Problems Faced By The Muslims After The Prophet's Death

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

With The Name Of Allah, The Most Gracious, The Most Merciful






The Prophet’s death had never been thought over by the Para Sahabat and other Islam followers during that time.  They never make problems regarding the Prophet’s death, about his successor or what steps to be taken to appoint their new leader as a prophet as the Prophet did   show them any procedures.


The followers did not expect the Prophet’s death to happen around the same time when Islam is grown up, which was about 3 years after Makkah was conquered.  The Prophet’s death was on the year 11th Hijrah   and it lead to many problems between its followers; as stated in the Al-Quran.   During the Badar War, the satan tried to weak the followers by shouting aloud saying the Prophet was dead.  At that time, Allah descended his Order, the Surah 3 sentence 144 (Al-Imran) which means:


Muhammad is no more than just a prophet, whereby there were other prophets before him ( died or killed).  If he is dead or killed,  should you become a kafir.  Remember, those who become a kafir does not bring any harm to Allah.  Instead, Allah rewards those who are grateful.






Unable to believe  His Excellency’s death:


At the first place, there were a group of  the followers who did not believe the Prophet has died.  This led to a small misunderstanding with the other group who believed the Prophet has died.   Saidina Umar  did not believe His Excellency  has died even though he saw with his own eyes and some of the Sahabat  confidence  him.  According to him, the Prophet went to see Allah and would return as usual.  This matter was  then settled by Abu Bakar who gathered all the Islam followers in the mosque and explained to them.  He read the Surah (Al-Imran) sentence 144 (as above).  With this, Umar and the group who did not believe the Prophet’s death have to accept  the truth.



Where was His Excellency  buried:


There are many beliefs regarding to where His Excellency was to be buried.   Some of the Muhajirin suggested that His Excellency should be buried in Makkah, but  the Ansar wanted His Excellency to be buried in Madinah.  This problem was later settled by Abu Bakar Al-Siddiq when he read  a  hadis which means all prophets should be buried at the place of their deaths and so His Excellency was buried at His home.


The  problem of caliph :



The problem of who was to be the caliph  happen  between the Muhajirin and Ansar.  The Ansar wanted the post of  caliph  to be given to them.  They feel that they were eligible to the post as they were the saviors of Allah and Islam, unlike the Muhajirin who were only a small portion from them living in Madinah as political refugees.  Many of the Ansar get together and choose Said bin Ibadah to be the caliph.   When the Muhajirin  heard of  this, Abu Bakar Al-Siddiq, Umar Al-Khattab and Abu Abidah Al-Jahrah went to the Ansar gathering.  They were surprised when some of them had chose Said to be the caliph.  Abu Bakar did not agree to it.


This problem was  then settled by Abu Bakar.  He gives his long explanation regarding the caliph’s post and situation.  He makes them to agree to choose the caliph from the Quraish group.  Those from the Quraish, from their past history were known for their leadership, respected and shy  by other groups.  If  Saad was to be chosen, this would arise unfriendly relationship  among the Khawarij and Aus.  Abu Bakar’s idea was accept by the Ansar’s group and Abu Bakar proposed   to elect Umar Al-Khattab or Abu Abidah as the caliph.   Umar rejected the proposal and decide that Abu Bakar should be the first caliph of Islam.



The problem  of security  in the religion:



At that time, the Islam followers were face the problem of the country’s security and intact religion.  The problems came from the apostate group, the  group  who refused to pay the alms and also the group of  the false prophets.  Many of them  declared themselves as prophets and had many followers. Some of them are Danjib, Talaihah b Khawalit , Diya Mamah and Musailamah Kazab.  At the borders of Syam and some other  places there was a group who refused to pay the alms.  They were  the bad forces who have  destroy the country’s peace and  chastity of  Islam. All these had to be  abolish  as fast as possible to prevent further destruction  of the country and religion.  Furthermore, at that time the Islam  followers had just been left by the Prophet.  


The problem became worse when   the Islam followers  themselves had different opinions  to overcome the problem of the group who refused to pay the alms.  The Para Sahabat did not agree with Abu Bakar’s opinion of fighting those people as they were also Muslims.  The  problem  was then solved by informing the Para Sahabat that whoever did not pay the alms would be considered as apostate.  Even though then, all actions against them will be dealt with diplomatic way.


The first step   is to sent the officials to explain and ask  them to repent and pay the alms.  Only a few of them follow it like Bani Abdul Kais in Bahrin, while others became apostate and they were against Islam.


After that, the caliph set up 11 teams of soldiers who were lead by all the brave Islam warriors like Khalid bin Walid, Akramah bin Abu Jahal and the others.  They were able to put an end one by one and successfully destroy the group.



The problem of writing of  the Al-Quran:



The Al-Quran is a life constitution  of every Muslim.  It should be read, understood and practice in all aspect of live.  Many of the Para Sahabat, who memorized  the Al-Quran, had died and they are worried that if the new generations to come are unable to read the book.  Even at the first place Abu Bakar did not want  to accept the proposal  that the

Al-Quran to been written in proper compilation, but later agreed and he appointed  Zaid b Sabit to lead the committee of compiling  and writing of the Al-Quran.  Zaid with his committee members eventually succeed to complete the hard   task.   And, the problem was settled.





From all the factors which have been explained, clearly it shows that after the death of  Prophet Muhammad S.A.W. the Islam followers have faced many problems which included the political problem, religion, country’s security, armed force and others.  Even though the problems were serious, with the capability of the caliph Abu Bakar Al-Siddiq, the spirit of  understanding, cooperation and  loyalty of the people to the caliph all the problems were solved with the best effort  and the outcome was  satisfactory.