Islam & Modern Science

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

With The Name Of Allah, The Most Gracious, The Most Merciful

What Shape is the Earth ?

Today we can look at a globe and know that the earth is somewhat like a ball, a sphere. The Qur'an makes certain statements that led Muslim scientists to understand long before their European counterparts that the earth is spherical.

When Europe was in the dark ages thinking that the earth was flat, Muslim students were using globes for studying the earth in Islamic universities.

Since it was not the purpose of the Qur'an to teach science, the Qur'an did not need to state explicitly that the earth is spherical in shape (or more precisely, a geoid). But some of what the Qur'an says stimulates you to think of the world as a globe. Take, for example, the following verse: "Have you not seen how God merges the night into the day and merges the day into the night?" (Quran 31:29).

Another verse tells us that God coils the day and night around: "
He coils the night upon the day and He coils the day upon the night" (Quran 39:5).

The word 'coils' in the verse above is a translation of the Arabic verb kawwara which is used in describing the action of coiling a turban around the head. To understand this statement fully, readers of the Qur'an had to think of the earth as a sphere.

To fully appreciate the above two statements in the Qur'an, try this experiment at home: You need a flashlight and a globe. Take these items into a dark room. Using the flashlight to simulate the light of the sun, shine the light upon the globe. Notice that only one half of the globe is lighted up. The other half is in darkness. Half the world is having day, the other half is having night. Now, recall that the earth is continuously rotating on its axis and will go around completely in twenty four hours. Slowly turn the globe around to simulate this rotation. Notice that as the globe turns, the day is going around the globe to light up the other half of the world. The night is also going around the globe to give rest to the other half of the world.

The day and night are perpetually coiling around the earth with some degree of interpenetration. This is exactly how it appears to astronauts during their space flights.
Dr. Bucaille makes the following remark: "T
his process of perpetual coiling, including the interpenetration of one sector by another, is expressed in the Qur'an just as if the concept of the earth's roundness had already been conceived at the time—which was obviously not the case." (The Bible, the Qur'an and Science, p. 165).

How do we explain the presence of this knowledge in the Qur'an? This obviously did not reflect the level of learning of the time, but was helpful in stimulating Muslim scientists to conceive of the earth in its real shape.

This is no less than a reminder to (all) the worlds. And you shall certainly know the truth of it (all) after a while.(38:87-88).

Quran & The sensory characteristic of the skin

Dr. Tagata Tagasone: Laa Ilaaha Illallah Muhammad Rasool Allah !

This man is uttering the Islamic creed (Shahaadah) and declaring that he is becoming a Muslim. This occurred during the Eighth Saudi Medical Conference which was convened in Riyadh. He is Professor Tagata Tagasone, formerly Head of the Department of Anatomy and Embryology at the University of Shiang Mai in Thailand. He is now the Dean of the College of the Medicine at the University.

We presented to Professor Tagasone some Qur’aanic verses and Prophetic Ahadeeth which deal with his specialization in the field of anatomy. He commented that they also had in their Buddhist books very accurate descriptions of embryonic developmental stages. We told him that we were very anxious and interested to see those descriptions and learn about these books. A year later, Professor Tcame to King Abdul Aziz University as an outside examiner. We reminded him of the statement he made one year before, but he apologized and said that he in fact had made that statement without ascertaining the matter. However, when he checked the Buddhist books he found that they contained nothing of relevance to the subject.

Upon this we presented to him a lecture written by Professor Keith Moore about the compatibility of modern embryology with what is contained in the Qur’aan and the Sunnah and we asked Professor Tagasone if he knew of Professor Keith Moore. He replied that he knew him of course, adding that Professor Moore was one of the Most world-renowned scientists in that field.

When Professor Tagasone studied this article he also was greatly astonished. We asked him several questions in his field of specialization. One of the questions pertained to modern discoveries in dermatology about the sensory characteristics of the skin.
Dr. Tagasone responded:
Yes if the burn is deep.

It was stated to Dr. Tagasone: You will be interested to know that in this book, the Holy book the Qur’aan, there was a reference 1400 years ago which refers to the moment of punishment of the unbelievers by the fire of Hell and it states that when their skin is destroyed, Allah makes another skin for them so that they perceive the punishment by a fire, indicating knowledge about the nerve endings in the skin, and the verse is:

Those who reject our signs. We shall soon cast into the fire; as often as their skins are roasted through. We shall change them for fresh skins, that they may taste the chastisement: for Allah is Exalted in Power, Wise [ Qur’aan 4:56]

So do you agree that this is a reference to the importance of the nerve endings in the skin in sensation, 1400 years ago?

Dr. Tagasone responded: Yes I agree. This knowledge about sensation had been known long before. Because it says that if somebody does something wrong, then he will be punished by burning his skin and then Allah puts a new skin in him, cover him, to make him know that the test is painful again. That means they knew many years ago that the receptor of pain sensation must be on the skin, so they put a new skin on.

The skin is the center of sensitivity to burns. Thus, if the skin is completely burnt by fire, it looses its sensitivity. It is for this reason that Allah will punish the unbelievers on the Day of Judgement by returning to them their skins time after time, as He, the Exalted and Glorified, said in the Qur’aan:Those who reject our signs. We shall soon cast into the fire; as often as their skins are roasted through. We shall change them for fresh skins, that they may taste the chastisement: for Allah is Exalted in Power, Wise (Qur’aan 4:56).

We asked him the following question: ‘Is it possible that these verses came to the Prophet Muhammad, (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), from a human source?’

Professor Tagasone conceded that they could have never come from any human source. But he still asked about the source of that knowledge and from where could Muhammad have possibly received it?

We said, ‘From Allah, the Most Glorified and Most Exalted.’ Then he asked: ‘But who is Allah?’ We replied: He is the Creator of all that is in existence.’ If you find wisdom then it is because it comes only from the one Who is Most Wise. If you find knowledge in the making of this universe, it is because the universe is the creation of the One Who has all the knowledge. If you find perfection in the composition of these creations, then it is proof to you that it is the creation of the One Who Knows Best. And if you find mercy, then this bears witness to the fact that it is the creation of the One Who is Most Merciful. In the same way, if you perceive creation as belonging to one unified order and tied together firmly, then this is proof that it is the creation of the Only Creator, May He be Glorified and Exalted.

This is no less than a reminder to (all) the worlds. And you shall certainly know the truth of it (all) after a while.(38:87-88).



Quran & The Clouds

Scientists have studied cloud types and have realized that rain clouds are formed and  shaped according to definite systems and certain steps connected with certain types of wind and clouds.

One kind of rain cloud is the cumulonimbus cloud (pictured above) associated with thunderstorms. Meteorologists have studied how cumulonimbus clouds are formed and how they produce rain, hail, and lightning.

They have found that cumulonimbus cloud go through the following steps to produce rain:

1- The clouds are pushed by the wind: Cumulonimbus clouds begin to form when wind pushes some small pieces of clouds (cumulus) clouds to an area where these clouds converge.

2- Joining: Then the small  clouds join together forming a larger cloud.

3- Stacking: When the small clouds join together, updrafts within the larger cloud increase. The updrafts near the center of the cloud are stronger than those near the edges. These updrafts cause the cloud body to grow vertically, so the cloud is stacked up. This vertical growth causes the cloud body to stretch into cooler regions of the atmosphere where drops of          water and hail formulate and begin to grow larger and larger. When these drops of water and hail become too heavy for the updrafts to support them, they begin to fall from the cloud as rain, hail, etc.

Allah said in the Qur'aan: (Notice the great detail) Have you not seen how Allah makes the clouds move gently, then joins them together, then makes them into a stack, and then you see the rain come out of it...? [Qur'aan 24:43]

Meteorologists have only recently come to know these details of cloud formation, structure, and function by using advanced equipment like planes, satellites, computers, balloons, and other equipment to study winds and its direction, to measure humidity and its variations, and to determine the levels and variations of atmospheric pressure.

The preceding verse, after mentioning clouds and rain, speaks about hail and lightning:

And He sends down hail from mountains (clouds) in the sky, and He strikes with it  whomever He wills, and turns it from whoever He wills. The vivid flash of its lightning nearly blind s the sight. [Qur'aan 24:43]

Meteorologists have found that these cumulonimbus clouds, that shower hail, reach a height of 25,000 to 30,000 feet (4.7 to 5.7 miles), like mountains, as the Qur'aan said, And He sends down hail from mountains (clouds) in the sky...

This verse may raise a question. Why does the verse say ...its lightning  in reference to the  hail? Does this mean that hail is the major factor in producing lightning? Let us see what the  book entitled Meteorology Today, says on this. It says that clouds become electrified as hail  falls through a region in the could of supercooled droplets and ice crystals. As liquid droplets collide with hail, they freeze on contact and release latent heat. This keeps the surface of the  hail warmer than that of the surrounding ice crystals.  When the hail comes in contact with and ice crystal, and important phenomenon occurs.  Electrons flow from the colder oblect toward the warmer object. Hence, the hail become  negatively charged, The same effect occurs when super cooled droplets come in contact with a piece of hail and tiny splinters of positively charged ice break off. These lighter, positively  charged particles are then carried to the upper part of the could by updrafts. The hail, left   with a negative charge, fall toward the bottom of the cloud, thus the lower part of the cloud  becomes negatively charged. These negative charges are then discharged to the ground as lightning. We conclude from this that hail is the major factor in producing lightning.

This information on lightning was discovered recently. Until 1600 A.D., Aristotle's ideas on meteorology were dominant. or example, he said that the atmosphere contains two kinds of exhalation, moist and dry. He also said that thunder is the sound of the collision of the dry exhalation with the neighboring clouds, and lightning is the inflaming and burning of the dry exhalation with a thin and faint fire. These are some of the ideas on meteorology that were dominant at the time of the Qur'aan's revelation, fourteen centuries ago.



Islamic method of Slaughtering animals is better

Al Shaddad Bin Aous has quoted this tradition of the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H.) "God calls for mercy in everything, so be merciful when you kill and when you slaughter, sharpen your blade to relieve its pain".

Many allegations have been made that Islamic slaughter is not humane to animals. However, Professor Schultz and his colleague Dr. Hazim of the Hanover University, Germany, proved through an experiment, using an electroencephalograph (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) that *Islamic slaughter is THE humane method of slaughter* and captive bolt stunning, practiced by the Western method, causes severe pain to the animal.

The results surprised many.

Experimental Details:

1. Several electrodes were surgically implanted at various points of the skull of all animals, touching the surface of thebrain.

2. The animals were allowed to recover for several weeks.

3. Some animals were slaughtered by making a swift, deep incision with a sharp knife on the neck cutting the jugular veins and carotid Arteries of both sides; as also the trachea and esophagusHalal Method.

4. Some animals were stunned using a captive bolt pistol humane slaughter by the western method.

5. During the experiment, EEG and ECG were recorded on all animals to record the condition of the brain and heart during the course of slaughter and stunning.

Results and Discussion:

I - Halal Method

1. The first three seconds from the time of Islamic slaughter as recorded on the EEG did not show any change from the graph before slaughter, thus indicating that the animal did not feel any pain during or immediately after the incision.

2. For the following 3 seconds, the EEG recorded a condition of deep sleep - unconsciousness. This is due to a large quantity of blood gushing out from the body.

3. After the above mentioned 6 seconds, the EEG recorded zero level, showing no feeling of pain at all.

4. As the brain message (EEG) dropped to zero level, the heart was still pounding and the body convulsing vigorously (a reflex action of the spinal cord) driving maximum blood from the body: resulting in hygienic meat for the consumer.

II - Western method by C.B.P. Stunning

1. The animals were apparently unconscious soon after stunning.

2. EEG showed severe pain immediately after stunning.

3. The hearts of the animal stunned by C.B.P. stopped beating earlier as compared to those of the animals slaughtered according to the Halal method resulting in the retention of more blood inthe meat. This in turn is unhygienic for the consumer.

Cosmological references in the Noble Qur'ân

An article by : Dr. Zaghloul El-Naggar
Translated by: Hazem Hamdy

The Noble Qur'ân refers in several âyas (verses) to the universe and to many of its constituents (the heavens and earth, and the various forms of creatures, objects, and cosmological phenomena in each).

Those âyas are introduced in the context of demonstrating the boundlessness of divine powers by which this universe, including everyone and everything in it, was brought into existence. The âyas also prove that the Creator of this universe is also capable of annihilating it and of subsequently reconstructing it anew. Such reasoning is brought forth as part of confuting infidels, polytheists, and agnostics, and proving that Allâh is the only God and that He has no partner, counterpart, or contender.

The perpetual claim of infidels has been, and will remain until the Day of Judgement, based on attempts to deny the two issues of creation and resurrection after annihilation. Those two issues characteristically fall beyond the immediate perception of scientists, in spite of the tangible evidence that Allâh has maintained in the terrestrial and celestial surfaces to assist sensibly contemplating humans in realizing the reality of creation and the inevitability of annihilation and subsequent resurrection. Understanding the details of such facts in isolation of divine guidance would be more of a wild-goose chase than anything else. In that regard, Allâh ta'ala says in response to wrongful infidel, polytheist, and agnostic humans and jinn:

"I made them not to witness the creation of the heavens and the earth, nor their own creation; nor choose I misleaders for My helpers" (Al-Kahf: 51)

On the other hand, Allâh ta'âla encourages humans to ponder and meditate on the creation of the heavens and earth with the following words of His perfect book:

Lo! In the creation of the heavens and the earth and in the difference of night and day are tokens of His sovereignty for men of understanding. Such as remember Allâh, standing, sitting, and reclining, and consider the creation of the heavens and the earth, and say: Our Lord! Thou createdst not this in vain. Glory be to Thee! Preserve us from the doom of fire. (Al-'imrân: 190-191).

The revelation of the latter two noble âyas and subsequent âyas in the same sûra had an immense impact on the Messenger of Allâh (may the peace and blessings of Allâh be upon him). He was quoted to have said upon their revelation, "Woe unto those who hear those âyas and onto them do not ponder." The explicit command contained therein indicates that pondering on the creation of the heavens and earth is an Islamic duty that must be carried out by a group of Muslims. Such an undertaking is a most honorable and important act of worshipping Allâh the Creator, in addition to being one of the most important means of realizing the reality of creation, the inevitability of annihilation, and the necessity of resurrection, and of assuring the glory of Allâh ta'âla and that He is the only God and Lord.

The universe that we inhabit is of vast size, fine construction, and accurate motion. It is orderly in all its aspects and systematic in its entire construct, fine and coarse. Being as such, nobody with the least of reason can imagine that its is a product of sheer coincidence or that it brought itself into existence. Rather, it must have a magnificent originator possessing an extent of absolute power, perfect wisdom, and comprehensive knowledge sufficient for creating this universe, including everyone and everything in it. It is not possible that such a creator have a contender to his dominion or have an associate in his supremacy, because He is the Lord and Sovereign of this universe. None of His creation resembles Him, for He is the Creator of all things, and He is doubtlessly superior to all of His creation. He may not be limited in space or time, simply because He created both of them. Additionally, neither matter nor energy formation may apply to Him, because he is the Innovator of them both. We know nothing about His Supreme Self other than the definition of Himself introduced in His own words:

The Creator of the heavens and the earth. He hath made for you pairs of yourselves, and of the cattle also pairs, whereby He multiplieth you. Naught is as His likeness; and He is the Hearer, the Seer. (Ash-Shûra: 11).

We also have His words to the last of His prophets and messengers (may the peace and blessings of Allâh be upon him):

Say: He is Allâh, the One! Allâh, the eternally Besought of all! He begetteth not nor was begotten. And there is none comparable unto Him. (Al-Ikhlâs: 1-4).

Accordingly, reflecting on the creation of the heavens and earth is one of the most significant approaches to believing in Allâh, and is thus strongly encouraged in both the Noble Qur'ân and the virtuous Prophetic Sunna.

Assurance of the Noble Qur'ân that evidence in the heavens and earth proves creation, annihilation, and resurrection

The Noble Qur'ân emphasizes the evidence found in the heavens and earth expressing the absolute divine power obvious in their creation and origination, as well as the inevitability of their eventual annihilation and subsequent reconstruction in a form other than that currently known to us. This is recurrent in several âyas, among which are the following:

- He it is Who created the heavens and the earth in truth. (Al-Ana'âm: 73)

- Allâh created the heavens and the earth with truth. Lo! therein is indeed a portent for believers. (Al-'ankabût: 44)

- Allâh created not the heavens and the earth, and that which is between them, save with truth and for a destined end. But truly many of mankind are disbelievers in the meeting with their Lord. (Ar-Rûm: 8)

- And of His signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the difference of your languages and colors. Lo! herein indeed are portents for men of knowledge. (Ar-Rûm: 22)

- He it is who produceth creation, then reproduceth it and it is easier for Him. His is the Sublime Similitude in the heavens and in the earth. He is the Mighty, the Wise. (Ar-Rûm: 27)

- He created the heavens and the earth with truth, and He shaped you and made good your shapes, and unto Him is the journeying. (At-Taghâbun: 3)

- He hath created the heavens and the earth with truth. He maketh night to succeed day, and He maketh day to succeed night, and He constraineth the sun and the moon to give service, each running on for an appointed term. Is not He the Mighty, the Forgiver? (Az-Zumar: 5)

- Assuredly the creation of the heavens and the earth is greater than the creation of mankind; but most of mankind know not. (Ghâfir: 57)

- And of His portents is the creation of the heaven and the earth, and of whatever beasts He hath dispersed therein. And He is Able to gather them when He will. (Ash-Shûra: 29)

- And We created not the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them, in play. We created them not save with truth; but most of them know not. (Ad-Dukhân: 38-39)

Assurance of the Noble Qur'ân that Allâh ta'âla is the Creator of the heavens, earth, and everything else

Derivatives of the Arabic root term for creation (Khalq) occur two hundred and sixty one times in the Noble Qur'ân, assuring that the process of creation is exclusively attributed to Allâh ta'âla with absolutely no association nor contention. In reality, no one else is capable of creation unless supported by authority from Allâh ta'âla. On the other hand, the Arabic word corresponding to "heaven" (sky) is mentioned in singular, plural forms in three hundred and ten locations in the Noble Qur'ân. One hundred and twenty of those are in singular (heaven) and one hundred and ninety in plural (heavens) in both definite and indefinite forms. Derivatives of the term for earth are mentioned in four hundred and sixty one locations covering various contexts, all of which affirm that Allâh ta'âla is the Creator of the heavens, earth, and everything else, such as the following:

- Such is Allâh, your Lord. There is no God save Him, the Creator of all things, so worship Him. And He taketh care of all things. (Al-An'âm: 102)

- His verily is all creation and commandment Blessed be Allâh, the Lord of the Worlds! (Al-A'râf: 54)

- Lo! He produceth creation, then reproduceth it (Yûnus: 4)

- Say: Allâh is the Creator of all things, and He is the One, the Almighty. (Ar-Ra'd: 16)

- He hath created everything and hath meted out for it a measure. (Al-Furqân: 2)

- Allâh is Creator of all things, and He is Guardian over all things. (Az-Zumar: 62)

- Such is Allâh, your Lord, the Creator of all things. There is no God save Him. How then are ye perverted? (Ghâfir: 62)

- Lo! We have created every thing by measure. (Al-Qamar: 49)

- He is Allâh, the Creator, the Shaper out of naught, the Fashioner. (Al-Hashr: 24)

The Noble Qur'ân extensively and conclusively handles the issues of creation and resurrection by ascribing them exclusively to Allâh ta'âla. This is because they were two of the most challenging issues that have been historically used as arguments by atheists and agnostics lacking knowledge and guidance. Until today, they still use such repudiation and denial in contesting the belief in Allâh ta'âla as the Creator. The Noble Qur'ân refutes their claims as follows:

- Is He then Who createth as him who createth not? Will ye not then remember? (An-Nahl: 17)

- Those unto whom they cry beside Allâh created naught, but are themselves created. (An-Nahl: 20)

- Yet they choose beside Him other gods who create naught but are themselves created. (Al-Furqân: 3)

- Or were they created out of naught? Or are they the creators? Or did they create the heavens and the earth? Nay, but they are sure of nothing! (At-Tûr: 35-36)

- Say: Is there of your partners ( whom ye ascribe unto Allâh ) one that produceth Creation and then reproduceth it? Say: Allâh produceth creation, then reproduceth it. How then, are ye misled! (Yûnus: 34)

- See they not how Allâh produceth creation, then reproduceth it? Lo! for Allâh that is easy. Say ( O Muhammad ): Travel in the land and see how He originated creation, then Allâh bringeth forth the later growth. Lo! Allâh is Able to do all things. (Al-'ankabût: 19-20)

·  Stance of the Islamic civilization on the issue of creation

Upon completion of the mission of the Prophet (may the peace and blessings of Allâh be upon him), Muslims set out to establish the greatest civilization history ever knew. Their endeavor was based on undisputed belief in the fact of creation and the inevitability of resurrection. The aim was achieved because theirs was the only civilization that successfully combined this world with the afterlife in a single formula that lasted for more than ten whole centuries. Such civilization called for worshipping of Allâh as He commanded (on basis of pure monotheism and full denial of any counterpart, associate, or contender to His names and attributes). It concurrently calls for adequate fulfillment of the constructive duties assigned to humans on earth and the realization of justice as set forth by Allâh thereon, based on the laws revealed by Allâh through his final messenger. It is that revelation that Allâh vowed to preserve in the same language as it was revealed; word for word and letter for letter. Truly, it has been preserved so that no human may ever have an excuse after that conclusive revelation was brought forth and preserved under the vow of Allâh from any loss or distortion.

Applying such a balanced combination of divine revelation with endeavors to acquire beneficial knowledge, the Islamic civilization enlightened all religious and civil aspects of life, while establishing a solid foundation for religious, scientific, and technological matters. This was based on belief in the natural coherence of knowledge, and that believers enjoy ultimate entitlement to wisdom, simply because they are constantly pursuing it. As such, the Islamic civilization compiled knowledge from all sources, no matter how distant or how disparate the initiating civilization and the beliefs of its members were. However, such knowledge was never taken for granted. Rather, all available human heritage would always be screened using Islamic criteria that are based on pure belief in the unity of Allâh, in order to purify that heritage from all the blemishes of polytheism, atheism, and repudiation towards Allâh ta'âla. Additionally, the Islamic civilization made substantial inherent contributions to all aspects of human heritage, which subsequently served as a springboard for the modern scientific and technological renaissance. This is a fact that many a contemporary scientist admits all over the world.

Believing in the unseen never impeded scientific and technological progress of the Islamic civilization. In fact, the Islamic civilization strongly encouraged pursuing such progress, considering it one of the patterns of worshipping Allâh ta'âla. It also encouraged contemplation of the creation and methodological means of induction based on the laws set by Allâh in the universe with the ultimate goal of utilizing them to the constructive benefit of this world in fulfillment of one of the duties assigned to humans on earth. Such efforts thus represent the other side of worshipping Allâh; the first side being acts of worship based on obeying His commands and following the course of the last of prophets and messengers (may the peace and blessings of Allâh be upon him).

·  Stance of the current materialistic civilization on the issue of creation

The current materialistic civilization was originally formed in the Islamic civilization crucible and rose therefrom. However, contrary to the Islamic civilization, the western civilization was built on a purely materialistic foundation. It repudiated religion and assumed a denying position with regards to believing in Allâh, His angels, books, and messengers, and the Day of Judgement. It also rejected anything that is unseen in an explicitly hostile and scornful manner. It thus deviated off-track and went astray, in spite of its tremendous amount of scientific discoveries and amazing technological achievements. In fact, such discoveries and achievements are potential factors of the eventual destruction of that very civilization in the absence of any religious, spiritual, or ethical commitment. How truly has this been expressed in the Noble Qur'ân more than fourteen hundred years ago, in the revealed words of Allâh ta'âla: Then, when they forgot that whereof they had been reminded, We opened unto them the gates of all things till , even as they were rejoicing in that which they were given , We seized them unawares , and lo! they were dumbfounded. So of the people who did wrong the last remnant was cut off. Praise be to Allâh, Lord of the Worlds!

By rejecting belief in Allâh, western societies have descended to an extremely inferior standard of depravity, social deterioration, and defiance of the nature with which Allâh created every being. This coincided with their enjoyment of material superiority that supported their hegemony, subjugation of others, and spreading of injustice; as they lack fear of a Lord and of judgement, all of which pose a combined threat to the very existence of humanity!

Human knowledge as a whole, and science in particular, are still being composed on purely materialistic grounds that only take tangibles into consideration and neglect everything beyond. Human societies drifted with such directions into an endless labyrinth, thus going astray and misleading others, in spite of the enormous amount of information contained therein and the amazing technological progress that has been achieved.

Misguidance of modern materialistic civilization reaches its peak when it deals with issues that simply cannot be subjected to direct human perception, such as those related to creation, annihilation, and resurrection (creation of the universe, of life, of humans, and subsequent annihilation and resurrection thereof anew). Those are some of the issues that imply the need for divine guidance. Otherwise, profound misguidance is certain. Allâh ta'âla most truthfully confutes those claims made by wrongful infidel, polytheist, and agnostic humans and jinn as follows:

I made them not to witness the creation of the heavens and the earth, nor their own creation; nor choose I misleaders for (My) helpers. (Al-Kahf: 51)

The Noble Qur'ân assures that none of humans or jinn witnessed the creation of the heavens and earth, nor even of his own self, for that matter. However, it concurrently affirms the necessity of pondering on the creation of heavens, earth, and life as the most significant indicators of the boundless power of Allâh and the perfect craft of divine production. They equally indicate the inevitability of afterlife and the necessity of resurrection, judgement, paradise, and hell. This is due to the fact that the Creator (highly exalted and glorified) left clues in the terrestrial rocks and in the celestial plane to help humans understand the issues of creation and resurrection, in spite of their limited mental and perceptive abilities vis-à-vis the vastness of the universe, the enormity of its dimensions, and the complexity of its structure, in addition to the structural complexity of the human body and its cells. Such a combination produces a marvelous form of placing the entire universe at the service and benefit of man, and of rendering it within his conception and perception.



The Mathematical Sciences And Physics

             The Muslim mind has always been attracted to the mathematical sciences in accordance with the "abstract" character of the doctrine of Oneness which lies at the heart of Islam. The mathematical sciences have traditionally included astronomy, mathematics itself and much of what is called physics today.

In astronomy the Muslims integrated the astronomical traditions of the Indians, Persians, the ancient Near East and especially the Greeks into a synthesis which began to chart a new chapter in the history of astronomy from the 8th century onward. The Almagest of Ptolemy, whose very name in English reveals the Arabic origin of its Latin translation, was thoroughly studied and its planetary theory criticized by several astronomers of both the eastern and western lands of Islam leading to the major critique of the theory by Nasir al-Din al-Tusi and his students, especially Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi, in the 13th century.

The Muslims also observed the heavens carefully and discovered many new stars. The book on stars of 'Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi was in fact translated into Spanish by Alfonso X el Sabio and had a deep influence upon stellar toponymy in European languages. Many star names in English such as Aldabran still recall their Arabic origin. The Muslims carried out many fresh observations which were contained in astronomical tables called Zij. One of the acutest of these observers was al-Battani whose work was followed by numerous others. The Zij of al-Ma'mun observed in Baghdad, the Hakimite Zij of Cairo, the Toledan Tables of al-Zarqali and his associated, the II-Khanid Zij of Nasir al-Din al-Tusi observed in Maraghah, and the Zij of Ulugh-Beg from Samarqand are among the most famous Islamic astronomical tables.

They wielded a great deal of influence upon Western astronomy up to the time of Tycho Brahe. The Muslims were in fact the first to create an astronomical observatory as a scientific institution, this being the observatory of Maraghah in Persia established by al-Tusi. This was indirectly the model for the later European observatories. Many astronomical instruments were developed by Muslims to carry out observation, the most famous being the astrolabe. There existed even mechanical astrolabes perfected by Ibn Samh which must be considered as the ancestor of the mechanical clock.

Astronomical observations also had practical applications including not only finding the direction of Makkah for prayers, but also devising almanacs (the word itself being of Arabic origin). The Muslims also applied their astronomical knowledge to questions of time-keeping and the calendar. The most exact solar calendar existing to this day is the Jalali calendar devised under the direction of 'Umar Khayyam in the 12th century and still in use in Persia and Afghanistan.

As for mathematics proper, like astronomy, it received its direct impetus from the Quran not only because of the mathematical structure related to the text of the Sacred Book, but also because the laws of inheritance delineated in the Quran require rather complicated mathematical solutions. Here again Muslims began by integrating Greek and Indian mathematics. The first great Muslim mathematician, al-Khwarazmi, who lived in the 9th century, wrote a treatise on arithmetic whose Latin translation brought what is known as Arabic numerals to the West. To this day guarismo, derived from his name, means figure or digit in Spanish while algorithm is still used in English. Al-Khwarzmi is also the author of the first book on algebra. This science was developed by Muslims on the basis of earlier Greek and Indian works of a rudimentary nature. The very name algebra comes from the first part of the name of the book of al-Khwarazmi, entitled Kitab al-jabr wa'l-muqabalah. Abu Kamil al-Shuja' discussed algebraic equations with five unknowns. The science was further developed by such figures as al-Karaji until it reached its peak with Khayyam who classified by kind and class algebraic equations up to the third degree.

The Muslims also excelled in geometry as reflected in their art. The brothers Banu Musa who lived in the 9th century may be said to be the first outstanding Muslim geometers while their contemporary Thabit ibn Qurrah used the method of exhaustion, giving a glimpse of what was to become integral calculus. Many Muslim mathematicians such as Khayyam and al-Tusi also dealt with the fifth postulate of Euclid and the problems which follow if one tries to prove this postulate within the confines of Eucledian geometry.

Another branch of mathematics developed by Muslims is trigonometry which was established as a distinct branch of mathematics by al-Biruni. The Muslim mathematicians, especially al-Battani, Abu'l-Wafa', Ibn Yunus and Ibn al-Haytham, also developed spherical astronomy and applied it to the solution of astronomy and applied it to the solution of astronomical problems.

The love for the study of magic squares and amicable numbers led Muslims to develop the theory of numbers. Al-Khujandi discovered a particular case of Fermat's theorem that "the sum of two cubes cannot be another cube", while al-Karaji analyzed arithmetic and geometric progressions such as: 13+23+33+...+n3=(1+2+3+...+n)2. Al-Biruni also dealt with progressions while Ghiyath al-Din Jamshid al-Kashani brought the study of number theory among Muslims to its peak.

In the field of physics the Muslims made contributions in especially three domains. The first was the measurement of specific weights of objects and the study of the balance following upon the work of Archimedes. In this domain the writings of al-Biruni and al-Khazini stand out. Secondly they criticized the Aristotelian theory of projectile motion and tried to quantify this type of motion. The critique of Ibn Sina, Abu'l-Barakat al-Baghdadi, Ibn Bajjah and others led to the development of the idea of impetus and momentum and played an important role in the criticism of Aristotelian physics in the West up to the early writings of Galileo. Thirdly there is the field of optics in which the Islamic sciences produced in Ibn al-Haytham (the Latin Alhzen) who lived in the 11th century, the greatest student of optics between Ptolemy and Witelo. Ibn al-Haytham's main work on optics, the Kitab al-manazir, was also well known in the West as Thesaurus opticus. Ibn al-Haytham solved many optical problems, one of which is named after him, studied the property of lenses, discovered the Camera Obscura, explained correctly the process of vision, studied the structure of the eye, and explained for the first time why the sun and the moon appear larger on the horizon. His interest in optics was carried out two centuries later by Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi and Kamal al-Din al-Farisi. It was Qutb al-Din who gave the first correct explanation of the formation of the rainbow.

It is important to recall that in physics as in many other fields of science the Muslims observed, measured and carried out experiments. They must be credited with having developed what came to be known later as the experimental method.

Source: Islam A Global Civilization




Geology & The Origin of the Earth

           Professor Alfred Kroner, who is one of the world’s most famous geologists. He is a Professor of Geology and the Chairman of the Department of Geology at the Institute of Geosciences, Johannes Gutenburg University, Mainz, Germany studied and commented on several Qur'aanic verses and Ahadeeth of the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him.

Professor Kroner said: "
Thinking about many of these questions and thinking where Muhammad came from, he was after all a bedouin. I think it is almost impossible that he could have known about things like the common origin of the universe, because scientists have only found out within the last few years with very complicated and advanced technological methods that this is the case."

Professor Kroner chose an example from the Qur'aan which proved to him why the Qur'aan could not have come from Muhammad (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) himself. The example which Professor Kroner chose is a description in the Qur'aan of the fact that this universe had its beginnings in one single entity. Allah, may He be Exalted and Glorified said: {Do not the unbelievers see that the heavens and the earth were joined together [ratqan], before we clove them asunder? We made from water every living thing… } [Qur'aan 21:30]

The meaning of [ratqan] in this verse, is that the heavens and the earth were stuck together or blended together, and that they were later separated from each other. Professor Kroner used this as an example to prove that no human being during the time of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), could have known this.


Professor Kroner: "Somebody who did not know something about nuclear physics 1400 years ago could not, I think, be in a position to find out from his own mind for instance that the earth and the heavens had the same origin, or many others of the questions that we have discussed here."


Professor Kroner, so it seemed to us, has a special talent of being evasive. For example, we asked him to describe the geological conditions of Arabia. ‘Was Arabia full of orchards and rivers?’ He said: "During the Snow Age." And it is further known that the North Polar icebergs are slowly moving southwards. When those polar icebergs become relatively close to the Arabian Peninsula, the weather will change and Arabia will become one of the greenest and wettest parts of the world. We asked him: ‘Will Arabia become the land of orchards and rivers?’ He said: "Yes, it is a scientific fact."


This astonished us, and we wondered how he could state this as a scientific fact while it was related to the future and we asked: ‘Why?’ He said: "Because the new Snow Age has actually started. And we can see the snow crawling once again from the North Pole southwards. In fact, the polar snow is now on the way to get closer to the Arabian Peninsula. We can see the signs of this in the snow blizzards striking the northern parts of Europe and America every winter. Scientists have other signs and information proving the actual beginning of another Snow Age. It is a scientific fact."


So we said to him: ‘What you have just mentioned has only been known to scientists after a long series of discoveries and with the help of specialized instruments. But we have already found this mentioned by the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) 1400 years ago. He said in a hadith transmitted in Saheeh Muslim: "The Last Hour will not come upon us until the lands of the Arabs are once again pasture lands and filled with rivers."


At this point we asked Professor Kroner: ‘Who told the Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), that the lands of the Arabs were once filled with orchards and rivers?’ He immediately replied: "The Romans." This reminded me of Professor Kroner’s evasive ability. We asked him another question, we said to him: ‘But who informed the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon hi), that the lands of the Arabs would once again become pasturelands and be filled with rivers?’. Professor Kroner becomes evasive if embarrassed. But whenever he was faced with the truth, he is courageous enough to state his opinion frankly and thus he replied: "This could have been known to him only through revelation from above."


Finally, after our discussions with him, he made the following comments: "If you combine all these and you combine all those statements that are being made in the Quran in terms that relate to the earth and the formation of the earth and science in general, you can basically say that statements made there in many ways are true. They can now be confirmed by scientific methods, and in a way you can say that the Quran is a simple science text book for the simple man, and that many of the statements made in there at that time could not be proven but that modern scientific methods are now in a position to prove what Muhammad said 1400 years ago."


Allah confirms in His Book that:

{This is no less than reminder to (all), the worlds. And you shall certainly know the truth of it all after a while} (Qur'aan 38:87-88)


Written by : Sh. AbdulMajid Az-Zindany, ( To read the whole book : )




Scientific Accuracy of Qur'an Amazes U of T Professor

        This message is based on an article titled “Highlights of Human embryology in the Qur’an and Haidth” by Dr.Keith Moore, Professor of Anatomy and Chairman of the Department, Faculty of Medicine, at the University of Toronto, 1982.

Dr. Moore points out that the study of how the human embryo develops in the mother’s womb could not progress significantly without the use of microscopes. Microscopes were not invented until the 17th century C.E., and were not used in this field of study until the 18th century. Therefore, when Dr. Moore studied certain statements in the Qur’an on this subject, he remarked, “ I was amazed at the scientific accuracy of these statements which were made in the 7th century C.E.,”

The Qur’an in 39:6 states that God made us in the wombs of our mothers in stages. Dr. Moore comments: “The realization that the embryo develops in stages in the uterus was not proposed until the1940’s, and the stages used nowadays were not adopted worldwide until the 19th century C.E.”

Furthermore, he says: “The idea that development results from a genetic plan contained in the chromosomes, of the zygote was not discovered until the end of the 19th century C.E. The verse from the Qur’an [80:18] clearly implies that the nutfa (i.e.
the initial drop of fluid) contains the plan or blueprint for the future characteristics and features of the developing human being.”

The Qur’an 23: 12-16 indicates that there is a lag or a gap between two of the early stages of growth. How does that compare with modern scientific knowledge? Remarkably! Says Dr. Moore: “It is well established that there is a lag or a delay in the development of
the embryo during the implantation… The agreement between the lag or gap in development mentioned in the Qur’an and the slow rate of change occurring during the second or third weeks is amazing. These details of human development were not described until about 40 years ago.”

Finally, Dr. Moore concludes by saying that the agreement he has found in the Qur’anic statements ‘may help to close the gap between science and religion which has existed for so many years.”

The above evidence shows that the Qur’an must be from God as it claims. The Qur’an says that you and every human being should consider this book with care: {
Had it been from anyone other than God, you would have found much discrepancy in it}
[Qur’an 4:82]



The Relationship between Quran & Science. Is the earth flat?

An interesting and important discussion of the relationship between Quran and Science and how this relates to the question of is the earth flat and do Muslims believe so?


Bismillahi-Rahmani-Rahim Wa bihi nasta'een

In the name of God, Most Merciful, Most Beneficient; and from Him we seek help

All Praise is for the One and only God Who created all that we see around us so perfectly, with immense knowledge, deep insight and unparalleled mastery. The more one discovers these the more he appreciates. Likewise, all Praise is for the One and Only God who sent Messengers and Books of Guidance to His Creation from time to time. He sent the Quran, the last of them, and perfected it with guidance based on His immense knowledge, deep insight and unparalleled wisdom in its guidance and eloquence. The more we increase in wisdom the more we appreciate it.

What is the relationship of Quran to Science and Technology? Did Muslim scholars of Quran and Islam believe the earth was flat?

The answer unashamedly is, 'Yes, they did'. The Quran merely described the earth as a vast expanse stretched out for all to live stably and comfortably on it. Some scholars extrapolated from it that the earth was a flat sheet (as opposed to a sphere). But herein lays a further proof that the Quran is the word of God and not of any man, as we will see shortly inshaAllah.

First we will examine the relationship of Quran to Science and Technology. From this the place of the abovementioned saying of some Muslim scholars will become clear.

Allah refers to the Quran as containing arguments that serve as eye openers to the reality of this life, the knowledge of its Creator, His Messenger and purpose of life. He says therein, (the translation of it means) "This (contains) Basaa'ir (deep insights, arguments and eye openers) for mankind." [Sura Jaathiya45: 20] He also says, "O people, there has indeed come to you an admonition from your Lord, a healing for what is in the chests; and a guidance and mercy for the Believers." [Sura Yunus10: 57] So the Quran serves as an admonition persuading the people and appealing to their better judgment to cure and heal the unhealthy thoughts, feelings and beliefs that they may harbour in their chests about life, toward their Creator and fellow human beings. Moreover, it provides guidance in every walk of life to lift their character and reap the benefits as a mercy for those who believe in it and follow its guidance.

So the Quran is a book of guidance to open people's eyes to the reality of this life, its Creator and to live in harmony with His creation. In other words the Quran and the Messenger of God, who conveyed the Book to us from our Creator, said about the whole purpose behind his being sent as a Messenger with the Quran, "Verily, I have merely been sent to complete the noble characteristics." (Innama bu'ithtu li utammima makaarimal-aklaaq). As the Scholars have pointed out, the aklaaq or character in Arabic, 'is the internal make-up of a person that brings forth actions naturally and without any difficulty.' Thus the Quran and the Messenger have been sent to complete and perfect our character; firstly in our relationship with our Creator and then in our dealings with our fellow human beings as well as animals and the inanimate objects created by God.

This, the Quran sets out to do as did the Messenger of our Creator, Muhammad (s.a.w), in his life time and for after his death left behind for us his Hadith (a record of his sayings and actions); and they both fulfilled their task in an impeccable manner. With this, it starts to become clearer that the Quran is not and was not meant to be a textbook on science and technology. Nowhere in it does it claim this, nor did the Messenger of God, Muhammad. It did not even set out to make one scientific theory or serve as a manual for a technological breakthrough. Science and technology are merely a means to the end that the Quran came to guide us to. The knowledge of science and technology are a common human heritage and aspects of them are constantly revised, discarded or developed. Something we believe to be true today may be disproved a few years later. An example of that is the age of the earth. The Medieval Christians (during their 'Dark Ages' specified it within a certain range. Scientists at the onset of Christian European Renaissance revised that figure using thermal means to determine its age and increased the number by more than ten times. Then the scientists with the advancement of technology used means of radioactive detection and determined its age to be far higher in the order of millions of years. They realized that the earlier thermal means were in fact incorrect due to climatic influences on the thermal mode of assessment! This is an example of what was once believed to be scientific facts being proven wrong and revised with more technological advancement.

Our knowledge of science is based on experimental method and extrapolating a theory of the 'reality' and this is coloured by the philosophical beliefs of the scientists who are postulating that theory. A lot of what many call science is facts explained by the scientist's beliefs and philosophy.

However, since technology is concerned with the means and not the end, the Quran -which is the exact word of God - makes no direct attempt at raising the level of man in it and that is a steady ongoing process. It merely encourages them to use it for good.

But, as for the Prophet Muhammad whose words (recorded in Hadith collection) were human and not divine, he never even attempted to postulate a scientific theory as that was not his mission. The most he ever referred to scientific concepts was no more than as passing references while making another religious point in the broad sense. His knowledge of technology and science (as with his companions who were all humans and not divine, it) was to a large extent a reflection of the scientific awareness of the people of that time -but without the superstitious beliefs which Islam purified them from. As for the knowledge of religious guidance that the Prophet was sent with, it was of divine accuracy since it was revealed to him from God. As Muslim scholars pointed out, if ever the Prophet exercised his judgment (ijtihad) in verdicts to do with matters of religious guidance (be it in economics, politics or social life), then Allah ensured that his judgment was never left unchecked if he ever erred as a human (as pointed out in books of Usool-ul-Fiqh and Tafseer).

We see a clear example of the nature of the knowledge of the Prophet in the two fields from the following incident and he himself makes the point very clearly.

The Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be on him) along with some of his companions migrated from Mecca to Medina. The Meccans were merchants and traders while the Medinians were people of agriculture. One day, in Medina, the Prophet was passing by a few Medinan farmers who were climbing high up on date palms to enhance pollination of seeds. They would manually put male with the female instead of leaving it to the wind to do it. The Prophet, who was not a farmer without realizing the importance of this manual process said to them, "Perhaps it may be better for you not to do this." The Medinians, hearing this from the Messenger of God left what they were doing. The produce came out scarcely as it was merely by the wind. The Prophet clarified his role and nature as a Messenger of God to the people in very clear terms, "If I order you to do something that is to do with your religion then take it (and do it) but if I order you to do something from my own opinion then verily I am merely a human being;" and he added, "You are more knowledgeable of the matters of your world." This is an authentic hadith, collected in Sahih Muslim.

Thus we see in the hadith literature when the Prophet and the companions happened to mention anything of scientific nature, as the Prophet pointed out earlier, it reflects their contemporary human level of knowledge in those matters of technology. Yet when we see in the Quran any passing references made to a matter of science, it is of timeless accuracy - some of those facts that have only been discovered thirteen hundred years later with modern advanced scientific equipment. An example of this is references to embryological stages of development discovered recently by microscopes.

Doesn't this clearly show that the author of the Quran was not a contemporary to the time of its Revelation - not the Prophet nor any human being - rather the author was someone with knowledge of timeless accuracy?

I mentioned that the Quran makes no more than 'passing references' to matters of science as the Quran was not meant to be a text book teaching science nor did it concern itself with that. The role of these passing references whenever made in a moral lesson can be understood by the following example.

Imagine when you see a person being extremely haughty and arrogant, you rebuke him saying, "Why are you behaving so arrogantly while you were made from just two tiny cells, the sperm and the ovum in a tiny droplet of liquid that no one even likes to touch!" You are imparting a moral lesson and making passing references only to scientific facts to make the moral point and no more. In fact had Allah used scientific concepts that could not have been understood at all at that point in time or thereafter, then the point would not have been understood and the people would have been left confused. That is why the only references are of a nature such that the moral lesson can still be made. It is these that even leading non-Muslim scientists have discovered in the Quran.

Keith Moore is a leading Canadian Embryologist and two of his books have been used as Embryology text books in Medical faculties at universities around the world. He is an example of one who researched into these scientific references in the Quran and realized that the author of the Quran is One Whose knowledge is of timeless accuracy and not a human being. He accepted Islam and became a Muslim. He even published the third addition of one of these text books with correlations between Quran and embryological facts. However, the publishers soon brought out a fourth edition and left only a paragraph of that in the section on history! Just as the leading magicians in the Court of Pharaoh realized that the staff of Moses was no magic but from a non human, super natural source, God; likewise these scientists who were humble, open-minded and without any vested interests, they realized that the scientific facts made references to in the Quran are not from a human from the time of revelation but rather from God Whose knowledge is eternal and complete.

Sheikh Muhammad ibn Salih al-Utheimeen, a leading scholar of Islam who died only a few years ago, made a very interesting point that shows the difference between Islam, and other religions. He said, (from what I relate from memory) "From the apparent (Dh-aahir) understanding of the verses of the Quran I understand that the sun goes around the earth - at least from our reference point here on earth. If knowledge comes to us with certainty that it in fact is the opposite, then I would realise that these verses were merely pointing out the movement of the sun as seen by an onlooker on earth (as the moral lesson is being made about them sitting in the cave on earth with the sun above them as in Sura Kahf). Both concepts can be understood from those verses in isolation." In fact those expressions are along the lines of what we still say today in our expressions and fully understand what we mean when we say 'Sunrise, sun has risen or the sun has set!' The Sheikh did not concern himself with these matters. As for the moral and spiritual development (in all walks of life including economics, political, social interactions etc), this sheikh like others, learnt it from the Quran which is what the Quran was sent for, and his knowledge and excellence in these aspects was proverbial.

Had the Quran been sent by God for teaching science instead of moral development it would have done it with the same class and expertise.

Yet, as the Quran points out, many among mankind do not accept and submit to God's guidance. At times it is because of racial pride and arrogance while with others it is simply indulgence in the temporal pleasures of this life to an extent where they do not contemplate enough and are not willing to give up these immediate pleasures for the eternal ones that they cannot see even if they knew and realised.

Moreover, had the Quran been from a human or any other than God there would have been internal inconsistencies and discrepancies - as is characteristic of a mortal in his authorship - but the Quran is amazingly coherent and there is not even a single contradiction neither within itself nor with proven facts outside it. Allah said in the Quran, (the translation reads) "Do they not then reflect on the Quran, had it been from any other than God, they would have found therein many discrepancies" [Sura Nisa 4:82]

It is the people's shortcoming for not accepting the Quran despite its truth being so manifest. It even challenged them to produce a short chapter like it in its eloquence, lofty guidance with penetrating insight and wisdom. This challenge is very appropriate as we can match a human effort or even surpass it but not one that is from God. A false claimant to Prophet hood at the time of Prophet Muhammad came up with a short sura trying to match sura al-Qari’ah. Amr ibn al-Aas, who was then one of the leaders of Quraish in Mecca, despite his strong opposition to Islam, dismissed his flimsy attempts at trying to match the Quran! That attempt is now forgotten in the books of history. Amr ibn al-Aas later went on to accept the Quran as being from none other than God. He accepted Islam and become a pious Muslim.

Our Creator, says in Quran, His Book of Guidance sent for us, He says about this book itself, "Alif, Lam, Mim, That is the Book there is no doubt in it is a guidance for the God-concious." [Sura Baqarah 2:1-2]