Silk road

posted Mar 4, 2011, 8:39 AM by rajesh gk

Title

SERICULTURE IN ASIA MINOR.

Authors

Cochran W.

Journal

Science. 1892 Feb 5;19(470):79-80.

Abstract

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17756047

not available

Citation

PMID: 17756047 [PubMed]

 

Title

Bismarck meets Beveridge on the Silk Road: coordinating funding sources to create a universal health financing system in Kyrgyzstan. Free PMC Article

Authors

Kutzin J, Ibraimova A, Jakab M, O'Dougherty S.

World Health Organization Office for Europe, Regional Office for Health Systems Strengthening, Barcelona, Spain. jku@es.euro.who.int

Journal

Bull World Health Organ. 2009 Jul;87(7):549-54.

Abstract

Options for health financing reform are often portrayed as a choice between general taxation (known as the Beveridge model) and social health insurance (known as the Bismarck model). Ten years of health financing reform in Kyrgyzstan, since the introduction of its compulsory health insurance fund in 1997, provide an excellent example of why it is wrong to reduce health financing policy to a choice between the Beveridge and Bismarck models. Rather than fragment the system according to the insurance status of the population, as many other low- and middle-income countries have done, the Kyrgyz reforms were guided by the objective of having a single system for the entire population. Key features include the role and gradual development of the compulsory health insurance fund as the single purchaser of health-care services for the entire population using output-based payment methods, the complete restructuring of pooling arrangements from the former decentralized budgetary structure to a single national pool, and the establishment of an explicit benefit package. Central to the process was the transformation of the role of general budget revenues - the main source of public funding for health - from directly subsidizing the supply of services to subsidizing the purchase of services on behalf of the entire population by redirecting them into the health insurance fund. Through their approach to health financing policy, and pooling in particular, the Kyrgyz health reformers demonstrated that different sources of funds can be used in an explicitly complementary manner to enable the creation of a unified, universal system.

Citation

PMID: 19649370 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]PMCID: PMC2704031

 

Title

Evidence that a West-East admixed population lived in the Tarim Basin as early as the early Bronze Age.

Authors

Li C, Li H, Cui Y, Xie C, Cai D, Li W, Mair VH, Xu Z, Zhang Q, Abuduresule I, Jin L, Zhu H, Zhou H.

Ancient DNA Laboratory, Research Center for Chinese Frontier Archaeology, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, PR China.

Journal

BMC Biol. 2010 Feb 17;8:15.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The Tarim Basin, located on the ancient Silk Road, played a very important role in the history of human migration and cultural communications between the West and the East. However, both the exact period at which the relevant events occurred and the origins of the people in the area remain very obscure. In this paper, we present data from the analyses of both Y chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) derived from human remains excavated from the Xiaohe cemetery, the oldest archeological site with human remains discovered in the Tarim Basin thus far. RESULTS: Mitochondrial DNA analysis showed that the Xiaohe people carried both the East Eurasian haplogroup (C) and the West Eurasian haplogroups (H and K), whereas Y chromosomal DNA analysis revealed only the West Eurasian haplogroup R1a1a in the male individuals. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated that the Xiaohe people were an admixture from populations originating from both the West and the East, implying that the Tarim Basin had been occupied by an admixed population since the early Bronze Age. To our knowledge, this is the earliest genetic evidence of an admixed population settled in the Tarim Basin.

Citation

PMID: 20163704 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]PMCID: PMC2838831 Free PMC Article

 

 

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