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Geo-spatial data or geographic information identifies geographic locations of features and boundaries on Earth, such as natural or constructed features, oceans, and more. Spatial data is usually stored as coordinates and topology that can be mapped. Spatial data is often accessed, manipulated or analyzed through Geographic Information Systems (GIS).

A geographic information system (GIS) integrates hardware, software, and data for capturing, managing, analyzing, and displaying all forms of geographically referenced information. GIS allows us to view, understand, question, interpret, and visualize data in many ways that reveal relationships, patterns, and trends in the form of maps, globes, reports, and charts. A GIS helps you answer questions and solve problems by looking at your data in a way that is quickly understood and easily shared.

Some of the applications of Remote Sensing and GIS include monitoring of deforestation, agroecologic zonation, ozone layer depletion assessment, food early warning systems, climate and weather prediction and modeling, wetland degradation, vegetation mapping and monitoring, soil mapping, natural disaster and hazard assessment and mapping, and land use/ land cover analysis. Remote Sensing and GIS are important basis for sustainable planning for land management and decision making.

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