of Physics Newsletter) (pdf 733kb)

Another, shorter, article written by Professor Kameshwar Wali for the History of Physics Newsletter.

To appreciate Bose's accomplishment, and Einstein's own realization of its importance and its extention to ordinary matter, one needs to look at the struggle over several decades to unravel the true nature of blackbody radiation.

____________________ - S N Bose and Bose Einstein Principle

The Bose-Einstein Condensation Principle statistically predicts the behaviour of gas atoms near absolute zero (0 degree K or -273.15 C). In simplified way, it states that near absolute zero temp., instead of individual Brownian type motion, gas particles moves in a group and behaves like a liquid. <read entire article>


Nobel Prize Physics 2001

...for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates


New Book: Quantum Mechanics at the Crossroads - New Perspectives from History, Philosophy, and Physics

Great new book from Springer, edited by James Evans and Alan S. Thorndike. There is a great article by Wolfgang Ketterle (Nobel Prize 2001 for Bose Einstein Condensation, see our Nobel Prize page) titled "Bose-Einstein Condensation: Identity Crisis for Indistinguishable Particles" (pgs. 159-182). Reason we're pointing this out is because there is a picture of S N Bose (the same as the first Bose picture on The Story page here) on page 161. Nice to see Bose getting credit and visibility!

The book is well written and very accessible. Can order directly from Springer or Amazon.


Indian Particle Man, BBC4 Radio

12 January 2005

Dr. Sharon Ann Holgate, a freelance science writer and broadcaster, produced a 30 minute programme for BBC4 radio on Bose titled The Indian Particle Man. Dr. Holgate interviewed people who knew Bose, and and the well known actor, Mr. Sayeed Jaffrey (My Beautiful Launderette, Passage to India, Gandhi) played the voice of Bose. She has woven together a fascinating portrait of Bose.

<<Read More>>


The Birds That Flock and Sing Together : Vigyan Prasar

Thorough and informative article by Dr. V.B. Kamble published in Vigyan Prasar. Includes information about the Nobel Prize 2001 researchers and implications.

Never accept an idea as along as you, yourself, are not satisfied with its consistency and logical structure on which the concepts are based. Study the Masters. These are the people who had made significant contributions to the subject. Lesser authorities cleverly bypass the difficult points .

Satyendra Nath Bose

I do not know whether you still remember that somebody from Calcutta asked your permission to translate your papers on Relativity in English*. You acceded to the request. The book has since been published. I was the one who translated your paper on Generalised Relativity.

Bose, in his letter to Einstein, June 1924

Read more about this first ever English translation of Einstein's Relativity Papers on the S N Bose Blog.


Satyendra Nath Bose : CalcuttaWeb

'Indians are incapable of achieving anything great in science. At best, they are experts in subjects like philosophy' -- this was the impression people of the West had about us. Bose dispelled that impression.


Satyendra Nath Bose : Wikipedia the free encyclopedia

Bose attended Hindu School in Calcutta, and later attended Presidency College, also in Calcutta, earning the highest marks at each institution. From 1916 to 1921 he was a lecturer in the physics department of Calcutta University. In 1921, he joined the physics department of the then recently founded Dacca University (now called University of Dhaka), again as a lecturer. In 1926 he became a professor and was made head of the physics department, and continued teaching at Dacca University until 1945. At that time he returned to Calcutta, and taught at Calcutta University until 1956, when he retired and was made professor emeritus.

Although more than one Nobel Prize was awarded for the discovery of the boson, Bose was not awarded the Nobel Prize for their discovery or for his famous Bose-Einstein statistics.


Satyendra Nath Bose : MacTutor biography -- University of St. Andrews, Scotland, UK

The high regard with which [Bose] was held in India can hardly be appreciated in the West, where respect for old age is much less developed than it is in India. Bose's shock of white hair and friendly personality was probably last in evidence at a public function in January of this year, when an international symposium on statistical physics was held in Calcutta. Special references were made to his famous paper, and Bose himself also addressed the meeting, asking his colleagues to keep afresh "that wonderful spark" which gave fulfillment to scientific work.

P T Landberg


A Compendium of S N Bose biographies

Gathered in Geometry the Online Center.


Other Nobel Prizes Related to Bose Einstein

Nobel Prize in Physics 1996: A breakthrough in low temperature physics

Professor David M. Lee, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA,
Professor Douglas D. Osheroff, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA
Professor Robert C. Richardson, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA

for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3.

The pioneering work of David Lee, Douglas Osheroff and Robert Richardson in the beginning of the 1970's at the low-temperature laboratory of Cornell University has given a most valuable contribution to our current view of the manifestations of quantum effects in bulk matter. The anisotropic superfluid helium-3, appearing below a critical temperature of about two thousandths of a degree above the absolute zero, is considered to be a particular kind of Bose-Einstein condensate with a rich set of physical properties. (from

Nobel Prize in Physics 1997: Atoms floating in optical molasses

Professor Steven Chu, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA,
Professor Claude Cohen-Tannoudji, Collège de France and École Normale Supérieure, Paris, France, and
Dr. William D. Phillips, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA,

for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light.

Steven Chu, Claude Cohen-Tannoudji, and William D. Phillips have developed methods of using laser light to cool gases to the µK temperature range and keeping the chilled atoms floating or captured in different kinds of "atom traps". The laser light functions as a thick liquid, dubbed optical molasses, in which the atoms are slowed down. Individual atoms can be studied there with very great accuracy and their inner structure can be determined. As more and more atoms are captured in the same volume a thin gas forms, and its properties can be studied in detail. The new methods of investigation that the Nobel Laureates have developed have contributed greatly to increasing our knowledge of the interplay between radiation and matter. In particular, they have opened the way to a deeper understanding of the quantum-physical behaviour of gases at low temperatures...The technique rewarded this year also forms the basis for the discovery of Bose-Einstein condensation in atomic gases, a phenomenon that has attracted great interest. (from