Dictionary

OKINAWAN MARTIAL ARTS DICTIONARY

My love for the martial arts began in 1960 when I started my study and training in Okinawan karatedo. Since then I have lived in Japan and Okinawa and have professionally taught Okinawan karatedo since 1972. I have studied at length Chibana-style shorinryu and Higa-style gojuryu karatedo. I have also researched and practiced Taira and Matayoshi-style Ryukyu kobudo (weaponry), honbu style aikido, Okinawa kenpo and Okinawa yamaneryu bojutsu (Okinawan staff art).

I began formally teaching the Okinawan martial arts on June of 1972. While teaching karate full time, I also managed to attend college full time. I received a Masters Degree in Counseling from Michigan State University while continuing to teach karate six days a week. It was during my college days that I began to keep notes on various words and instructors that I came across. This dictionary is the result of my notes, research and constant questioning.

Presently, I do not know if there is a great need for a martial arts dictionary covering the various terms that are presently in use on Okinawa. Hopefully, there is.

The Okinawan martial arts is full of history, tradition and misunderstandings. Although this dictionary is not complete - I feel that I can still add a few more pages - I will see what the finish product will look like and make revisions as the need arises.

Please note that there is also room for improvement in a number of words and there may even be some mistakes - for this, I take complete responsibility. I would hope that the martial arts student that goes over this book will have patience with me in some of my rantings. To me, some of these words have much meaning - more than I can really express.

Sincerely,

Ernest J. Estrada, Chief Instructor
Okinawa Karatedo Association - USA

(g) = a gojuryu term
(k) = a kobudo (weaponry) term
(h) = an Okinawan word (hogen, Okinawan dialect)
(s) = a shorinryu term
(u) = a Uechi-ryu term

========== A ==========
ABAYO!: A jaunty way of saying, "So long!"

ABUMI: (k) an iron stick about 8" long used by Okinawan farmers.

ABUNAI!: Dangerous! Look out!

ADA UCHI: an enemy conquered; a type of revenge killing. There was no law against this in mainland Japan's Tokugawa era.

AGE: upward; rising.

AGE UKE: a rising block.

AGE ZUKI: rising punch.

AGO: the jaw.

AGO UCHI: a strike to the jaw.

AGU: a hogen word for jaw.

AGURA: to sit like a barbarian; to sit cross legged.

AGURA WO KAKU: the cross-legged sitting position

AIKIDO: A Japanese martial art meaning the "way of harmony" developed by Ueshiba Morihei (12/14/1883 - 04/26/1969). The "Ueshiba honbu style" aikido is the most common form taught on Okinawa with over 2,000 dojos worldwide. The techniques of this system are circular in movement involving numerous grappling and throwing techniques.

AIUCHI: simultaneous strikes; the act of hitting an opponent at the same time as he/she hits you.

AKA: the color red.

AKA OBI: a solid, red belt. An optional belt worn by 9-Dan and 10-Dan practitioners of Okinawan karate.

AKA SHIRO OBI: a red and white belt; this is a special belt awarded to those holding the rank of 6-Dan, 7-Dan and 8-Dan. Historically speaking, it cannot be bought but it is given to the individual by his respective instructor.

AKAMINE EIKO: (05/01/1925 - 01/14/1999) ranked a kobudo hanshi 10-Dan and a Funakoshi Shorinryu kyoshi 10-Dan. Akamine was an Okinawan weapons expert and former student of the late Taira Shinken. He had been the president of Taira's Ryukyu Kobudo Preservation Development Association - Okinawa District - since 1970. After his death in 1999, his son, Akamine Hiroshi (1954), became the third headmaster of the Shinbukan Dojo.

Kata presently taught at Akamine's dojo:

1. Sakugawa-no-kon sho and dai 14. Hamahiga-no-sai
2. Shushi-no-kon sho and dai 15. Hantagawa-no-sai
3. Choun-no-kon 16. Jigen-no-sai
4. Urasoe-no-kon 17. Tawada-no-sai
5. Tsuken Sunakake-no-kon 18. Kojo-no-sai
6. Yonegawa-no-kon 19. Yakaa-no-sai
7. Chatanyara-no-kon 20. Yakaa-no-tunfa
8. Chinen Shichanaka-no-kon 21. Hamahiga-no-tunfa
9. Sesoko-no-kon 22. Suruchin Nichokama
10. Soeishi-no-kon 23. Tinbe
11. Shirotaru-no-kon 24. Tekko
12. Tsuken Shitahaku-no-sai 25. Nunchaku
13. Chatanyara-no-sai

AKISAMIYO: (h) ‘Wow’ in the Okinawan dialect. Often used when surprised.

AKUSHU: a handshake of greeting.

ANJI: An Okinawan feudal lord. See Shizoku.

ANZA: a sitting form referred to as the "lotus position." Also, generally referred to as a simple cross-legged sitting position.

ARA KEZURI: the beginners level of Okinawan karatedo. At this level, the student loses his fear of the unknown, of being unsure, and is shown the proper direction. It is comparable to discovering a ladder against an object that you have decided to scale. You start your climb up the ladder, grasping a rung with one hand and then the other hand, one foot perching on the bottom rung, and then the other foot. Similar to the basics of climbing, you progress one step at a time in the basics of Okinawan karatedo, breaking the system into as many steps as needed in order to learn the style.

ARAKAKI ANKICHI: (1899-1929) a student of Chibana Choshin and an outstanding practitioner of the toe tipped kick. He is known for the Arakaki bo-jutsu form and for the kata, Arakaki Unsu.

ARAKAKI SEIKI: (1923-1982) A senior student of Soken Hohan and past president of the Matsumura Shorinryu Karatedo Association. Arakaki was also a former student of Higa Seko (gojuryu) and only began shorinryu training in 1946. Arakaki's contribution to Okinawan karate was his large, square, rubber-pad makiwara that is suitable for hand techniques or toe-tipped kicking.

ARIGATO: ‘existing burden.’ The common and informal way of saying "thank you." This is not to be used towards a senior.

ARIGATO GOZAIMASHITA: Thank you very much (for what you have done).

ARIGATO GOZAIMASU: Thank you very much (for what you are doing).

ARUKI GATA: a style of walking; the way a person walks.

ASAHI: the rising sun.

ASHI: leg; a foot.

ASHI BARAI: a leg or foot sweep. A technique of using the inside of one's foot to sweep an opponent's leg(s) from under him/her.

ASHI-KOSHI WAZA: (s) foot-hip technique; a technique for developing the foot and hip movement; a technique stressed by Chibana Choshin.

ASHI KUBI: a foot neck; the ankle.

ASHI NAGE: a foot or leg throw.

ASHI SUKUI AGE: an upward leg scooping.

ASHI-TE WAZA: (s) foot-hand technique; a technique for developing the foot and hand movement; another important technique stressed by Chibana Chibana.

ASHI TORI: a leg hold.

ASHI WAZA: a foot or leg technique.

ASHI YUBI: a toe.

ASHI ZURI: a stamp of the foot.

ATARASHII: new; modern.

ATE: to strike a specific point.

ATE WAZA: smashing techniques with the elbow, knee or palm heel.

ATEMI: to strike; to strike the body. The ancient methods of striking the vital areas/points of an individual so as to maim or kill the opponent. This skill is relatively hidden in the Okinawan martial arts and is only taught to senior practitioners. It requires a comprehensive knowledge of both the human anatomy and of striking methods.

AWAMORI: a very potent Okinawan rice wine. This drink is popular with the Okinawan laborers and is distilled from rice but was originally made from millet (awa). Foreigner martial artists should take care in drinking! See shochu.

AWASE: a blending movement; from the verb awaseru meaning to blend or harmonize: working together.

AWASE UKE: a reinforced block; an assisted block.

AWASE ZUKI: a double punch with both arms side by side.

AYUMI ASHI: normal, ordinary walking, where the legs move forward alternately.

AZATO ANKOH: (1835-1915) The most famous member of the Azato clan and a master martial artist. Azato Ankoh received the bulk of his martial arts training in Shuri-te under Bushi Matsumura. He was a recognized master fencer of the Jigen school of ken-jutsu. Azato was a large, powerful individual who was also an expert in the Okinawan grappling arts. His approach to karate was to train as though one's hands, feet and arms were like swords. His method of training stressed kata which he practiced over and over for months and even years, until they were mastered.

========== B ==========

BANZAI!: Ten thousand lives!; HURRAH!

BEIKOKU: Rice Country. The Japanese name for the U.S.A.

BEIKOKU-JIN: an American.

BENJO: a toilet. This is very crude and not to be used in polite company. The correct term would be o-te-arai.

BENJO GIMU: a toilet cleaning obligation. A common practice in Okinawa where the most senior students are required to clean the toilet while the junior students clean the dojo.

BIWA: a Japanese pear tree wood. A light, golden wood sometimes used for a deluxe wooden sword (bokken). There is a legend in sword training halls that you can develop bone cancer three years after being hit with a biwa bokken.

BO/KON: (k) staff, stick, cudgel. Common name for the rokushaku-bo (six foot staff). It is made of hard oak about one inch or more in diameter with sufficient strength to withstand the cut of a bladed weapon. The bo itself owes its origin to the tonbin, a stick held across the shoulders which was used to carry parcels or buckets. When the need arose, it was quite easy to convert this instrument into a weapon. See kon.

BOJUTSU KATA: The art of staff/stick. The most traditional of the bo kata will include the following:

1. Shuji-no-kon sho 11. Sesoku-no-kon
2. Shuji-no-kon dai 12. Kongo-no-kon
3. Shuji-no-kon (koryu) 13. Shirotaru-no-kon sho
4. Sakugawa-no-kon sho 14. Shirotaru-no-kon dai
5. Sakugawa-no-kon dai 15. Chatanyara-no-kon
6. Sakugawa-no-kon(koryu) 16. Yonegawa-no-kon
7. Soeishi-no-kon sho 17. Tsuken-no-bo
8. Soeishi-no-kon dai 18. Choun-no-kon
9. Sueyoshi-no-kon 19. Chinen Shichanaka-no-kon
10. Urasue-no-kon 20. Tsuken Sunakake-no-kon

(note: "koryu" refers to the ancient form of the kata)

BO-JUTSU (NON-STANDARD): (k) There are several types of bo other then the standard rokushaku-bo or the "six foot staff." There is the kushaku-bo (nine foot staff), the yonshaku-bo (four foot staff), the sanshaku-bo (three foot staff) also called the han-bo, and the shoshaku-bo (one foot staff). The older Okinawan kobudo experts call the two foot staff a tan-bo. The tan-bo is the single version while the double version is called the nitan-bo.

BO-JUTSU RENSHU: (k) staff training.

BOGU: the protective equipment used in karate training; defense equipment; armor consisting of a chest protector, head protector and fist protector; or any variations.

BOGU KUMITE: sparring with body armor.

BOKKEN: (k) a wooden sword; a wooden sword of about the same size and shape as a Japanese sword. In prearranged fighting it replaced the steel Japanese sword as a "safer" weapon.

BOKKEN-JUTSU: (k) the art of using a bokken as a weapon. Although a bokken is normally used as a training weapon in the style of a real sword, in bokken-jutsu it is used as a club.

BOKUTO: (k) a wooden sword. While bokken refers to a wooden sword of a particular style, bokuto can refer to any wooden sword.

BONSAI: a dwarf tree created by periodically trimming its roots.

BOSHI: the thumb; more commonly called oyayubi.

BU: martial or military. Originally meant "to prevent two weapons from coming together." This word also expresses the ideal that by training we will become both strong and just, and violence can be averted by one’s presence, not actions.

BU-JIN: a military or martial man; a soldier.

BU-JUTSU: martial art; martial technique.

BUBISHI: Originally, a Chinese book (Wu Pei Chih in Chinese) on military tactics from the Ming Dynasty. It contained 240 chapters on the Chinese martial arts and their related subjects. It is also an Okinawan book about Chinese martial arts and medicine. Existing copies have been handed down from Higaonna Kanryo and Miyagi Chojun.

BUDDHISM: A religion that came from India and spread throughout the Far East. It was founded by Buddha, who died in 544 B.C. The religion reveals an eight-fold path and four noble truths that show the path to enlightenment. There are many sects of Buddhism in existence today.

BUDO: The Martial Way. Although usually translated as "martial art," a more precise translation is "martial way." This implies a martial discipline for character or spiritual development that has been studied so long that it has become a way of life. This word refers to the use of martial skills as a way of seeking self-perfection through hard training.

BUDO KICHIGAI: a person who is "crazy about the martial way." An individual who gives up everything to practice the martial arts. An individual who believes that the martial arts is the only thing that matters and has a tendency to overdue everything. See kichigai.

BUDO-KA: a student of budo; a martial artist; a practitioner of the "martial way."

BUDOKAN: a building where the martial arts are taught. To rate the title of "Budokan" there should be more than one type of martial art taught in the building. A Budokan may also contain more than one dojo.

BUGEI: military or martial arts.

BUGEIKAN-RYU: "the Martial Arts Hall Style." An Okinawan karate style founded by Higa Seitoku in 1951. Higa was one of the founding members of the All Okinawa Karate and Kobudo United Association and president for ten years. The Bugeikan teaches a mixture of Okinawan karate kata, kobudo, aikido and the older version of Okinawa-te.

BUGEISHA: a warrior; a master of the military or martial arts.

BUGU-GURA: an arsenal. The storeroom in a training hall where the weapons and training equipment is kept.

BUKI: weapons.

BUKI HO: the practice of weaponry.

BUKI WAZA: weapon techniques.

BUN BU RYO DO: bun = academic study; bu = martial art; ryo = together; do = the way or path. "The academic study and martial arts (karate) together will lead to the right path." The belief that the martial arts and schooling go hand-in-hand.

BUNKAI: to take something apart; the analysis of technique.

BUNKO: a branch school.

BUSHI: a martial person; a warrior (class); a gentleman warrior; a term used to denote a person skilled in the fighting arts of Okinawa. In Japan the term samurai was used to denote the warrior class. In Okinawa the term used was bushi.

BUSHI-TE: "the hand of the bushi." This term was used prior to the 20th Century to denote the fighting art of the warrior class of Okinawa.

BUSHIDO: the Way of the Warrior; Bushido is the Japanese feudal military code of behavior.

BUTOKU: martial virtue; honor; one of the favorite sayings of Chibana Choshin.

BUTOKUDEN: Headquarters of the Dai Nippon Butokukai. It was founded in 1895 and located next to the Heian Shrine in Kyoto, Japan. It was operated by the leading headmasters of the martial arts.

BUTOKUKAI: Martial Virtue Association. See Dai Nippon Butokukai.

BUTSUDAN: a Buddhist altar. This is usually found in the form of a lacquered cabinet. The interior is covered with gold leaf and it contains a small statue of Buddha.

BUTSUDO: Buddhism. It is a philosophy based on four major points: life is full of pain; pain is caused by desire; the way to eliminate pain is to eliminate desire; desire can be eliminated by following a specific life style.

BYOBU: a folding screen or room divider.

BYODOKAN GEIKO: a type of practice in which all of the students train together and are treated as equals. This is not seen in traditional Japanese style schools.

========== C ==========

CHA: tea.

CHADO: the Way of Tea.

CHADOGU: the equipment for serving tea.

CHA-NO-YU: the tea ceremony created by Murata Shuko (1422-1502).

CHAGANJU?: (h) How are you? The equivalent of saying in Japanese, "O-genki desu ka?" Used as a greeting or when meeting someone.

CHAKUCHI ASHI: the replacing foot step or putting one foot where the other one was.

CHAN MIGWA: "small eyed Kyan." The hogen nickname for Kyan Chotoku.

CHI, GO, ICHI!: A bushi maxim, "Knowledge and action are one!"

CHI-ISHI/CHIKARA-ISHI: (h) power stone or a stone lever weight. A weight lifting apparatus used to develop hand and arm strength. The power stone was used mainly to strengthen the grip and wrists. Power stone training also help to strengthen the elbow, shoulder and wrist joints. It further gave one sharpness of movement when doing punching exercises, it developed muchimi (heavy sticky hands) and gave one focus intensity in their movements.

CHIBANA CHOSHIN: (1885-1969) Chibana was born on 06/05/1885, at Tottori-cho in Shuri City, Okinawa. He was a student of Itosu Ankoh for 15 years. He studied with Itosu from 1900 until his teacher's demise on January 26, 1915. He was the first president of the Okinawa Karatedo Association and in 1957 he received the title of Hanshi from the Butokukai. On 04/29/1968, Chibana brought further honor to Okinawan Karatedo by being awarded the 4th Order of Merit by the Emperor in recognition of his devotion to the study and practice of Okinawan karatedo. He died of throat cancer at 6:40 a.m. on the 02/26/1969. At the time of his death he left five senior practitioners (in order of seniority): Higa Yuchoku, Miyahira Katsuya, Nakama Chozo, Kinjo Kensei and Nakazato Shugoro. A note of interest is that Chibana's sister was married to the sai-expert, Tawada. Tawada's sister was in turn married to Chibana's instructor, Itosu Ankoh.

CHIBANA-HA SHORINRYU: Chibana originally named his style Shorinryu in 1933. The kata that he taught included the following: kihon 1-2-3, naihanchin 1-2-3, pinan 1-2-3-4-5, patsai sho and dai, kusanku sho and dai, and chinto. Prior to 1965, Chibana also taught the kata jion and seisan but because he felt that the techniques found in these kata were also present in the others, he officially dropped them from his curriculum. He did not teach the kata gojushiho or weaponry.

CHIDORI ASHI: a bird foot. A zig zag stepping pattern.

CHIGAIMASU: it is different; a polite form of saying you do not like something.

CHIISAI: meaning "small." Chibana Choshin used this word to explain the meaning of "sho" in shorinryu.

CHIISAI WAZA: a small technique.

CHIKAMA: close interval; a distance at which you can strike without taking a step.

CHIKARA: physical, extrinsic strength.

CHIKE: a hogen word for punch (in Japanese it would be tsuki)

CHIN-TE: (k) A fighting stick made of bamboo or wood that is tied to the forearm. The front end is blunted while the rear is sharpened. The common practice is to tie one chin-te to each arm. This method is virtually unheard of outside of Okinawa.

CHINEN MASAMI: (1898-1976) A famous Okinawan bo-jutsu expert from Tobaru, Shuri, and headmaster of Yamane-ryu school of Bo-jutsu. Chinen, an ex-policemenan, was Nakazato Shugoro's weapons instructor. He came from a long line of bo-jutsu experts tracing their roots straight to Tode Sakugawa. Few people in Okinawa could match Chinen's powerful bo-jutsu techniques and fewer still would cross staff's with him. He was known for his powerful striking techniques and for his quick, flowing attacking patterns.

CHINKUCHI: (h) the Okinawan term for inner energy (ki or chi).

CHIRA: a hogen word for face.

CHIRASHI DAIKO: the drum signalling the end of a class.

CHIZENKUN-BO: (k) a small stick about six inches long and one inch in diameter with a string in the middle. The kobudo practitioner uses two chizenkun-bo, one in each hand, for fighting.

CHOCHIN: a paper latern.

CHOKU ZUKI: a straight punch; a punch with the leading hand.

CHOSEN: Korea.

CHOTTO!: Just a minute! Very informal and not to be used toward a senior.

CHOTTO-MATTE KUDASAI!: Just a moment, please!

CHU: (h) people.

CHU: mid; the middle.

CHU UGANABIRA: (h) Good day. Hello.

CHUDAN: middle area; the area from the waist to the neck.

CHUDAN KAMAE: middle defensive posture; normally done with the left leg forward and with both hands in the style's defensive posture.

CHUDAN UKE: the middle area block.

CHUDEN: the middle level technique(s). Also used to mean a person who has completed the middle level techniques.

CHUGO: devotion; loyalty. Okinawans believe that one's first loyalty is to your parents and family. Secondly, loyalty to your teacher and art. This is the first cornerstone of Okinawan karatedo involving moral and ethical values. See Gi, Jin, Makoto, Rei and Yu.

CHUGOKU: the middle country; the Japanese name for China.

CHUSHIN: the center.

CHUSHIN DORI: (k) taking control of the center line.

CHUTEN: the center of balance of the body; the center of anything.

CHUTO: the half way point of a kata where you start the return to the starting point.

CHUYO: the Buddhist concept of moderation in all things.

CONFUCIANISM: the Chinese doctrine followed by early Okinawan martial arts practitioners. It was founded by Confucius who was born about 550 BC. Its teachings placed great importance on the order of things, both within the life of an individual and within the order of society.

COUNTING:
English Japanese Hogen (Okinawan)
one ichi tichi
two ni tachi
three san michi
four shi yuchi
five go ichichi
six roku muchi
seven shichi nanachi
eight hachi yachi
nine ku kukunuchi
ten ju to

========== D ==========

DAI: a suffix denoting a generation; large; big; a prefix for numbers, for example, dai ichi means number one or the first.

DAI ICHI BAN: number one; the best.

DAI NIPPON/DAI NIHON: Great Japan; the Empire of Japan.

DAI NIPPON BUTOKUKAI: The Greater Japan Martial Arts Association. This group was formed in 1895 in order to promote traditional martial arts and to cultivate martial virtues. The stated goals of the Butokukai was to construct the Butokuden, a large martial arts hall within the precincts of the Heian Shrine in Kyoto; to hold a martial virtues festival each year; to preserve, support, and promote martial arts; to collect arms and historical materials; and to publish a regular bulletin. By 1930 there were over two million black belts and 200,000 registered instructors. It was disbanded in 1946 by the American occupying forces. It was re-instituted in 1953 with Prince Jigo Higashi Fushimi as Chairman.

DAI SENSEI/O SENSEI: great teacher; a term of deep respect.

DAIJOBU!: It's okay!; very informal.

DAIJOBU DESU KA?: Is it all right?

DAISHO: large, small; a pair of swords in matching sword furniture; a pair of swords.

DAITO: any sword with a blade length of over 2 shaku; a wooden sword in the shape of a Japanese sword; a Japanese sword.

DAITO-RYU: a traditional style of aiki-jutsu first introduced to the Okinawan nobility by Takeda Sokaku at the turn of the century. This was the most common form of grappling practiced by the nobility until karate was publicly introduced in 1904.

DAME!: That's wrong!; That's bad!; That is incorrect!

DAN: step; level; a grade; a black belt ranking. A permanenA grade indicating that a person has acquired a certain level of skill. This word is borrowed from judo and is used in the modern martial arts of Okinawa to denote rank. A dan ranked practitioner wears a black belt which indicates a commitment to the martial arts. The lowest rank is a shodan (literally, the "first step") and indicates a serious student. The highest rank is judan (tenth step) indicating complete mastery. The dan system is also used in disciplines unrelated to the martial arts such as the game of "go." The first karate black belt was awarded by Funakoshi Gichin on 04/12/1924.

DANCHU: a striking point at the center of the sternum.

DARUMA: a Japanese word for the 28th patriarch of Buddhism, Bodhidharma; A doll representing Daruma. It has no legs and is weighted so it straightens up after being tipped over. Legend states that Daruma did continuous zazen for nine yeors and lost the use of his legs.

DEKIMASEN!: I can't do it!

DEKIMASHITA: I have done it.

DEKIMASU: I can do it.

DENBU: the buttocks.

DENCHU: an initiation into the secrets of the ryu.

DENKO: the striking point located at the floating ribs.

DENSHO: lists, usually on scrolls containing secrets (Gokui) of various levels, and the Okuden (the kata of the ryu). Some are illustrated, others are strictly calligraphy. In Samurai days they were often cryptic so as to keep the contents secret from outsiders and enemy spies. Although some were written by the masters themselves, many were written by priests and monks because the masters were often illiterate. Contrary to popular belief, there were many sets of densho in any given ryu. They were given to those who had mastered a particular level of training to use as training and reference aids.

DESHI: a disciple; a follower; a serious student.

DIKKA!: (h) Let's go!

DO: the Way; the road or path that a martial artist follows. This word implies a life-long discipline through which one may achieve character improvement and, ultimately, self-realization.

DO ITASHIMASHITE: Not at all. This is commonly misused by Westerners as "You are welcome" but it is more correct as a response to a compliment.

DO MUKYOKU: An Okinawan proverb meaning "There is no end to training."

DO-GI: a martial arts training uniform for budo. See keiko-gi.

DO-GU: the martial arts training equipment.

DOGAKU: Confucianism. See Confucianism.

DOJISEI NO UKE-ATE: a simultaneous block/strike.

DOJO: a training hall. Originally it meant the place or hall used for religious exercises. It is now used also for halls or places where the way of the martial arts (BUDO) is practiced. DO means the Way and JO means the place or "the place where you find the WAY." Terminology relating to a dojo will include tatami (a 3' x 6' mat or simply referring to the matted area of training), the shinza (the altar), the kamiza (the upper seat or place of honor - this is where the shinza is usually located), the shimoza (the lower seat which is on the opposite side of the shinza), the joseki (found usually to the right side of the shinza area where guests or visiting dignitaries usually sit), the shimoseki (the lower side which is opposite to the joseki and usually to the left, facing the shinza), the kobudo kake (the weapons rack), the nafudakake (the name tag boards), the kagami (the mirror), the densho (the technique lists or an instruction scroll, and the traditional makiwara (punching board).

DOJO ARASHI: dojo storming; challenging the headmaster of a dojo.

DOJO KUN: training hall precepts; the guiding maxims of a karate dojo. The five precepts of Tode Sakugawa commonly seen in a karate dojo: seek perfection of character; be faithful; work hard; respect others; refrain from violence.

DOJO YABURI: to defy a dojo.

DOJO-CHO: the director of the dojo; the training hall head instructor.

DOKKO: the pressure point behind the ear.

DOKUSHU: studying by oneself.

DOKUSO WAZA: an original technique.

DOKYO: teaching the Way.

DOMO: very much; a very casual way of saying, thanks!

DOMO ARIGATO GOZAIMASHITA: polite form of "arigato gozaimashita."

DOMO ARIGATO GOZAIMASU: polite form of "arigato gozaimasu."

DORI: to grab.

DOSHU: "Leader of the Way." A term designating the leader of a school or group, martial or otherwise. The head of a martial art.

DOZO: a very casual way of saying, "please do this."

DRAEGER, DONN F: (1922-1982) one of the greatest American martial artist. Although an expert in numerous Japanese martial arts (judo, kendo, karatedo, aikido, iaido, etc) he also took an interest in the Okinawan martial arts, especially gojuryu. He wrote numerous books, articles and papers concerning history, traditions and martial art training. He served in World War II as a U.S. Marine and retired after 16 years to live in Japan. He is the founder of the International Hoplological Research Center. See hoplology

========== E ==========

EIGO: English language.

EIMEIROKU: A record of names. This refers to the attendance books kept by the masters of various disciplines containing the names, dates of attendance or study, and usually the location of the training. See Shareiroku.

EKU: (h)(k) an oar. The Japanese word for oar is kai.

EKU-JUTSU: (h) The art of the boat oar. It is used very much like the staff except that it is more of a slicing weapon.

EMBU: a performance; a demonstration.

EMBUSEN: the performance line of a kata; embu means performance and sen means line.

EN GEIKO: a form of practice in which the defender stands within a circle of other students, who randomly attack him.

ENPI/EMPI: the elbow. See hiji.

EMPI UCHI: an elbow strike.

ENSHO: the back of the heel.

========== F ==========

FU GEN JIKKO: A bushi maxim meaning "let your actions speak for you."

FUDOSHIN: an immovable mind which cannot be distracted.

FUKU SHIDOIN: a junior instructor. This is the first level of instructorship ratings as authorized by the Okinawa Karatedo Association in 1967. This apprentice level instructor is reserved for 2-Dan and 3-Dan holders. See Shidoin and Shihan.

FUKUBU GERI: (h) a kick to the stomach area.

FUKUSHIKI KUMITE: the attacker executes a combination of two, three, four or five offensive techniques which are blocked and evaded by the defender who then executes a counterattack.

FUKYU: a first group of techniques; a set of techniques that are widely practiced by many different schools.

FUMIKOMI: an attack step; stomping.

FUMIKOMI GERI: a stomping kick. It should be noted that the Okinawans did not favor a high side kick. Their idea of a side kick was a stomping or "side" kick to the knee joint. By the 1960's the fumikomi geri was slowly being replaced by the yoko geri.

FUNAKOSHI GICHIN: (1868-1957) known as the father of modern karate. As a former student of Ankoh Azato and Itosu Ankoh, he went to Japan in 1917 to spread Okinawan style karate. He was the first one to adopt the Judo belt ranking system and awarded the first black belts on April 12, 1924. He later founded his own dojo and called it Shotokan. By 1922 Funakoshi had introduced his method of Okinawan karate by teaching 15 kata. They included the "shorin kata" of pinan 1 thru 5, kusanku (dai), and passai. He also taught the "shorei kata" of naihanchin 1-2-3, seisan, wanshu, chinto, jitte and jion. By the time of his death in 1957, Funakoshi's Shotokan style was the mostly widely practiced karate in Japan. Funakoshi authored five books: Ryukyu Kempo Karate (1922), Renton Goshin Karate-jutsu (1925), Karatedo Kyohan (1935) and an xpanded edition of Karatedo Kyohan (1958). In 1957 an autobiography was published entitled "Karatedo Ichiro" or "Karatedo, My Way of Life." His most famous saying (taken from the 1922 edition of Ryukyu Kempo Karate) about the difference between modern karate and traditional karate was, "The old masters used to keep a narrow field but plough a deep furrow. Present day students have a broad field but only plough a shallow furrow." And this was written in 1922!

FUNAKOSHI YOSHITAKA: (1904-1945) The son of Funakoshi Gichin who is also known as Funakoshi Gikko. He founded the Shotokai group which later became the Nippon Karate Kyokai (JKA) in 1957. He made high, long range kicks popular while the Okinawans had preferred the low kicks and throwing techniques.

FURI: to swing something.

FURI-KAMA-JUTSU: This is a combination of a kama and a rope. The "flying kama" is swung in various patterns to ward off attackers from a distance. This weapon is one of the favorites of many of the older kobudo experts and is probably the most difficult weapons system of all of Okinawan kobudo to master.

FUSHA GAESHI: (k) a windmill bo rotation.

FUSHITA GERI: (s) kicking to the outside of the thigh for conditioning.

========== G ==========

GAIJIN: a foreigner.

GAKKO: a school; a public school.

GAKU: a framed piece of calligraphy hung on the dojo wall.

GAKUSEI: a student.

GAKUSEI NO BENRAN: The Student Handbook.

GAMBATTE!: Hang in there!; Go for it!

GAN: a tomb; also called a turtle shell or kane-no-ko. There are over 30,000 "turtle-back" tombs on Okinawa. Many Okinawans feel that the shape symbolizes a woman in childbirth and link the design to the idea of returning to the source or womb. Other Okinawans simply believe that it was patterned after the turtle shell because the Okinawan turtle is the symbol of long life.

GANJUI?: (h) Are you well?

GASSHO: A bushi maxim meaning "be grateful for each moment;" a type of bow (Buddhist) done with the hands together in front of the face in a prayer position.

GASSHUKU: training camp.

GATAME: to hold; holding.

GE: down; low.

GEDAN: the lower area; the area below the waist.

GEDAN BARAI (UKE): low sweep (block); from the inside outward; commonly referred as the "down block." In Okinawa, gedan barai, refers to sweeping or to brush aside. Gedan uke refers to stop an action or to ‘interrupt’ said action.

GEDAN NO KAMAE: the low defensive position.

GEIKO-GI/KEIKO-GI: training uniform. The parts of a uniform will include the uwagi (jacket), the zubon (trousers), himo (the drawstring on the trousers), the obi (belt), the hachimaki (sweat band), and zori (shower shoes or thongs).

GEKON: the pressure point below the lower lip.

GENKAN: the front entrance of a dojo.

GENKI DESU!: I am well.

GENSHIN: intuition; a premonition of an attack.

GERI: to kick.

GERI WAZA: kicking techniques.

GESSHA: the monthly tuition at a dojo.

GETA: wooden sandals.

GI: Gratitude. Making the right decision in every situation and doing it without wavering. The right decision is a moral one, the just one, the honorable one. This is the second moral and ethical value as taught in Okinawan karatedo.

GI: uniform; a common word used for the training uniform.

GI, SHIN, FUKI: The technique and the mind are inseparable.

GIFA: (k) a hairpin worn by Okinawan men to denote rank during the turn of the century.

GIMU: the concept of obligation, in particular the obligation that a student has toward their teacher. Even today, this principle can be seen both in family life and in business. See giri.

GIREI: etiquette; the techniques of formal behavior.

GIRI: a debt of gratitude or obligation that one has towards their teacher. Giri and gimu are terms of mutually understood obligation. For example, a student will continue to pay his dues or tuition to their teacher even though they are not training. An instructor continues to pay a monthly or yearly stipend even though they have not seen their teacher in years. This is giri or an obligation to the family (or teacher). The Okinawans say that "Death is as light as a feather but giri is heavier than a mountain."

GISHIKI: a ceremony; the techniques of ceremonial behavior.

GISHIKI BARAME: informal.

GISHIKI BARAME GEIKO: informal training; an open training period when students can work on whatever they want.

GO: five; an ancient board game of strategy. Like chess, it is easy to learn but difficult to master. The goal of the game is to capture as much territory as possible on the go board.

GO KENKI: (1886-1940) a Chinese tea merchant and martial artist known for the kata, hakucho or hakutsuru (the white crane). He trained with Miyagi Chojun, Kyoda Jyuhatsu, Chibana Choshin and Mabuni Kenwa. His style is still presently being practiced at the Kodokan dojo of the late Matayoshi Shinpo.

GOBAN: five times; the go (game) board.

GODAN: a fifth degree black belt.

GOHEI: the zig zag paper strips hung in a Shinto shrine to ward off evil. They represent flowing water.

GOHON KUMITE: five step kumite (receiving five attacks with five blocks and then countering). Rarely practiced in modern schools, this was once considered a very advanced form of karate training because it is so difficult to retain a strong stance while taking five rapid steps backward.

GOJURYU: "hard soft style." Founded by Miyagi Chojun (1888-1953) from the teachings of Higaonna Kanryo (1853-1915). When Miyagi died in 1953 there was no official successor. In 1963 the Miyagi family presented Miyagi's belt and uniform to Yagi Meitoku (1912-2003) making him the legal heir and successor. The kata presently taught in gojuryu will include gekisai dai ichi, gekisai dai ni, sanchin, saifa, seiunchin, shisochin, seisan, sanseiru, seipai, kururunfa, suparinpei and tensho. See Gojuryu Meibukan and Yagi Meitoku. According to Toguchi Seikichi, Miyagi's senior students are (in order) Jinan Shinzato, Meitoku Yagi, Eiichi Miyazato, Anichi Miyagi, Seikichi Toguchi and Seiko Higa.

GOJURYU JUNDOKAN: The honbu dojo of Miyazato Eiichi (1922-1999), Hanshi 10-Dan, and former student of Miyagi Chojun. This is the headquarters dojo for the Okinawa Gojuryu Karatedo Association of Miyazato. The Jundokan was opened in 1957 and rebuilt in 1969 at its present site in Asato, Naha. The Jundokan has 500 registered students who train under the direction of Miyazato. It should be noted that Miyazato is also president of the the Okinawa Prefecture Judo Association and is ranked as a 6-Dan in Kodokan Judo.

GOJURYU MEIBUKAN: The honbu dojo of Yagi Meitoku (1912-2003), Hanshi 10-Dan and senior a most student of Miyagi Chojun and late head of the Meibukan School of Okinawa Gojuryu. The present headmaster of the dojo is Yagi's oldest son, Meitatsu Yagi (born 07-07-1944), Hanshi 10-Dan.

GOJURYU SHINBUKAN: The honbu dojo of the late Kanei Katsuyoshi (1941-1994) Hanshi 9-Dan, and student of Yagi Meitoku.

GOJURYU SHOBUKAN: The honbu dojo of the late Masanobu Shinjo (1938-1994). Shinjo had been a student of Toguchi Seikichi (gojuryu Hanshi 9-Dan) and Higa Seiko (gojuryu Hanshi 10-Dan). Shinjo was affiliated with Yagi Meitoku's Meibukan and held the the rank of Hanshi 9-Dan.

GOJURYU SHODOKAN: The honbu dojo of Higa Seikichi (born 02/10/1927), Hanshi 9-Dan, and son of the late Higa Seiko. The Shodokan is the original dojo of Higa Seiko. The Shodokan was founded in 1931 where Higa taught a mixture of Higaonna Kanryo's Shorei-ryu and Miyagi Chojun's gojuryu. In 1939 he was awarded the title of Renshi by the Butokukai and was considered an expert teacher of gojuryu. By 1956 Higa formed his own association, the International Karate and Kobudo Federation with the Shodokan as the honbu dojo. Upon Higa's death in 1966 his son, Higa Seikichi, became the headmaster of the Shodokan and Higa's senior student, Takamine Choboku, became the president of the Association. It should be noted that the Shodokan was the first, actual karate dojo on Okinawa and it continues to teach the same style (gojuryu) at its Itoman location.

GOJURYU SHOREIKAN: The honbu dojo of Toguchi Seikichi (05/20/1917 – 08/31/1998), Hanshi 9-Dan and former student of Miyagi Chojun and Yagi Meitoku. This is a gojuryu sub-style developed by Toguchi. Toguchi was a student of Miyagi Chojun and later Higa Seiko. He was promoted to his present rank of Hanshi 9-Dan by Yagi Meitoku. Toguchi, an Okinawan, resided and taught Tokyo, Japan. His Okinawan Shoreikan Dojo located in Okinawa City, Okinawa, is presently being run by Kuba Yuichi, gojuryu Shoreikan Kyoshi 8-Dan. His senior U.S. representative is New York based Tamano Toshio, gojuryu Shoreikan Kyoshi 8-Dan.

GOKOKU: the pressure point in the fleshy area between the thumb and forefinger.

GOKUI: a deep secret; techniques taught only to higher level students. {GOKUI means mysteries and are the "secrets" of the Ryu -ed}. {HIDEN - also secret traditions of the Ryu -ed.}

GOKURO SAMA DESHITA: thank you for your service; thank you for doing your part. The response a teacher makes to the students at the end of class.

GOMEN NASAI: Excuse me; this is an informal statement and is to be used only to someone lower in status.

GOREI: an order.

GOREI NASAI: to do a kata without commands as opposed to have the instructor count cadence.

GORIN-NO-SHO: The Book of Five Rings; a famous book of strategy written in 1645 by Musashi Miyamoto. He wrote it while living in a cave called Reigendo, on the island of Kyushu, for his student, Teruo Nobuyuki.

GOSEKI: the stones (white and black) used for the game of Go.

GOSHIN-JUTSU: the art of self defense; self defense techniques; the practice of self defense techniques. This term is sometimes mistakenly used to refer to a specific jujutsu school when in fact it is a generic term.

GUMA/GUMAGWA: (h) tiny; small.

GUMI/YAKUZA: gangs; organized gangs are now called yakuza and are involved in gambling, sporting events, nighttime entertainment and prostitution.

GUNSO: sergeant; the nickname of Yabu Kentsu. Although Yabu was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant in the Sino-Japanese War, the Okinawans always referred to him as Gunso Yabu.

GUSUKUMA SHINPAN: (1890-1954) An Okinawan Shuri-te practitioner and student of Itosu Ankoh. Gusukuma Sensei was also known by his Japanese name, Shiroma Shinpan, and was an outstanding strategist who stressed power in punching and kicking. Although a Shuri-te stylist, Gusukuma also studied under the Naha-te expert, Higaonna Kanryo.

GUSUYO: (h) everybody; the equivalent to "ladies and gentlemen."

GYAKU: reverse.

GYAKU HANMI: Reverse or opposite stance; the situation in which the attacker and defender are in ready stances with the opposite foot forward.

GYAKU MAWASHI GERI: inverted circle (roundhouse) kick.

GYAKU-TE: reverse hand(s); methods of grappling or of locking the arms. Although this method resembles aikido, it is strictly of Okinawan origin. It includes locks, twists, hold-downs, wringing, pushing, slapping, stomping, grabbing, choking, bending, and throwing.

GYAKUTE-MOCHI: (k) reverse hand grip; the fisherman's method of gripping a wooden fighting staff with the hands facing in an opposite direction.

GYAKU ZUKI: the reverse punch.

========== H ==========

HACHIJI DACHI: the figure eight stance. The name comes from the position of the feet (in the shape of the kanji character for the number eight).

HACHIMAKI: a headband. The Okinawans have traditionally worn headbands when engaged in strenuous physical work, participating in some festival activity, or engaging in some kind of labor or political demonstration. In feudal times, a hachimaki was a length of cloth about five feet long and sixteen inches wide, wrapped around the head as a pad under a helmet. As it refers to karatedo, the hachimaki are only worn for a real fight or a very serious training session.

HACHIMAN: the Japanese god of war. The Hachiman mon (emblem) is the same emblem as used by the Sho Family of Okinawa. It is the mitsu-domoe (the three commas going in a circle).

HADAKA: naked.

HADAKA JIME: a naked strangle. One that does not require a grip on an opponent's clothing.

HAFU: a square tomb found all over Okinawa.

HAI!: That's right!; Yes!; No! This word is used primarily for an affirmation or consent as in "yes" or "ok." It is also used to urge and give commands as in "OK, let's go" or "OK, now." This is often misused for "yes" but hai actually means that you agree with the question.

HAI DOZO!: a very informal way of saying, "Yes, please!"

HAISHU: the back of the hand.

HAISOKU: the instep; hai means back or rear and soku means foot.

HAITO: the ridge hand.

HAJIME: This means the beginning or the start. As a command, it is "begin," "start" or "go."

HAKAMA: pleated skirt. Usually black or dark blue in color worn by senior practitioners of aikido, kendo, kyudo and some forms of jujutsu. The hakama is actually the lower half of a Japanese kimono that resembles baggy pants. This is not normally worn in the Okinawan martial arts but has been adopted by a number of American practitioners to show that they practice a "traditional" martial art.

HAKKAI SHIKI: the opening ceremony of a class.

HAKU/SHIRO: The color, white.

HAKU SHU: hand clapping.

HAKUTSURU NO KATA: the white crane form of Okinawa Matsumura Seito as taught by Soken Hohan.

HAKUTSURU NO MAI: a kata developed by Seikichi Toguchi (gojuryu Hanshi 9-Dan) from Chinese white crane techniques and performed to music. The kata and bunkai tell the story of a white crane fighting a snake.

HAMA HIGA: an island off the coast of Okinawa known for its sai and tuifa weaponry.

HANASHINU NAGASAN!: (h) The speech is too long!

HANASHIRO CHOMO: (1869-1945) A famous Okinawan practitioner of Shuri-te and student of Itosu Ankoh. When Yabu Kentsu died in 1937, Hanashiro assumed the head of the Itosu line of Shuri-te. When he died in 1945, Chibana Choshin was then recognized as the leader of the Itosu line. Hanashiro was the first one to use the term karate to mean empty hand in his 1905 booklet entitled Karate-Kumite. Hanashiro was referred to as “Gunso” (meaning “sergeant”) Hanashiro due to his service in the Japanese Imperial Army during the Sino-Japanese War. He was a grabbing and punching specialist with his favorite kata being the Matsumura Patsai.

HANGETSU HOKO: half moon stepping.

HANKO: a seal; an ink stamp. Usually carved from soap stone and used with red ink, it is legal as a signature in Okinawa. You will usually see several seals on a promotional certificate (menkyo). These include the instructor's personal seal, the school seal, and possibly the ryu seal. The partial stamp on the edge of the certificate is used to register the document. The other half of the seal is on the appropriate entry in the record book.

HANKO-RYU: half hard style; an early name for shito-ryu.

HANSHI: a model person; a teacher of instructors; generally, a Hanshi means a "role model to others". The title indicates a master of the Art in both the physical and esoteric sense. Among some of the “older” practitioners, he would be respectfully referred to as "KEN-SHI" or a Fist Saint. A ryu may have several Hanshi.

HANSHI-DAI: the heir apparent of a ryu.

HANSHI-NO-SOGO: Doctoral Master. A special title awarded to Chibana Choshin, who was then president of the Okinawa Karatedo Renmei by the Dai Nippon Butokukai (Greater Japan Martial Virtue Association) on May 5, 1957.

HAPPYO: the notification and posting of those who passed their rank examinations. These test results are usually pinned on the dojo wall shortly after the test date. See kaisetsu.

HARA: the stomach; the abdomen; the vital center; the location of one's soul in the lower abdomen, located approximately two inches below the navel; spiritual strength.

HARA GEI: the art of developing the hara (see above).

HARAKIRI: belly cutting. This is an impolite but common expression for the act of ritual Japanese suicide. The correct term is seppuku but Westerners are more familiar with the colorful expression of harakiri.

HARYU-SEN: the Okinawan dragon boat races. Races are held on the 4th day of the 5th lunar month generally early in June by the Western calendar. This holiday calls for heats of boats competing for the honors. Okinawans race in 34 foot canoes, each manned by 12 paddlers. Nakazato Shugoro's Shorinryu Shorinkan dojo has a competing boat that often thrills the audiences with their karate kata performed while racing!

HASAMI: scissors.

HASHI/OHASHI: chopsticks. The restaurant chopsticks are called waribashi meaning half split chopsticks.

HAYAKU!: "Hurry up!"

HAZUKASHII!: This is very embarrassing!

HEIGO: the language of the martial arts. One of the important points of practicing a martial art is also learning its language. Hence, this manual.

HEIHO: strategy.

HEIKO DACHI: parallel stance; a formal stance with both feet parallel and at shoulder width.

HEIMIN: the Okinawan common people. This included farmers, fishermen and laborers, but in the Ryukyuan Islands even a farmer was sometimes given courtesy titles in ordinary usage. Itinerant players, pig-butchers, beggars and prostitutes were at the bottom of the social order in Okinawa.

HEISOKU DACHI: feet together stance; closed feet stance; a formal stance with both feet parallel and touching.

HEKUNA: (h) hurry up!

HENTE: changing the lead hand while fighting.

HERA: (k) a wooden or metal knife used with a tohai.

HERE: (h) an Okinawan word for hooligan or ruffian.

HIBACHI: a charcoal brazier; traditionally it was just a wooden box containing sand.

HIDARI: left.

HIDARI ASHI MAE: a command for the left foot forward.

HIDEN: secret teachings.

HIGA SEIKICHI: (born 02/10/1927) the son of Higa Seiko and ranked a Hanshi in Okinawan gojuryu. He presently runs his late father's dojo, the Shodokan, in Yogi, Naha City. Higa also teaches Ryukyu Kobudo as taught by the late Matayoshi Shinpo. Although, he is the present headmaster of Higa style gojuryu, it is his father's senior student, Takamine Choboku, who is president of the association, the International Karate and Kobudo Federation.

HIGA SEIKO: (11/08/1898 – 04/16/1966) a gojuryu practitioner and student of Higaonna Kanryo and Miyagi Chojun. A school teacher and ex-police officer, Higa opened his Shodokan gojuryu karate dojo in 1931. When the Okinawa Karatedo Association was formed in 1956, Higa was appointed vice-president. In 1958 Higa became the second president of the Association and was awarded the rank of Hanshi 10-Dan by the Board of Directors. It should also be noted that Higa is credited for opening the first professional karate dojo on Okinawa. His original dojo is located in the city of Itoman and is still in operation. It is also a point of interest in that Matayoshi Shinpo, upon his return from mainland Japan in the early 1960’s, first taught his Matayoshi-style kobudo at the dojo of Higa Seiko.

HIGA SEITOKU: (born 01/20/1921) Higa is presently ranked a Hanshi 10-Dan and runs the Bugeikan Dojo in Shuri, Okinawa. He is a former student of Toyama Kanken, Chinen Masami and Uehara Seikichi of Motobu-ryu. As president of the All Okinawa Karate Kobudo United Association he was responsible for the promotion of the following individuals: Shimabukuro Zenryo (of Chubu Shorinryu), Soken Hohan (of Matsumura Seito Shorinryu), Nakaima Kenko (of Ryuei-ryu), Matayoshi Shinpo (of Matayoshi Kobudo) and Kaneshima Shinsuke (of Tozan-ryu).

HIGA YUCHOKU: (1910-1994) A student of Shinzato Jinan, Miyagi Chojun and Chibana Choshin. Upon the death of Shinzato (in 1945) and later Miyagi (in 1953), Higa began training under Chibana (in 1954) and by 1965 was promoted to Hanshi 9-Dan. He was the first individual to be promoted to this rank by Chibana Choshin. Higa also became the Chairman of the Board of Directors for the All Okinawa Karatedo Association in 1967. He was the headmaster of the Kyudokan Dojo of Shorinryu Karatedo and was ranked a Hanshi 10-Dan in Shorinryu. One of his most senior senior students and the present headmaster of the Shinjinbukan in Naha, Okinawa, is Onaga Yoshimitsu.

HIGAONNA KANRYO: (03/10/1853 – 12/04/1915) born in Nishimura, Naha, Okinawa. He began his Okinawa-te training in 1873 under Arakaki Seisho in Kume Village, Naha. In 1876 he left for Fuchou (mainland China) and studied Chinese boxing under Ryuryu-ko and Wan Shin Zan. The training under these masters was difficult but Higaonna would often sing his favorite Okinawan song that said "anybody can put up with a little, but it takes a man to put up with a lot." He returned to Okinawa in 1893 and began teaching in Naha. He left three outstanding students: Miyagi Chojun, Kyoda Jyuhatsu and Gusukuma (Shiroma) Koki. Higaonna often referred to his style as Shorei-ryu (Enlightened Spirit Style) while others called it Naha-te.

HIHYO: criticism. In Okinawa, being criticized by your instructor is a sign of real acceptance.

HIJI: the elbow.

HIJI ATE: an elbow smash.

HIJI JIME: an elbow lock.

HIJI TORI: an elbow grab.

HIJI UCHI: an elbow strike.

HIJI UKE: an elbow block.

HIKI: to pull.

HIKITATE GEIKO: energetic training.

HIMO: the drawstrings on your uniform jacket.

HINERI HANMI: rotation of the trunk as in punching.

HINERI ZUKI: the rotation of the punch; a twist punch.

HIRAGANA: the Japanese cursive phonetic alphabet.

HITO KOME HITO ASE: A bushi maxim meaning "one grain of rice, one drop of sweat."

HITO-TSUKI, HITO-GERI!: One punch, one kick! This means that a karate person strives to obtain the power of either a punch or a kick strong enough to kill an opponent.

HIZA: the knee(s).

HIZA ATE: a knee smash.

HIZA GERI: the knee kick; kicking with the knee.

HOBO KORE DOJO!: "Your life is your dojo!" A Zen saying among priest which indicate that training not only occurs in the training hall but also in your everyday life.

HOGEN: (h) to express; the Okinawan dialect. Hogen is both a Japanese and an Okinawan word. In Japanese, this word translates as "dialect." In the Hogen language of Okinawa, the word translates to mean "language, or a method to express oneself."

HOJO UNDO: complementary exercises. These exercises are often referred to as the "technique exercises." The student is taught the basic blocks, punches and kicks of their system and is encouraged to develop power in their techniques. A side effect of this training is the student also develops their cardiovascular system with the practice of basic techniques. These techniques are the actual "building blocks" of one's system and must be practiced at every class. These exercises also offer different defensive and counter-attacking techniques. Strength, endurance and reflexive actions are developed with each repetition. The student must also develop striking power by working on the bag and must develop each weapon taught in the exercises by working on the makiwara. Hojo undo should take from 5 to 10 minutes for an hour class and 10 to 20 minutes for a two hour workout.

HOKAMA TETSUHIRA: (born 1944) a gojuryu practitioner (9-Dan Hanshi) and former student of Higa Seiko. Author of the History of Okinawan Karate. Hokama opened the first karate and kobudo museum in 1986 at his home in Nishihara-cho, Okinawa. When visiting Okinawa, the museum is a "must see" place.

HOKO: walking.

HOKO UNDO: walking exercises (see Itosu Shinko or Kyan Shinko).

HOKO WAZA: walking techniques; the practice of the various stances in a straight line.

HONBU/HOMBU: headquarters. This is a general term used by many organizations to refer to their main school.

HONBU-CHO/HOMBU-CHO: the person in charge of the honbu.

HONTE-MOCHI: (k) a normal grip. A peasant's method of holding a wooden fighting staff with both hands facing in the same direction.

HONTO?: Is that right?

HONTO, NE?: That's right, isn't it?

HOPLOLOGY: the academic and practical study of combative arts and martial cultures around the world. An organization formed by the late Donn F. Draeger (1922-1982).

HOSHO: Japanese paper for ceremonial use. Although often called rice-paper, Japanese paper is normally made out of kozo (mulberry). This is the paper used for most hand-written certificates.

HOSO KEZURI: the semi-advanced level in the study of Okinawan karatedo; this is when the student develops a desire for the perfection of “his/her” method of karatedo and begins to seek more knowledge. This phase is comparable to reaching the top rung of the ladder. The karate student now adds the “silent focus” to the kata and begins to comprehend their own progress. Due to the fact that the student has started to gain true self confidence, they begin to project speed and power in their technique and kata on a regular basis.

HOTEI: A Chinese monk. He is the subject of many Zen paintings, usually being depicted carrying a sack over his shoulder.

HYAKU: the number 100.

HYOSHIGI: the wooden clappers used in a dojo to signal the beginning of class and during breathing exercises.

========== I ==========

IAIDO/IAIJUTSU: "the way/art of the sword;" the jigen-ryu was the most prominent style of swordsmanship that was practiced on Okinawa during the turn of the last century; the jigen-ryu kenjutsu method was a style that was strongly favored by Okinawan nobility.

IAIGOSHI DACHI: kneeling stance.

IBUKI: exhalation with vigor; a breathing method featuring a long exhalation, followed by a short "cough" to expel the last of the air.

ICHARIBA CHODE: (h) ‘Work together as a family’ in the Okinawan dialect. This is often used in partner type drills.

ICHI GO, ICHI E!: "One period of training, one encounter!" or "One encounter, one chance!" An old dojo maxim that urges a student to approach each class as if it were to be the only one he gets.

ICHI MAN: the number 10,000.

ICHI NICHI ISSHO: A bushi maxim meaning "one day, one lifetime."

ICHIBAN: number one; the best.

ICHIDAN: First Step. Originally, Funakoshi Gichin, who adopted the karate ranking system from judo, called the shodan rank, ichidan. Many people confused this word with the first rung of a ladder. After time, the term was changed to shodan.

IDO: movement.

IEMOTO: house founder; the grand master. The position of grand master is hereditary or passed on to a favorite student, who would continue the system. The grand master has the exclusive right to issue promotion certificates and grant teaching licenses to former students - for which the grand master receives a fee to sustain the honbu dojo. Despite criticism of this system, it has not only persisted, it has gained in strength and importance and must be reckoned with in any dealings with the various Okinawan ryu's.

IFU: a dojo tradition.

IGEN: dignity.

IHA SEIKICHI: (07/09/1932) born in Nishihara City, Okinawa, and is the senior most exponent of Chibana-style shorinryu residing in the United States. Iha originally started training in shorinryu under Gusukuma Shinpan (1890-1954) around 1950. When Gusukuma died in 1954, Iha was introduced to Miyahira Katsuya by his friend, Miyazato Shoei. On 03/12/1989, Miyahira Katsuya promoted Iha to Hanshi 9-Dan. In March of 2001, Iha Seikichi became the first Okinawan Hanshi 10-Dan to reside in the United States. Miyahira continues to be the president of Chibana Choshin's Okinawa Shorinryu Karatedo Association. Iha has been teaching at his Original Okinawa Karate School in Lansing, Michigan since 1978.

IIE!: No!; That's wrong!; Yes! Like hai, iie is not an absolute word. It indicates disagreement and can mean either yes or no depending upon the question.

IKAGA DESU KA?: How are things? How do you feel?

IKEBANA: flower arranging. The standard form requires that an arrangement consist of three main elements: the tallest branch symbolizes heaven; the middle branch (on the left side) represents man; and the lowest branch (on the right side) represents earth. The total arrangement must also contain an odd number of elements.

IKI: the physical act of respiration.

IKKEN HISSATSU: "Victory with one blow."

IKU KUMI: (g) the gojuryu equivalent of free sparring with all attacks geared for the targets that they were designed for.

IMA: now.

IMA NI: right now.

IN: expansive quality; centrifugal; the female principle.

IN-YO: "yin yang."

INCHI: a stamp pad for a hanko (seal); a prisoner.

INOUE MOTOKATSU: (12/02/1918 – 01/01/1993) An expert in Ryukyu Kobudo and senior student of the late Shinken Taira. He also studied under Konishi Yasuhiro (karate-jutsu), Fujita Seiko (the last living Koga Ninja) and Shioda Gozo (Aikido). Inoue is commonly referred to as the First Hanshi of Ryukyu Kobudo, a title given to him by his teacher, Taira Shinken. When Taira died in 1970, Inoue became his successor in Japan and Akamine Eiko was appointed the Okinawan director of Taira's association. Inoue was the president of Taira Shinken's Society for the Promotion and Preservation of Ryukyu Classical Martial Arts (Ryukyu Kobujutsu Hozon Shinkokai).

INTOKU: a good act done in secret.

IPPAN GEIKO: General training; this refers to an open class session as opposed to special training.

IPPE NIHE DEBIRU: (h) Thank you very much.

IPPON: a full point.

IPPON ASHI DACHI: one leg stance; standing on one leg.

IPPON KEN: one knuckle fist.

IPPON KUMITE: one point sparring. It consists of a single predetermined attack followed by a counterattack. This is the first step in the practice of kumite.

IPPON NUKITE: one finger spear hand.

IPPON SHOBU: one point match (in sparring).

IRASSHAIMASU: Welcome. Please come in.

IRI KUMI: (h)(g) free sparring stressing distance and timing, speed and power and combination of techniques. The concept and practice of iri kumi was first taught by Miyagi Chojun from 1929 to 1930. Initially, Chojun Sensei used protective equipment borrowed from the kendo club at the Naha Commercial High School. Iri kumi was first introduced at the Naha Police Academy but due to the numerous injuries sustained by the students using the protective equipment, it was halted after one year.

ISHI SASHI: a stone padlock; a training devise shaped like a stone dumbbell. The ishi sashi is used to develop and strengthen the muscles of the forearm, upper arms and wrists. Exercising with the ishi sashi also gives crispness to your hand and pulling techniques.

ISHI-BUKURO: a stone sack. Used by Okinawan karate practitioners for reflex training and for toughing the hands and improving one's grip.

ISOGI!: Hurry up!

ISSHIN-RYU: "the one heart style." An Okinawan karate system founded by Shimabukuro Tatsuo on 01/14/1955. The name isshin-ryu was coined by one of Shimabukuro's senior students, Kaneshi Eiko. Shimabukuro had been a student of Kyan Chotoku, Miyagi Chojun, Motobu Choki and Taira Shinken (of Ryukyu kobudo). Shimabukuro Tatsuo died on 05/30/1975 and Shimabukuro Kiichiro (his first born son) is the present headmaster. The isshin-ryu kata will include: sanchin, seisan, seiunchin, naihanchi, wansu, chinto, kusanku and sunsu.

ITOSU SHINKO: the Itosu Lines; a walking exercise developed by Itosu Ankoh in 1903 to teach a large group of people. It is composed of six different techniques done in a forward and backward motion. See Kyan Shinko.

ITOSU ANKOH: (1830-1915) Itosu was born in Shuri, Yamakawa village, Okinawa. He began studying Shuri-te under Matsumura Soken while very young and was later named as the official clerk of the Shuri government. When karate became part of the physical education training at the Shuri Elementary School in 1901, Itosu Sensei was its first instructor. This was the first step for the popularization of modern Okinawan karate. Between 1905 and 1915, Itosu was a part-time karate instructor at the Okinawa Dai Ichi High School. He devoted his entire life to the spread of Shuri style karate and died on January 26, 1915. His senior students were: Yabu Kentsu, Hanashiro Chomo, and Chibana Choshin.

ITTAI!: Hurt! Pain! Ouch!

ITTEN: the one point located about two-three inches below the navel. The center of balance of a human body.

========== J ==========

JA MATA/JA NEH: this is an abbreviated way of saying, "until I see you again." Commonly used by Okinawan karate practitioners when leaving their training partners in the dojo. It is considered a "jaunty" good-bye.

JAFE: (h) dreadful; awful; What a mess! (haihen in Japanese).

JAN-KEN-PON: the paper-scissors-stone game played by Japanese children.

JARI BAKO: a box filled with beans, sand or gravel used for karate training. The hands are thrust into it to toughen the skin and joints.

JICHINSAI: a ground breaking ceremony when building a new dojo.

JIGOTAI: to squat.

JIGOTAI DACHI: a squatting stance.

JIKAN!: Time! The end of class or sparring session.

JIN: love, compassion. Striving to find ways in expressing our love and compassion for our family, friends, neighborsand those less fortunate than ourselves. This is the third moral and ethical value as taught in Okinawan karatedo.

JIN-GWA:(h) money.

JINCHU: the pressure point on the upper lip below the nose.

JINJA/JINGU: a Shinto shrine.

JINZO: the kidney area.

JITEN/JIBIKI: an encyclopedia; a dictionary.

JITSU: truth; reality.

JIYU: free; freedom.

JIYU KUMITE: free style fighting.

JIYU WAZA: free style technique(s).

JO: upward.

JO: (k) a short staff measuring approximately four feet in length and one inch in diameter and made of Okinawan kashi wood (a red oak). Commonly used by the Okinawan police to subdue criminals. The only weapon allowed on the Shuri palace grounds.

JODAN: upper area; an area above the neck.

JODAN AGE UKE: the high rising block.

JOGAI!: Outside the contest area; out of bounds.

JOGE: up and down.

JOSEKI: the right side of the training area where the black belts sit in a traditional karate dojo.

JU: the number ten; meaning gentle or soft as in Gojuryu (the hard-soft style). One should not confuse this term with being weak. Softness refers to flexibility or yielding, or turning an opponent's force against him by yielding and using it to your advantage.

JU YOKU GO O SEISURU!: Softness controls hardness!

JUCHU: the striking point on the upper lip.

JUDO: the "gentle way." A Japanese martial Way and now an Olympic sport. Judo was developed by Kano Jigoro in 1882. It consist of throwing, holds, locks and strangles. The Okinawans quickly took to judo and many have obtained high ranks in this art. Presently, Miyazato Eiichi, gojuryu hanshi 9-Dan and ranked a judo 6-Dan, is president of the Okinawan Judo Association.

JUJUTSU: the gentle art; the original form of judo.

JUKEN: a bayonet.

JUKEN-DO: the way of bayonet fighting.

JUKU: a private school.

JUNBI UNDO: warm up or preliminary exercises; After the bowing in procedures, these exercises are performed to loosen and warm up the muscle groups. Performing these exercises at the beginning of each work out lessens the possibility of muscular strain during the more strenuous movements which follow. These preliminary exercises are usually referred to as the "warm ups." It should also be noted that each Okinawan dojo has their own particular methods of warming up and it will vary from dojo to dojo even in the same association.

These conditioning exercises are used to condition the body so as to develop coordination, balance, posture and agility. Each exercise has a specific function and must be done properly in order to achieve its purpose. While moving slowly enough to avoid a strain or injury, the student must make every effort to stretch as far as possible. The body should usually be relaxed while doing the exercises. At the same time, the exercises should be done briskly enough to thoroughly warm up both the muscles and the cardiovascular system. This period of training should last from 5 to 10 minutes for an hour class and from 10 to 15 minutes for a two hour class.

All the preparatory exercises fall into one of the following categories: jumping, stretching, bending, twisting and circling. They should be performed in a sequence starting with the extremities of the body and proceeding gradually towards the heart. Thus one should start with exercises for the legs (toes, ankles, and knees), then hips, trunk, shoulders, arms (elbows, wrists, and fingers), and finally the neck.

JUTSU: art; a science.

========== K ==========

KA: a suffix denoting a student (i.e., a karate-ka is a student Of karate.

KABUKI: Japanese theater. There are 18 classical plays.

KAESHI: to counter.

KAETTE!: Change your positions!

KAGAMI: a mirror.

KAGAMI BIRAKI: A traditional Japanese New Year's celebration which involves the cutting of rice cakes. Many martial arts dojos hold such ceremonies to mark the beginning of the New Year. Typically speeches and demonstrations are followed by a party. This is usually a major dojo event with special classes and a lecture by the headmaster. It is traditionally celebrated on the second Sunday of January.

KAI: the Japanese name for a ship's oar.

KAI/KYOKAI: an association.

KAICHO: "the head of the association;" the chief instructor of an association.

KAIDEN: master's certificate. The final license awarded according to the classical martial art teaching system.

KAISAI: (g)(h) a word coined by Chojun Miyagi meaning the "analysis of technique." Part of the three methods of Chojun-sensei's teaching: 1. shoho = the beginning way meaning the blocking methods as taught in kata. 2. kyoho = the middle way meaning the block is now used as a counter. 3. kaisai = the understanding, the reality, the truth of what is being done. See bunkai.

KAISETSU: the explanation of one's rank test. The teacher outlines the criteria he used to judge the student and point out their strengths and weaknesses and then explain the test results.

KAISHU: open hand.

KAITEN: round, wheel.

KAIZEN: Consist of two words – kai meaning to change and zen meaning good. Simply stated ‘to change for the good.’ This refers to one’s training where an individual continues to train and improve their karate skill. The opposite of kaiaku or to change for the worst. Kaiaku is accomplished by poor training methods or by taking ‘short cuts’ in ones training.

KAJAA: (h) an Okinawan nickname meaning "one who will never give up."

KAKARI GEIKO: attack practice. This is usually performed by high ranking students against successive opponents. It develops a strong offensive attitude.

KAKATO: the back of the heel; the heel.

KAKATO GERI: a heel kick favored by gojuryu practitioners.

KAKE: hooking; a rack for holding weapons.

KAKE-DAMESHI: challenge match or an exchange of technique. This was quite common on Okinawa until the early 1960's.

KAKE GERI: hook kick.

KAKE-TE: hooking hand.

KAKE-UKE: hooking block.

KAKIWAKE UKE: a wedge block; the word kakiwake literally means to shove aside or to push one's way through a crowd.

KAKE-ZUKI/KAKE-TSUKI: hooking punch.

KAKIE: (g) arm strengthening. A form of Okinawan sticky hands training used to develop sensitivity and arm strength.

KAKIMONO: a hanging scroll.

KAKUSHI GEI: hidden talent. The Okinawans have traditionally developed a particular skill (such as singing, solo dancing, or doing imitations), that they keep quiet about. At Okinawan parties, dinners, and other social gatherings, it is common for the participants to be called on to perform some kind of entertainment act. Having a kakushi gei prevents them from being embarrassed and allows them to demonstrate their skill. Many foreign students who come to Okinawa have been put on the spot at such gatherings and, because they do not have a hidden talent, are unable to perform. Their sensei and peers are not trying to embarrass them as the Okinawans have been conditioned to take it for granted that everybody has at least a little kakushi gei.

KAKUSHI ZUKI: a hidden fist punch.

KAKUSHITE: hidden hand(s). Each kata contains bunkai, or the application of each movement. Without application, the movements are nothing more than a dance. Bunkai makes the training realistic. Certain complex kata, in addition to containing bunkai, also contain kakushite, or hidden hand techniques. Kakushite was designed and built into the kata to preserve the deadly and secret techniques of a given ryu (school/style of karate). The kakushite is not readily recognized by casual observation; kakushite must be taught.

KAMA: (k) a sickle. A farming implement used as a weapon. The Japanese preferred to use one kama while the Okinawans used two kama in fighting. The kama is regarded as one of the five main weapons of Okinawa which included the bo, sai, tuifa and nunchaku.

KAMA-JUTSU: (k) hand helded sickle; developed from and is still used for various agricultural tasks. It is a serious and dangerous weapon system (even for the practitioner) where precautions are used in training. The kama teaches and builds up finger and hand dexterity. It also brings back the element of danger and concentration in the study of the traditional martial arts.

KAMAE: stance; this is the combative posture used in facing an opponent. In the Okinawan martial arts this term is used to describe both the combative and sporting postures taken while training but the Okinawan bushi used the kamae as a chess master uses the pieces on the board. Often an Okinawan bushi took up a kamae that left no opening for an attack.

KAMAE-TE: to be in a position to start; to be ready.

KAMI: a spirit; paper; also a heavy earthenware jar.

KAMI DANA: shrine shelf; a symbolic home of the dojo spirit.

KAMIKAZE: the divine wind; the hurricane that destroyed the mongol invasion fleet in 1281.

KAMIZA: the upper seat; The upper side of the training area in a dojo immediately in front of the dojo shrine (where the instructor sits). It can also be the area to the immediate right of the dojo shrine.

KAMOKU: A lecture on the history and philosophy of your specific art. See koshu renshu.

KAN: a building; a house.

KANA: a phonetic symbol; an abbreviation of a kanji; see hiragana and katakana.

KANBAN: a signboard of a dojo.

KANCHO: the head of the house; the chief instructor of the dojo.

KANGEIKO: An intensive practice session lasting several days during the coldest month of winter. This type of training dates from the mid-Edo period, when it was used to get samurai back into shape (after several months of garrison duty) and attendance was mandatory for all junior samurai.

KANJI: Chinese characters used/borrowed by the Japanese. The kanji characters are pictographs (picture words) used by the Japanese for writing. The short hand version is called hiragana while a method for writing foreign words is called katakana.

KANO JIGORO: (1860-1938) The founder of Kodokan Judo. He studied Tenshin Shinyo-ryu in 1877, Kito-ryu in 1881 and founded the Kodokan in 1882. He is the man most responsible for bringing martial arts to the general public. Kano believed that, although most people would never even get to the shodan level, a little training was better than none at all. This was a radical departure from classical thought.

KANSETSU: joint.

KANSETSU GERI: A kick against a joint to dislocate it.

KANSETSU WAZA: a joint technique involving a lock or a pinning method.

KANSHA: gratitude. Okinawan karatedo emphasizes the expression of gratitude, not just for instructors and fellow practitioners but to society in general. Hence, one of the first things a students learns in an Okinawan training hall is respect and gratitude to the ancient practitioners of their art who passed it on to the modern generation.

KANTAN NA MONO YOKU SHO O SEISU: A bushi maxim meaning, "the balance between victory and defeat often hangs on simple matters."

KAPPO: methods of resuscitation and massage; a unique life preserving techniques primarily utilized in injuries incurred in the martial arts practice.

KARA: empty; air; also a Japanese term for the T'ang dynasty of China (A.D. 618-970).

KARA-SHISHI: this is a traditional ceramic Chinese guardian lion. These lions sit on the Okinawan roofs to guard the house against ill winds and evil spirits.

KARATE: a term first used by the Shuri-te stylist, Hanashiro Chomo in 1905; an indigenous Okinawan martial art first brought to Japan by Funakoshi Gichin (1868-1957) in 1917. Funakoshi had been a student of Ankoh Itosu and Ankoh Azato and had merged the teachings of these two great instructors. He brought his version of Shuri-te to Japan and adopted the DAN/KYU ranking system in 1924. He promoted the first student to Dan rank on April 12, 1924.

KARATEDO: the way of the empty hand.

KARATE-GI: A karate training uniform. Other names used for it are do-gi (a uniform for the practice of the WAY) or simply a keiko-gi (training uniform). White uniforms are generally worn to symbolize "purity" and "cleanliness" of the mind and body.

KARATE-JUTSU:the art of the empty hand. The old name of the Okinawan art prior to 1936.

KARATE-KA: a student of karate. When the suffix "ka" is added to any martial skill the term means an exponent or student of that skill. Thus a student of kendo is a kendo-ka, etc.

KARATE KENKYUKAI: the Chinese Hands Research Association; a karate group established in Shuri around 1918. Experts like Choshin Chibana, Chojun Miyagi, Chotoku Kyan, Genwa Nakasone, Shinpan Gusukuma, Gichin Funakoshi, Chodo Oshiro, Kenwa Mabuni, Kentsu Yabu, Chomo Hanashiro, Shinko Matayoshi and Kenki Go were members and trained together to better their fighting arts.

KARI: a reaping technique involving sweeping an opponent's legs from beneath him. O-gari is done with the heel while ko-gari is done with the bottom of the foot.

KASAMI-UCHI: (k) a strike to the temple.

KASHI: this is a Japanese red or white oak which is favored for wooden weapons; in Okinawa the word kashi is used to refer to the Okinawan red oak used for wooden weapons.

KASUMI: the technique of flipping your hand, or anything else, toward an opponent's eyes to distract him; a feint.

KASUMI ZUKI: a snapping punch.

KATA: the shoulder.

KATA: form; formal exercise; The ideogram for the word kata may be interpreted as the following: form, shape, style, type, pattern, design, mold, cast, model, tradition or stereotype. Kata is a prearranged series of techniques involving attack and defense; it is used as a learning method and often considered a living text book. The kata contains all the fundamental information of a system that is in turn used to perfect technique and understanding of a particular ryu (style).

KATA GASSHO: a one handed bow (gassho) done while walking as a gesture of respect.

KATA SHIAI: forms competition.

KATACHI: a form or formal exercise done with spirit.

KATAHIZA DACHI: a one knee stance; the common Okinawan kneeling method used for taking "martial arts pictures."

KATAKANA: The Japanese angular phonetic alphabet used primarily for writing foreign words; dates from the 8th century.

KATAME WAZA: grappling techniques. They consist of osae-waza, kansetsu waza and shime waza.

KATANA: a long sword; a Japanese sword.

KATANA BUKURO: a sword bag.

KATANA KAKE: a horizontal sword stand. It normally holds two swords; the sword rack on the wall of a training hall designed to hold many swords or bokuto.

KATATE: one hand.

KATATEDORI: one handed grab.

KATATORI: shoulder grab. The meaning is identical to katadori. The Japanese are very loose about distinguishing between "t"s and "d"s.

KATSU: a form of resuscitation used in certain styles. It is rarely taught today in Okinawa but at one time it was part of the training one receive in learning how to deal with common injuries.

KATSUSATSU-JUTSU: the art of studying the vital points of the human body that can be used to either kill or cure. Once again, this has fallen into disuse on Okinawa and there are very few practitioners of this ancient art form.

KATTE KABUTO O OSHIME YO!: A bushi maxim meaning "After victory, tighten your helmet cords!"

KAZE: the wind.

KEAGE: snapping; rising.

KEICHU: the striking point on the back of the neck.

KEIKO/GEIKO: practice; training; in shorinryu the term keiko is used when "training the spirit" as opposed to shorinryu renshu which means a "physical practice." Keiko specifically refers to training under the supervision of a teacher, i.e., "learning." There are two ways to engage in keiko: If you are practicing with a partner who is less or more skilled, you are doing hikitate keiko. This type of training allows the senior to try a wide range of techniques freely. He in turn provides his junior with deliberate openings and chances to attack. Gokaku keiko is training against a student of equal skill and ability. In gokaku keiko, basic methods of attack and defense are sharpened. See renshu.

KEIKO-GI/GEIKO-GI: a practice or training uniform.

KEIKOKEN/SHOKEN: a forefinger fist; the favorite punching technique of Choki Motobu (1871-1944).

KEIZU: genealogy. The Okinawans consider it very important that a student of the martial arts be aware of their roots. Hence, it is a common practice to have a ko-mondo (lectures with a question and answer period) session as part of the dojo training.

KEKOMI: thrusting; "kicking off;" "kicking inward."

KEN: fist; depending on the kanji character, it can also mean sword.

KEN, ZEN ICHI: the fist and Zen are one.

KENDO: the way of the sword; Japanese fencing.

KENJO NO BITOKU: A bushi maxim meaning "with true strength comes humility."

KENPO/KEMPO: the law of the fist.

KENSHI: a fist saint; a nickname for Kanryo Higaonna.

KENSHINKAN: a shorinryu style developed by Fusei Kise of Matsumura Seito shorinryu. The style is based on the teachings of Hohan Soken and modified by Kise during the early 1980's.

KENTSUI: a hammer fist.

KEPPAN: a blood oath; a blood seal. This is the signing of an enrollment register with one's own blood as a pledge of one's sincerity and serious intent. An oath sworn by pricking a finger and sealing the document with a fingerprint of blood.

KERI WAZA: kicking techniques.

KESA: scarf

KI: intrinsic energy or life force. In Chinese this is called chi and in India it is known as prana. A healthy person is said to have a strong flow of the life force within them. In a sickly person, the life force is weak. The flow of the life force may be improved with healthy activity and a healthy mind.

KIAI: spirit shout. In combat the kiai is used to cause the attacker to either freeze or be distracted long enough to gain a victory. The kiai "comes from the stomach." In Okinawa, the kiai is rarely used except in demonstrations. This is because most dojo are located next to or near family residences and they do not want to disturb their peace by yelling continuously.

KIBA DACHI: the Japanese straddle leg stance which is commonly called the horse riding stance.

KICHIGAI: crazy; a crazy person. In street English, "Someone who is a couple of bricks shy of a load." See budo kichigai.

KIHON: basic.

KIHON IDO: basic movements.

KIHON KATA: basic formal exercises.

KIHON KATA BUNKAI: basic analysis of movements.

KIHON KUMITE: basic sparring.

KIHON WAZA: basic techniques.

KIME: focus; synchronization of body action.

KIMONO: the traditional dress of Japan worn by both men and women. The man's kimono is made up of a long sleeved jacket and baggy pants called hakama. Over the jacket a coat called a haori is worn, on which is the family crest. Popular men's colors are black and brown.

KIN(TEKI) GERI: the groin kick.

KINA SHOSEI: (1882-1981) Kina began studying under Ankoh Itosu at the Okinawan Teachers College in 1904. Shortly after Kina began his training, Itosu appointed his senior student, Kentsu Yabu, to take over. Kina studied with Yabu from 1906 to 1910. At the same time, he started training in weaponry under Kanakushiku Uhugushiku. In 1974 the Zen Okinawa Karate-kobudo Rengokai promoted him to Hanshi 10-Dan.

KINGAI-RYU: A style of Okinawan karate taught by Kenki Go, a Chinese White Crane stylist. Presently, the only practitioner of this style is Matayoshi Shinpo of Matayoshi Kobudo.

KIRITSU!: Stand up!

KISE FUSEI: (05/15/1935) a senior student of Hohan Soken and Shigeru Nakamura. Presently, Kise is ranked a Hanshi 9-Dan in Matsumura Shorinryu and runs the Kenshinkan School of Okinawan Shorinryu in Okinawa City, Okinawa.

KITEN: the starting point of a kata.

KIYOTSUKE!: Attention! Pay attention. Watch out.

KIZA: sitting on the heels with the toes curled forward.

KIZAMI ZUKI: jab punch; cutting punch. A snap punch done very much like a boxing jab.

KO: small; a prefix meaning "old."

KO GAKU SHIN: A bushi maxim meaning "keep your mind open in order to learn."

KO-HAKU SHIAI: red and white contest. In this form of competition, two contestants wearing a red or white ribbon perform a kata selected beforehand or imposed by the judges. It is a direct elimination system where the winners of each phase compete until defeated.

KO-MONDO: lectures and questions and answers. Modern karate training recognizes, in addition to kata and kumite training, lectures (called ko) and questions and answers (called mondo) as legitimate methods of study.

KOBAYASHI-RYU: The incorrect Japanese pronunciation of the Okinawan word for shorinryu. Choshin Chibana, the originator of shorinryu, often stated that those who knew nothing of Okinawan karate would mispronounce his style by calling it kobayashi-ryu.

KOBU-JUTSU: "ancient martial art."

KOBUDO: "ancient martial way"; a common expression used for weaponry or weapons training. The meaning of kobudo: "ko" means ancient, "bu" means military, warrior or martial and "do" means a road, path or way. So, kobudo actually means the "ancient martial way." With this translation, the art of kobudo means any ancient martial art whether it be weaponry or the various methods of empty hand fighting. Present day usage gives one the impression that it is strictly a weapon-based art but this is incorrect.

KOBUDO KAKE: a weapons rack.

KODO TO SHINDO: the old way and the new way. The Okinawans use this phrase to denote an ancient technique with a new interpretation. Okinawan instructors also indicate that the old ways were good for the time but one tends to improve the style without changing it.

KODOKAN: The headquarters for Judo located in Tokyo, Japan; the headquarters dojo of Shinpo Matayoshi's Ryukyu Kobudo Association; the headquarters dojo for the All Japan Karatedo Association located in Fussa City, Tokyo, Japan.

KODOKAN JUDO: The style of jujutsu founded by Jigoro Kano in 1882. Although it was originally created as an organization of traditional jujutsu, it quickly became a unique art. Due to the fact that Kano was both intelligent and highly educated, his Judo was systematically organized making it very easy to learn. Old jujutsu, as well as older karate, have a tendency to present their techniques in a very disorganized manner with one lesson having no relationship to the previous one. Kodokan Judo is also responsible for the introduction of the kyu-dan ranking system and the modern keiko-gi (training uniform). Due to its success, many other martial arts system have adopted its teaching methods, concepts and principles.

KOFU: dojo traditions.

KOGAN GERI: a kick to the groin with the instep.

KOHAI: behind companion; a junior. This term refers to a junior person in a dojo, fraternity or organization. It is used to refer to someone of lower rank or of the same rank but who has been in the dojo for a shorter period of time. See Sempai.

KOHO: to the rear.

KOI: a carp. On Boy's Day (May 5th) a paper koi is flown from the roof of a home for each son in the family. A multi-colored streamer goes at the top of the pole to represent flowing water.

KOJIKI: Records of Ancient Matters. The oldest book in Japanese history which dates from 712 A.D. The Kojiki is a mythological work somewhat akin to the Bible and contains a creation story of Japan and the lineage of the first 33 emperors.

KOKORO: spirit; heart; will; intention.

KOKUSAI BUDO RENMEI: The International Martial Arts Federation.

KOKUTSU DACHI: a back leaning stance.

KOKYU: breathing; with the mind and body coordinated.

KON: (k) staff. The original term used by Okinawans to identify a fighting staff. This term, which is actually a Chinese word, fell out of favor during the 1930's when the Japanese invaded China. During this period of time, the militant Dai Nippon Butokukai (Greater Japan Martial Virtue Association) indicated to the Okinawans that in order for their indigenous Okinawan martial art to become Japanese, that they would have to rename anything that had a Chinese flavor to it. At this time the term kon was dropped and the word bo was formally accepted. Instead of Sakugawa-no-kon, the Okinawans called it Sakugawa-no-bo.

KONBAN WA: Good evening; good night.

KONNICHI WA: good day; good afternoon; do not use toward a senior, to members of your own dojo or to a person you have greeted earlier in the day.

KORYU: ancient or traditional; classical martial arts traditions, schools or styles.

KOSA: cross; crossed.

KOSA DACHI: cross stance.

KOSA GERI: a cross kick.

KOSA UKE: cross block involving one hand in the middle blocking position and the other hand in the low blocking position.

KOSHI: ball of the foot; the hip.

KOSHI NAGE: hip throw.

KOSHI O IRERU!: Put the hips into it! A favorite saying of Choshin Chibana (1885-1969).

KOSHU RENSHU: a special class for students that are being tested for rank. Koshu renshu usually covers a particular skill that is not extensively practiced in daily training. Sometimes koshu takes the form of lectures concerning the history and philosophy of the art. These lectures are called kamoku.

KOTE: the wrist; also called tekubi.

KOTE GAESHI/KOTE MAWASHI: a wrist twist.

KOTEKITAE/KOTEKITAI: strengthening the body; a method that teaches physical and mental endurance through body pounding techniques involving hand and leg blocks.

KOTEKITE: strengthening the arms; a method often called "arm pounding" that is used to condition the arms for blocking. It builds blocking power through contact with a training partner.

KOTOWAZA: proverbs. Okinawan, like people everywhere, have their favorite proverbs. Here are three of my favorite: A protruding nail gets hammered down. When in a village, do as the villagers do. Travelers are shameless.

KUBI: the neck.

KUBIWA: to encircle the neck; to throw an opponent by wrapping your arm around his neck.

KUCHI: the mouth.

KUCHI BUSHI: a mouth warrior; a derogatory term meaning an individual who just talks about being a warrior. Even as Gichin Funakoshi often said, "even today, these kuchi bushi are as common as grains of sand on a beach."

KUMANKAI KUWA/KUMANKAI MENSORE: (h) Come here!

KUMI-BO: (k) a method of sparring using a wooden staff; other methods used would include kumibo-sai, kumibo-tuifa and kumibo-kama.

KUMI-ODORI: a weapon's dance performed by two or more exponents at Okinawan festivals.

KUMITE: a meeting of the hands; sparring. In kumite there are three methods of showing initiative-sen (meaning initiating the attack), go-no-sen (counter attacking), and sen-no-sen (meaning starting after one's opponent but finishing first). The various methods of kumite include: gobon kumite; sanbon kumite; ippon kumite; bunkai kumite; kihon kumite; oyo bunkai kumite; yakusoku kumite; kiso kumite; kakie kumite; jiyu ippon kumite; kaishu kumite, shiai kumite; randori kumite and bogu kumite.

KUNETI: (h) please forgive me.

KUNIGAMI: (h) the Northern district of the island of Okinawa. People from this district were teased by being called a yanbara or "a country bumpkins."

KUNIYOSHI MASAYOSHI: the most famous student of Kitoku Sakiyama. Bushi Kuniyoshi was a Naha-te practitioner who specialized in punching techniques. He is most noted for his sai weaponry with his Kuniyoshi sai 1-2-3 being practiced throughout Okinawa.

KURO OBI: The black belt. The first black belts were awarded by Gichin Funakoshi on April 12, 1924. Seven Japanese students received the shodan award. They included Otsuka, Tokuda, Akiba, Shimizu, Hirose, Gima and Kasuya.

KUWA(KE): (k) a farming implement, the hoe. This particular weapon is practiced by the Matayoshi
school of Ryukyu Kobudo.

KUZUSHI: balance; to break or upset the balance; to destroy the posture of an opponent; the initial move of breaking the balance in a throwing technique.

KYAN CHOTOKU: (1870-1945) was an Okinawan Shuri-te karate expert. Kyan was first taught tode by his father while he was still a teenager. Kyan was trained by four noted instructors: Sokon Matsumura of Shuri; Kosaku Matsumora of Naha; Ankoh Itosu also of Shuri; and Pechin Kokan Oyadomari of Naha. Kyan learned rapidly, absorbing both Shuri-te and Tomari-te; his Chinto kata was said to have been flawless. He taught eight kata: ananko (a personal kata devised by Kyan while living on Formosa), wanshu (from Saneida), naihanchi (from Itosu), chinto (from Kosaku Matsumora), patsai (from Kokan Oyadomari), kusanku (from Chatan Yara), seisan and gojushiho (both from Sokon Matsumura). Kyan's favorite kata were the chinto, patsai and the Chatanyara Kusanku. He also favored the bo. He was challenged frequently but was never defeated.

KYAN SHINKO: The Kyan Lines. A walking exercise devised by Chotoku Kyan to teach large groups of people. It is composed of six forward and backward motions. Since Kyan favored leg exercises, these training methods stressed leg strengthening techniques. See Itosu Shinko and hoko undo.

KYOBU: (s) the chest.

KYOBU GERI: (s) the chest kick.

KYODA JYUHATSU: (1887-1968) Jyuhatsu Kyoda was born on December 5, 1887. Kyoda began training with Kanryo Higaonna in 1902. A month later, Chojun Miyagi joined the dojo. On March 2, 1934, Kyoda was appointed by the governor of Okinawa to be the karate instructor for the Okinawa Branch of the Dai Nippon Butokukai. On May 4, 1938, he was awarded the Sho Nanai Award by Emperor Hirohito. After his retirement in 1944, Kyoda moved to mainland Japan and lived in Beppu, on the island of Kyushu, until his demise. Kyoda died at 9:00 a.m. on August 3l, 1968, in Beppu City, Kyushu, Japan.

KYOKAI: an association. Kai commonly means "a group" and kyo means "cooperation." So a kyokai means people working together for a similar goal.

KYOSEI: a student teacher.

KYOSHI: teacher; a title awarded by an association to an individual holding the rank of seventh or eighth dan.

KYOSHI MENKYO: a teaching license. A specific certificate, written in Japanese, stating that an individual is authorized to teach a particular style.

KYU: class. The lowest ranking system under the black belt rank. The kyu ranks are called mudansha meaning ungraded. Typically, the system is based on a 10-kyu system with the 10-kyu being the lowest and 1-kyu being the highest.

KYU-CHO: the senior mudansha in a dojo.

KYUDO: the way of the bow and arrow. The study of archery as a way of life.

KYUSHO: the vital points of the body.

KYUSHO-JUTSU: vital point(s) art. The following are the kyusho-jutsu points as taught in Okinawa and are especially worked with by the followers of Motobu-ryu:
1. tendo (the crown of the head) 2. komekame (the temple
3. mimi (the ears)
4. miken (the summit of the nose by the forehead)
5. gansei (the eyeballs
6. jinche (the philtrum, under the nose)
7. mikazuki (the jaw)
8. hichu (the base of the throat)
9. danchu (the sternum)
10. suigetsu (the solar plexus)
11. ganchu (the spot below the nipples)
12. denko (spot between the 7th and 8th ribs - over the heart)
13. kinteki (the testicles)
14. fukuto (outside part of the lower thigh)
15. hizakansetsu (the knee joint
16. uchikuobushi (inside the ankle joint)
17. kori (upper surface of the instep)
18. keichu (the nape of the neck)
19. shofu (the side of the neck)
20. jinzo (the kidney)
21. hijizume (the elbow joint
22. kanzo (the liver)
23. kote (the wrist or back of the lower forearm)
24. bitei (the coccyx)
25. shuko (the back of the hand)

KYUSHU: The southern most island of Japan and home of the Satsuma Clan. The Satsuma Clan, of Kagoshima, invaded Okinawa in 1609.

========== M ==========

MA: distance; an interval.

MA-AI: spacing; combative distance; the proper spacing between two partners; this varies according to the height of the practitioners and whether they are holding weapons.

MABUNI KENWA: (1889-1952) The founder of Shito-ryu karatedo, one of the four major styles of Japan. Mabuni was a student of Kanryo Higaonna and Ankoh Itosu. He merged both styles together to form his own style which he called Shito-ryu. The name Shito comes from his two main teachers. In the Okinawan dialect, Itosu is pronounced as Shi-shu and Higaonna is pronounced as To-on-na. The Shi (Itosu) and To (Higaonna) formed the name Shito. His senior students include Kanei Mabuni, Manzo Iwata, Kosei Kokuba, Ryusho Sakagami, Chojiro Tani and Kanei Uechi (who has the only Shito-ryu school on Okinawa). The Shito style is presently headed by his son, Kanei Mabuni.

MACHI YAKKO: street gangs found on Okinawa after World War II.

MACHU: (g) the nickname of Chojun Miyagi (1888-1953), founder of Okinawan style gojuryu karatedo.

MAE/SHOMEN: front.

MAE GERI: front kick.

MAE GERI KEAGE: front kick snap.

MAE GERI KEKOMI: front kick thrust.

MAE TOBI GERI: front jump kick.

MAKI: a type of certificate in the form of a scroll.

MAKIMONO: a scroll.

MAKIWARA: coiled rope. A straw punching pad used in karate to develop power. The makiwara is attached to an often mounted, flexible, wooden post or wall. The student practices punching and kicking techniques on the makiwara to harden the striking areas of the hands and feet. This punching board is used in the training of focus or focusing of body strength. The true makiwara is a board wrapped with coarse straw rope, hence the meaning of makiwara - a coiled rope.

MAKOTO: truthfulness; being sincere and honest. This was constantly stressed by Choshin Chibana in his lectures. This is the fourth moral and ethical value as taught in Okinawan karatedo.

MANJI: a Buddhist symbol resembling a swastika.

MANJI SAI: the Japanese word for a nunte; a weapon devised by Shinken Taira based on the swastika symbol.

MAJIMAN-ISHI: (h) These are stones often sold at shrines and are used for the protection against devils or bad omens. An Okinawan version of a ‘mojo’ stone.

MATAYOSHI KOBUDO: Matayoshi kobudo was originated through the teachings of Shinko Matayoshi. Presently, it is one of four schools of Okinawan weaponry that is affiliated with the All Okinawa Karatedo Association. The present headmaster is Shinpo Matayoshi who is ranked a Hanshi in Ryukyu kobudo.

Weaponry Presently Taught: 1. Matayoshi style bo-jutsu (3, 4, 6 and 8 foot bo) 2. Matayoshi style sai-jutsu (2 and 3 sai techniques) 3. nunchaku-jutsu 4. sanchaku-jutsu (three sectional nunchaku)
5. tunqwa-jutsu (tuifa-jutsu)
6. nunte-jutsu
7. suruchin-jutsu (weighted rope)
8. tinbe-jutsu (turtle shield and small spear)
9. kama-jutsu (two sickle methods)
10. eku-jutsu (Okinawan oar methods)
11. tettsu-jutsu (iron staff methods)
12. tekko-jutsu (iron fist methods)
13. kuwa-jutsu or kuwa-no-te (a handheld farming hoe)

MATAYOSHI SHINKO: (1888-1947) was born in Kakinohana Village, Naha City. During the height of his prowess, Shinko was known to have dedicated himself to both physical and spiritual training. By the end of the Meiji era, Shinko had traveled to the far reaches of Hokkaido, Karafuto, Manchuria, Shanghai, Fukushu and Taiwan. He was so well respected by the martial arts practitioners of Okinawa that he was often called, Kama Matayoshi. This nickname was based on his extraordinary skill with the kama. In 1947, Shinko Matayoshi passed away at the age of 59. His successor is his son, Shinpo Matayoshi.

MATAYOSHI SHINPO: (1922 - 1997) Matayoshi began his weapons training in Kawasaki, Japan, shortly after World War II. He remained in Japan until 1960 when he returned to Okinawa. Upon his return he did not open a dojo but taught in a number of Okinawan training halls. His main training hall was in the dojo of gojuryu master, Seiko Higa. By 1969 the spread of Okinawan style weaponry and the need for this specialize knowledge was being felt by all martial artist not only in Okinawa but also in Japan. At this time Shinpo opened up his first real Okinawan kobudo training hall, the KODOKAN. From his father's name, Shinko, he took the character "KO" (meaning light) and called his dojo, "The house that Lights the Way." Presently, his son, Matayoshi Yasushi (1965) is the chief instructor of the Kodokan and president of the Okinawa Prefecture branch of the Butokukai.

MATSUBAYASHI-RYU: one of the four main Okinawan styles and presently headed by Shoshin Nagamine (1907-1997), Hanshi 10-Dan. This style is based on the teachings of Bushi Matsumura, Chojun Miyagi and Chotoku Kyan. Nagamine often stated that his style was formed on the day he was born. The matsubayashi-ryu kata taught at Nagamine's Kodokan Dojo include the following: fukyu kata 1-2, pinan 1-2-3-4-5, naihanchi 1-2-3, ananku, rohai, wankan, patsai, gojushiho, chinto and kusanku.

MATSUMURA SEITO KARATEDO: a shorinryu style founded by Hohan Soken (1889-1982) based on the teachings of his uncle, Nabe Matsumura. Nabe Sensei was the grandson of Sokon "Bucho" Matsumura. The Matsumura Seito kata will include the following: Hakutsuru, naihanchi 1-2, pinan 1-2, gojushiho, kusanku, chinto, seisan, and rohai 1-2-3.

MATSUMURA SHORINRYU KARATEDO KYOKAI: The Matsumura Shorinryu Karatedo Association headed by Seiki Aragaki (born 12-01-1923) and a senior student of Hohan Soken.

MATSUMURA SOKON: (1809-1901) Matsumura was born in Shuri- Yamakawa village, Okinawa, and was the chief bodyguard for the 17th, 18th and 19th king's of Okinawa. The Okinawan king sent Matsumura to Fukien, China, on at least two occasions. While in China he used the name Bu Seitatsu and studied not only the empty hand fighting arts but also Chinese weaponry. After-wards, the king sent Matsumura to Kagoshima, Japan, to study the martial arts under Ishuin Yashichiro of the Satsuma Clan. Matsumura is most remembered for his sai and bo weaponry and for the Matsumura Patsai (patsai sho in the Chibana style of shorinryu). He died in 1901 and left Ankoh Itosu as his most senior student.

MATTE!: stop; wait.

MAWASHI: circular; round.

MAWASHI GERI: circle kick; round-house kick.

MAWASHI UKE: circular block.

MAWATTE!: A command to turn around.

MEGOSA TAKWA SUN DO: (h) I'll give you a tap on the forehead.

MEIJI: the Meiji era from 1886 until 1912; the Emperor of Japan during this period was Meiji.

MEIJIN: a title given to the leading genius of a martial arts field; a great master; a magician.

MEIKYO SHI SUI: A bushi maxim meaning "a bright mirror calmly reflects the world but is not changed by it."

MEISHI: a business card; a calling card. The Okinawans consider it vital that people know the name, rank, position, and relative standing of anyone they meet in order to use the right level of language and appropriate behavior toward them. Normally, the younger or lower ranking person offers his or her name card first (turned so that the other person can read it immediately). It is impolite to hand out cards that have been written on or damaged.

MEISHIN: superstitions. Most of the Okinawan superstitions concern numbers or dates and directions. The two unluckiest numbers in Okinawa are four and nine. The Japanese word for "four" is shi and is pronounced like the word that means "death." Ku, the word for "nine," suggests suffering. Thirteen is also an unlucky number (perhaps because it is unlucky in the West). As a result of these superstitions, many hotels in Japan and Okinawa do not have rooms numbered four, nine or thirteen. Unlucky days include the 4th and the 14th. The luckiest days of the month are the 15th and the 28th, and these are good days for beginning new projects and strarting trips. Unlucky ages are 19, 33 and 42. In the Zodiac, the Year of the Horse and Monkey are considered unlucky. With directions, the best are east and south. The unluckiest are north and northeast. Many people today are still concerned about which way their houses face and where the doors are.

MEN: the head area.

MENKYO: a certificate; teacher's licenses. Menkyo are given to those who have been judge to have the ability to pass the art to others without distortion or compromising the integrity of the techniques. Menkyo are sometimes limited. That is, they may state that a person may only teach a certain level of technique or may limit the teaching to the dojo in which the menkyo was issued. But this differs with the Ryu. See shihan.

MENKYO KAIDEN: a certificate of advanced proficiency; a master's teaching license. It is usually earned several years after being issued a Menkyo. A few have skipped the MENKYO position and have gone directly to menkyo kaiden. Many times they are in charge of a territory containing several schools.

MENSORE: (h) Welcome! Please come in! Similar to dozo irrashai in Japanese.

METSUKE: Eye-to-eye contact without focusing on a single point which permits awareness of the total field of vision.

MICHI: the Way; the road; the path. The alternative reading of the word, DO.

MIGI: right.

MIGI ASHI MAE: a command for the right foot forward.

MIKAZUKI: crescent moon; curved.

MIKAZUKI GERI: crescent kick.

MISEKAKE: to catch the gaze; a fake; a feint.

MISOGI: a Shinto purification; a breathing method of inhaling through the nose with a feeling of drawing the air into the top of the head; hold, with a feeling of letting the air settle into the lower abdomen; and exhale through the mouth. A complete cycle should take 30-90 seconds.

MITSU DOMOE: three commas going in a circle; presently, this symbol stands for Okinawa and is often found on karate patches. This emblem/symbol was the crest of the royal family, Sho.

MIYAGI CHOJUN: (04-25-1888 - 10-08-1953) Miyagi started his formal training in 1902 under Kanryo Higaonna. After training in karate for 13 years, Miyagi sailed to China and studied Chinese Kenpo in Foochow City, Fukien Province. In 1937 Miyagi received the title of Karatedo Kyoshi (Teacher of Karatedo) from the Butokukai. In 1953, Miyagi was instructing at the Ryukyu Police Academy in Naha City, Okinawa. He died on October 8, 1953, of a heart attack. He was 65 years old.

MIYAHIRA KATSUYA: (08-16-1918 – 11-28-2010) born in Nishihara City, Okinawa, and is recognized as Choshin Chibana's most senior student and president of Chibana's Okinawa Shorinryu Karatedo Association. He began training under Chibana in 1933 and also received training under Anbun Tokuda and Choki Motobu. He received his Shihan ranking from Chibana in 1948. By 1958 he had been awarded a Kyoshi ranking by the Dai Nippon Butokukai. Chibana promoted him to 8-Dan Kyoshi in 1962 and 9-Dan Hanshi in 1967. When Chibana died in 1969, Miyahira became the president of the Association with Chozo Nakama (Hanshi 9-Dan) and Shugoro Nakazato (Hanshi 9-Dan) serving as vice-presidents. His senior student (as of 1991) is Iha Seikichi, Hanshi 10-Dan, who teaches in Lansing, MI.

MIYAMOTO MUSASHI: (1584-1645) also known by his real name of Shinmen Musashi-no-kami Fujiwara Genshin. A famous swordsman and author of Gorin-no-Sho.

MIYAZATO EIICHI: (1922 - 1999) began training in gojuryu under Chojun Miyagi in 1935. During World War II he resided in Manchuria "working." Upon his return to Okinawa he became an assistant instructor under Miyagi. Miyagi's dojo was located at the family home in Tsuboya, Naha. Upon Miyagi's death in 1953, Miyazato continued to teach at the Miyagi residence until he opened his own dojo in 1957. The Jundokan, located in Asato, was rebuilt in 1969 and is still in operation and with Miyagi's original training equipment still in use. Presently, Miyazato is ranked a Hanshi in his Okinawa Gojuryu Karatedo Association and a 6-Dan in Kodokan Judo.

MIZU: water.

MODOTTE!: A command to return to the original position. An example is when a class or student continues to make errors in the performance of kata, the student or class may be asked to return to the original position without finishing the kata.

MOICHIDO!: One more time!

MOKUROKU: catalogue. Also a scroll which contains the densho and some esoteric principles, the full meaning of which were transmitted orally.

MOKUSO!: Meditate!

MOKUSO: "meditation" or "quiet contemplation." The purpose of mokuso is to achieve mental and physical quiet and tranquility before and after training. The Okinawans believe that the primary purpose of meditation before training is to prepare the mind and clear it for a disciplined and rigorous work out. An individual should throw everything out of their mind before training so as to be more receptive to information and techniques that will be forthcoming.

First, the student concentrates on breathing in the lower abdomen. Later, the student practices as if his mind has stopped. One must empty his mind and keep it totally clear. The student tries to focus his mind on training and to develop a clean slate so as to absorb the information that will be taught. This clean slate is also referred to as no mindedness or mushin.

This mushin state is an ideal state of mind in which to face your opponent. So, in reality, meditation is preparing your mind for training, for opponents, and for life. Of course, there are many different levels of mushin, and it takes years of training to use it effectively.

At the end of training, an individual is usually very tired. Therefore, the student should once again clear their mind. Although they are tired, meditation can not only clear their mind but also relax their spirit. The student should therefore try to integrate this mentality and keep it in their daily life. One eventually learns how to instantly develop this mentality even in a combat situation.

MON: a family crest; on a kimono it appears in five places: on both breasts, on the back of both sleeves and in the center of the back. On a man's kimono the mon are about 1.5" in diameter; on a woman's kimono they are about half that size. Note: the stenciled mon are considered to be much more formal than embroidered mon.

MONDO: a class period consisting of questions and answers.

MONO UCHI: (k) the tapered end of a wooden fighting staff.

MOROTE: with both hands; with one arm helping the other.

MOSHI MOSHI: hello.

MOTOBU CHOKI: (1871-1944) a famous Okinawan pugilist and street fighter. Although born to nobility, Motobu was a brawler and was forced to leave Okinawa in 1921. He settled in Osaka, Japan, and worked as a security guard until he was recognized as an Okinawan "karate boxer." He taught karate-jutsu for several years but never founded a school or system. He returned to Okinawa in 1939 but with a changed attitude and disposition. By the time of his death in 1944, he was considered a genuine karate expert. He favored three kata, naihanchin shodan, patsai and gojushiho. He authored a small booklet in 1926 entitled Ryukyu Kempo Karate-jutsu Kumite-hen (Ryukyu Boxing Art of Karate-jutsu and Sparring Techniques). His favorite saying was "defend the center of the body and learn to attack the center of the body."

MOTOBU-RYU: a style of Okinawan karate founded by Seikichi Uehara (1904 – 2004) in 1961. Uehara was a student of Choyu Motobu, the elder brother of Choki Motobu. Originally, the art was called goten-te (palace hand) which was an art of the Imperial family of Okinawa. It has many grappling and throwing techniques. It also makes use of the sword, spear and halbert.

MUCHIMI: (h)(g) heavy, sticky hands; various methods of arm/hand conditioning involving grappling or blocking.

MUDANSHA: ungraded; those individuals under the rank of black belt. The rank structure can run from 10-kyu (the lowest karatedo rank) which wears a white belt to 1-kyu (the highest rank under the black belt level) which would wear a brown belt.

MUNEN MUSHIN: no regrets, no thoughts; to strike without conscience.

MUNEN MUSO: no regrets, no plans; the impassive state of mind that is the goal of zazen; to strike without conscience or goals.

MURASAME: a pressure point on each side of the throat behind the MUSHA SHUGYO: a knight errantry; in the Okinawan context, this refers to a bushi wandering from dojo to dojo to test his strength and hone his skills. During his younger years, Chojun Miyagi did this not only in Okinawa but also in mainland China.

MUSHIN: without thought; no mindedness.

MUSO: without a plan; a state of mind where one fights without a plan is a common goal of all traditional ryu.

MUSUBI DACHI: an informal stance with the heels touching and the feet open.

MUZUKASHII!: This is difficult!

MUZUKASHII, NE?: This is difficult, isn't it?

========== N ==========

NAFUDA-KAKE: the name boards in a dojo that list the members of the dojo or association.

NAGAMINE SHOSHIN: (1907-1997) was ranked as a Hanshi 10-Dan and the originator of Matsubayashi-ryu (commonly called shorinryu) in 1947. A former student of Chotoku Kyan, Chojun Miyagi and Choki Motobu. After his the death of his father in 1997, Nagamine Takayoshi became the Chief Instructor of the World Shorinryu Karatedo Association. The Matsubayahisryu Kodokan Dojo is presently being run by his son, Takayoshi Nagamine, Hanshi 9-Dan.

NAGAMINE TAKAYOSHI: (born 08/12/1945) the son of Nagamine Shoshin and presently ranked an Hanshi 10-Dan. He is the head instructor at his late father's dojo in Naha, the Kodokan. Nagamine speaks excellent English having spent approximately eight years in the U.S.

NAGASHI UKE: a sweeping or sliding block.

NAGE: to throw.

NAHA: the capital city of modern Okinawa Prefecture.

NAHA-TE: the Hand of Naha. A style of fighting originating in the vicinity of Naha. Kanryo Higaonna is often associated with the style which is noted for its heavy, powerful techniques and emphasizes breathing.

NAIWAN: the bottom surface of the arm; the ulna side of the arm.

NAKA: the center.

NAKA KEZURI: the intermediate level in the study of Okinawan karatedo. In this level, the techniques can now be compared to reaching the middle of the ladder or middle of the climb. The student begins to feel confident in his or her ability, polishing what they have been practicing and developing an understanding of the techniques. Here they become more inquisitive. In this state of learning karate, many hours are spent in front of a mirror as the student checks for proper stance, position of the blocks, the angles of punching, kicking, and other moves. This period is particularly difficult because the student feels their training is becoming routine.

NAKADAKA IPPON KEN: a fist with the middle knuckle extended.

NAKAGAMI: (h) The middle or center district of Okinawa.

NAKAIMA: this moment in real time; the eternal present.

NAKAIMA KENKO: (born 11-02-1911) the present headmaster of Ryuei-ryu Karate and Kobudo Preservation Society. His dojo is called the Ryuhokan Honbu Dojo and is located in Nago City, Okinawa. Nakaima originally learned Ryuei-ryu as a family style from his father, Kenchu Nakaima. Presently, Nakaima only teaches kobudo at the family dojo with his senior student, Tsuguo Sakumoto, running the dojo as its chief instructor.

NAKAMA CHOZO: (1899-1982) a senior student of Choshin Chibana and was one of the five individuals promoted to Hanshi 9-Dan by Chibana. Nakama was also called Kaka (one who stutters) Nakama and received training under Ankoh Itosu, Kenwa Mabuni and Choki Motobu. Nakama was vice-president of Chibana's Okinawa Shorinryu Karatedo Association and died a Hanshi 10-Dan in 1982. Beside the 13 Chibana katas, Nakama also taught his versions of wansu, seisan and gojushiho.

NAKAMURA SHIGERU: (1892-1969) The originator of Okinawan Kenpo Karatedo. In l913 Nakamura began his karate training at the First Middle School, called Iichu, in Shuri. The dojo instructors at the club were Chomo Hanashiro and Kentsu Yabu. Once a week, Kanryo Higaonna, taught some members privately, including Nakamura. Following his graduation, Nakamura studied with yet another noted karate master, Shinkichi Kuniyoshi, a Peichin (Knight) of the Ryukyuan King, Sho. Nakamura returned to his home town of Nago City to teach his interpretation of karate, calling it Okinawa Kenpo Karate-jutsu.

NAKAMURA TAKETO: (born 01/02/1934) the son of Shigeru Nakamura and presently ranked an 8-Dan kyoshi in Okinawan kenpo. Upon the death of his father, Taketo became the headmaster of the Okinawa Kenpo Karatedo Federation. He works as a mechanic and runs the honbu dojo in Nago, Okinawa.

NAKASONE GENWA SEIYU: (1893-1983) the last pure Tomari-te expert and student of Kotatsu Iha (1873-1928). Iha was a senior practitioner under Kosaku Matsumora (1829-1898). Nakasone taught naihanchin 1-2-3, chinto, rohai, patsai, kusanku, wanshu, wankan and rinkan. He was nicknamed "Kaka" Nakasone. In the Okinawan dialect, "Kaka" refers to one who stammered. He was a furniture maker by profession and although he had a difficult time talking, he was considered a genius by his peers and an equal to Choshin Chibana and Chojun Miyagi. He and his friend, Kenwa Mabuni, co-authored one book, Kobo Kempo Karatedo Nyumon.

NAKAZATO AKIRA/CHIBANA AKIRA: (born 07/31/1942) grandson of Choshin Chibana and no relation to the other mentioned Nakazato's. Since Chibana did not have a male heir, he adopted Nakazato and promoted him to Kyoshi 7-Dan in 1965. When adopted, Nakazato's name was officially registered as Chibana Akira. When Chibana died in 1969, Nakazato felt that he did not have the rank or experience to assume the leadership of Chibana's organization, the Okinawa Shorinryu Karatedo Association. In March of 1969 he turned over the Association seals (hanko) to Chibana's senior student, Miyahira Katsuya. At the same time, Chibana Akira changed back to his original name, Nakazato Akira.

NAKAZATO JOEN: (born 04/13/1922) the originator of Okinawa Shorinji-ryu and senior living student of Kyan Chotoku. Presently, he is the president of the All Okinawa Karatedo Association and headmaster of his own association, the All Okinawa Shorinji-ryu Karatedo Association. Nakazato (no relation to the other mentioned Nakazato's) instructs at his Chinen, Okinawa, dojo and is a retired school teacher. He teaches only the katas that were passed on by Kyan and stresses power in kata and makiwara training. See shorinji-ryu.

NAKAZATO SHUGORO: (born 08/14/1920) the president of the Okinawa Karatedo Shorinryu Shorinkan Association. Began training under Seiichi Iju (Shuri-te) in July of 1935 while attending school in Osaka, Japan. He entered the Chibana dojo in June of 1946 and became an assistant instructor in 1949. Was awarded the rank of Shihan by Chibana on January 10, 1954. He opened the Shorinkan Karate Dojo on May 6, 1955 in the Aja section of Naha. He was promoted to Kyoshi 8-Dan by the Okinawa Karatedo Association in 1960 and to Hanshi 9-Dan by Chibana in 1967. Presently ranked as a Hanshi 10-Dan by his Association. He was the 5th individual to be promoted to Hanshi 9-Dan by Chibana Sensei and the youngest at the age 46.

NANAME: angular; at the angle; diagonal.

NAMI ASHI: wave foot.

NAN DESU KA?: What is it?

NANA KOROBI YA OKI: A bushi maxim meaning "if you fall down seven times, get up eight times." One of the favorite sayings of Chojun Miyagi.

NANI?: What?

NAORE!: Return to your original position.

NAOSHITE!: A command to correct your position.

NAOTTE!: A command to be at ease or relax.

NARANDE!: A command to line up.

NEKO ASHI DACHI: the cat foot stance.

NIDAN GERI: two time kick; double jump kick.

NIF WE DE BIRU: (h) ‘Thank you’ in the Okinawan dialect.

NIGIRI GAME: turtle jar(s); gripping jars. Initially, one uses empty jars for training. After spending some time doing nigiri game training, gradually make them heavier by putting sand in the jars. Add more sand as your physical strength improves. After building up some gripping power, used the jars with a straight mouth. After acquiring more gripping power, oil the mouths of the jars to make them slippery. To build up your gripping power, practice gripping tennis balls or small, smooth stones.

NIHON/NIPPON: Japan.

NIHONGO: the Japanese language. Present-day Japanese is based on five vowels (a, i, u, e, o) and one additional sound, n. Words are made up of syllables that are always open, and they never end in a consonant, which is why the Japanese have a difficult time pronouncing English.
It should also be remembered that in Japanese there is no difference between singular and plural. You can have one dojo and several dojo but never several dojos. {But, to make it easier on students, I will use the plural from time to time -ed}

NIHONJIN: a Japanese person.

NIN: to endure or "to persevere unto heaven."

NIPPON KARATE KYOKAI: the Japan Karate Association. A style of karate based on the teachings of Ankoh Itosu and Ankoh Azato founded by Gichin Funakoshi.

NIPPON KOBUDO SHINKOKAI: The Organization for the Preservation of the Japanese Traditional Martial Ways; this organization have held annual demonstrations since 1935 in Tokyo of the traditional martial arts and Ways.

NIPPON-TO: a Japanese sword.

NITEN-RYU BOJUTSU: a style of weaponry founded by Kanken Toyama (1888-1966). See Kanken Toyama.

NITTEN SOJI: daily cleaning. The daily care and cleaning of the dojo by the students. This is a privilege and not a requirement.

NOREN: a curtain hanging over the entrance of a business establishment. It usually has three panels.

NOSHI: the small symbol on the upper corner of a shugi bukuro (a money envelope) that represents a wrapped slice of awabi (abalone). This type of dried fish was a traditional gift, so the symbol is used to conceal the fact that the envelope contains money (a vulgar item to the Okinawa bushi). If a proper envelope is not available, the hiragana for "noshi" is written on a plain, white envelope.

NUKITE: spear hand.

NUNCHAKU: a wooden flail consisting of two lengths of wood joined by a cord. Because weapons were banned through part of their history, many inhabitants of the Ryukyuan Islands defended themselves with everyday items.

NUNCHAKU-JUTSU: The art of the flail developed from an instrument used to beat grain from the stalks into baskets. Most modern practitioners of the art use two hardwood sticks of about one shaku in length tied with rope, horsehair or chain. The wooden flail develops the grip, wrist and the deltoids.

NUNCHAKU-JUTSU (NON-STANDARD): Most Japanese karate students are very familiar with the standard nunchaku. However, very few are familiar with the san-setsu-kon nunchaku (three piece nunchaku) or the yon-setsu-kon nunchaku (four piece nunchaku). These two types of nunchaku have long seen use in Okinawa.

NUNTE: The Okinawan people living close to the ocean were able to convert several tools used in fishing to kobudo weapons. The first of these is the nunte-bo. The nunte-bo was used as a fish-gaffing tool with the metal point of the nunte-bo being called the nunte. It is used in pairs like the sai. In Japan this weapon is called the manji-sai, but in Okinawa it is referred to as the nunte. The name of a famous kata with the nunte-bo is nukite-bo or "spear-bo."

NUYAGA?: (h) What is it?

========== O ==========

O: great; big; large.

O GENKI DESU: the polite form of "I am healthy/well."

O GENKI DESU KA?: the polite form of "Are you healthy?"

O-CHA: Japanese green tea.

O-DORI: a dance. The most popular Okinawan dances resemble karate techniques and movements. They include the Ogamite (praying hand), Konerite (twisting hand), and Osute (pushing hand) Odori.

OBAN/OBON: the second most important festival for Okinawans. It occurs on the 15th and 16th days of the seventh lunar month. Okinawans believe that the souls of the dead return to their earthly homes during the Oban festival to see how the descendants are getting along. Oban is a colorful holiday devoted to family reunions and recreation so that the departed may see unity and joy.

OBI: the belt. A sash or belt used to tie a Japanese clothing. In the martial arts it may indicate stages in one's attainment of the art. Other terms used with obi are: shiro obi: a white belt, this refers to a beginner. Iro obi: a color belt, this refers to a more experienced student. Micari obi: a green belt. Cha obi: a brown belt. Kuro obi: a black belt. Aka kuro obi: a red and black belt. Aka-shiro obi: a red and white belt. Aka obi: a solid red belt. The belt system was devised by Jigoro Kano; it is a tradition that the belt is never to be washed lest the knowledge is washed out.

OBI MUSUBI: the knot on a belt.

ODO SEIKICHI: (07/26/1927 – 03/24/2002) Okinawa Kenpo Karatedo and Kobudo headmaster. Resided in Agena, Okinawa, and was ranked a 10-Dan. He was a former student of Nakamura Shigeru. Odo ran the Shudokan school of Okinawan Kenpo which also served as the headquarters for the Okinawa Kenpo Karatedo League. Odo was also a former student of Matayoshi Shinko and had incorporated the Matayoshi school of kobudo in his method of Okinawan kenpo. Upon his death in 2002, his son, Odo Susumu, assumed the leadership of the Shudokan and of the association.

OHAYO GOZAIMASU: Good morning (before 10 a.m.). This is a polite form of hayai, so it should be used for the first arrivals only. Do not use for someone who arrives later than the majority.

OI-ZUKI: a lunge punch.

OJIGI: bowing; the traditional way of greeting people and saying farewell, as well as showing respect. Generally speaking, the lower the bow and the longer it is held, the stronger its implications. The higher the rank of the person receiving the bow, the lower the bow tends to be. When the bow is in the form of an apology, then the trunk of the body may be bowed as low as a 90 degree angle. The best way to learn how to bow is by watching how the Okinawans do it in different situations.

OKINAWA: "rope in the offing;" or "big island;" the main island of the Ryukyuan Chain. Okinawa is approximately 45 square miles with a length on about 67 miles and a width varying between 3 and 14 miles. The prefecture of Okinawa is made up of 60 islands, in four major groups, and is 685 kilometers south of Kyushu. Naha is the largest city, the capital, and the political, economic, and cultural center of the prefecture. Its population is rapidly approaching half a million. The second largest city in Okinawa is Okinawa City (formerly Koza City), located in the central part of the island, 24 kilometers northeast of Naha. The U.S.'s Kadena Air Base is located there, which is where most of the American GIs go for shopping and recreation.

OKINAWA KARATEDO KYOKAI: The Okinawa Karatedo Association founded in May of 1956. The organization consisted of the four major systems of Okinawan karatedo centered around the cities of Naha and Shuri. The four styles were: shorinryu headed by Choshin Chibana; gojuryu headed by Seiko Higa; Uechi-ryu headed by Kanei Uechi; and Matsubayashi-ryu headed by Shoshin Nagamine. The first president of the Association was Choshin Chibana. The present president is Joen Nakazato, Shorinji-ryu Hanshi 10-Dan.

OKINAWA KARATEDO SHORINRYU SHORINKAN KYOKAI: An association formed in 1978 by a former student of Choshin Chibana, Shugoro Nakazato, Shorinryu Hanshi 10-Dan. The association has 16 dojos in Okinawa and Japan and affiliate dojos in the U.S., Europe and Africa.

OKINAWA KENPO KARATEDO: A style of karate founded by Shigeru Nakamura (1892-1969). Presently, the system teaches the following kata: naihanchin 1-2-3, pinan 1-2-3-4-5, wansu, ananku, seisan, gojushiho sho and dai, niseishi, patsai, chinto, kusanku and sanchin. This style is commonly referred as a shorinryu based art.

OKINAWA SHORINRYU KARATEDO KYOKAI: An organization formed by Choshin Chibana in 1961 and is presently headed by his senior student, Katsuya Miyahira, Shorinryu Hanshi 10-Dan.

OKINAWA SHORINRYU KARATEDO KYUDOKAN SHINKOKAI: The Shorinryu Kyudokan Promotion Society headed by Yuchoku Higa, Shorinryu Hanshi 10-Dan and a senior student of Choshin Chibana.

OKINAWA-TE: the hand of Okinawa; the original name for karate.

OKUDEN: hidden teachings. In the classical martial arts the teachings were layered. The outer layer was sometimes called the Shoden, the middle was called chuden and the secret inner teachings were called the okuden. Okuden are secret techniques or principals of an Art that are passed down to the most senior students. Many times they turn out to be quite ordinary things or may be some esoteric poem or saying which is supposed to contain some message or revelation, often attributed to some heavenly being. Others may be little tricks that make the techniques work simpler and more effectively but are held back so as to keep an edge over the students. {OKU - deep/advanced; DEN - traditions; the level where the GOKUI or HIDEN are explained -ed}.

OKUGI: hidden techniques.

OMEDETO GOZAIMASU!: Congratulations!

OMIYAGE: gifts. Giving gifts in Okinawa is a vital part of social and business obligations. It is always considered polite to initially bring a gift on the first meeting and then giving a "departure" gift on leaving.

OMOIYARI: A bushi maxim meaning "take time to really care about others."

OMOTE: the front.

ON: a favor.

ONAGA YOSHIMITSU: The senior most student of Higa Yuchoku and headmaster of his own Shinjinbukan dojo.

ONDOKU: the Japanese reading of a kanji character which is the Japanese version of the Chinese pronunciation of that character.

ONEGAI-SHIMASU!: I humbly request; please help me. This phrase is commonly spoken to one's training partner prior to ractice.

ONI: a goblin or demon.

ORIGAMI: the art of paper folding; a sword authentication paper.

OSAE: pressing.

OSAE UKE: pressing block.

OSAEKOMI: holding.

OSHI: to push; to stamp a seal.

OSHITE: ‘lets push’; a two person exerices used to develop blocking, kicking and punching skill.

OSHI SHINOBU OSU: A bushi maxim meaning "be patient with yourself and with others."

OSU!: Yes sir! (I understand and will comply); sir (I see that you have entered the room); sir (I have entered the dojo and am ready to train). Osu is a militant short version of ose. Osu was spoken by those of the samurai class as a form of greeting and is still used by the male members of families with a military or martial arts background. In the dojo, osu is often thought of as a contraction for a Japanese expression meaning "I understand and will have patience." For this reason, it's used by both the student and the teacher, each of them approaching patience from a different angle but with equal sincerity. Although osu is commonly heard in most strict dojo, it is a very coarse sounding word and shocking to many well-bred Japanese. On Okinawa, osu is often heard in the training halls where the instructor has either trained or lived in Japan.

OTOSHI: to drop.

OYA NO ON: a bushi maxim meaning "be thankful to your parents."

OYASUMI NASAI: good night (just before bedtime).

OYO BUNKAI: practical analysis of technique.

========== P ==========

PANGAINUN/PANGAINOON: the original name for Okinawa Uechi-ryu Karatedo. Uechi-ryu is one of the four major styles of the Okinawa Karatedo Association.

PECHIN: a former Okinawan rank equivalent to a Japanese samurai.

========== R ==========

RAKU AREIBA-KU ARI: A bushi maxim meaning, "If you have it easy now, you will have it hard later."

RANDORI KUMITE: In this type of sparring each person executes a series of single or combination attacking and counterattacking techniques. The order of execution of each technique is fixed and arranged in advance. The roles of each partner are then reversed and practiced in mirror image, to develop an all-round capability in the execution of each motion and technique.

RANKS/RANKINGS:
Mudansha (Ungraded) -- Under black belt ranks
10-kyu - jukyu - white belt
9-kyu - kukyu - white belt
8-kyu - hachikyu - white belt
7-kyu - nanakyu - white belt
6-kyu - rokkyu - white belt
5-kyu - gokyu - white belt
4-kyu - yonkyu - green belt
3-kyu - sankyu - green belt
2-kyu - nikyu - brown belt
1-kyu - ikkyu - brown belt

Yudansha (Graded) -- the black belt ranks
1-Dan - Shodan - black belt
2-Dan - Nidan - black belt
3-Dan - Sandan - black belt
4-Dan - Yondan - black belt
5-Dan - Godan - black belt
6-Dan - Rokudan - black belt, optional red/white
7-Dan - Nanadan - black belt, optional red/white
8-Dan - Hachidan - black belt, optional red/white
9-Dan - Kudan - black belt, optional red
10-Dan - Judan - black belt, optional red

REI: courtesy. Something that a karate student must always practice. This is the fifth moral and ethical value as taught in Okinawan karatedo.

REI!: bow; A command to "bow." Bowing may be done in a standing (tachirei) or in a sitting position (zarei), before and after class, to the instructor or to each other to express mutual respect, trust and appreciation. Generally speaking, rei is a ritual form of respect and gratitude used by practitioners of the Okinawan martial arts. It must also be remembered that the more serious the art, the more important is the ritual. Other expressions with REI are: SHOMEN NI REI: bow to the front; SENSEI NI REI: bow to the teacher; OTAGAI NI REI: bow to each other.

REIGI SAHO: the rules of etiquette that pertain to bowing. In general, the junior bows first, deepest and the longest.

REIHAI: a deep bow of respect.

REISHIKI: etiquette; training hall etiquette.

RENMEI: a federation; a union; an association.

RENSHI: a forging person; a trainer. Renshi are individuals specifically identified by their teacher as being a qualified instructor capable of opening up their own school/training hall.

RENSHU: forging lesson; to practice either new or already learned skills; shorinryu renshu refers to the physical training aspect. There are two basic kinds of renshu: tandoku renshu (solo practice) and sotai renshu (practice with a partner). See keiko.

RENTAN GOSHIN TODE-JUTSU: a book published by Gichin Funakoshi, the founder of Shotokan, in 1925.

RENZOKU: continuous.

RENZOKU ASHI WAZA: successive leg techniques; a favorite kicking technique used by the leg conditioned Okinawans on Americans.

RENZUKI: combination of successive punching.

RI, GI ITTAI!: Theory and technique are one!

RITSUREI: a standing bow.

ROKKISHU: six hand techniques; Chojun Miyagi developed the kata, Tensho, from the Chinese form of "rokkishu."

ROKUSHAKU-BO: (k) the six foot staff. See bo.

ROKUSHAKU-KAMA: (k) a kama (sickle) attached to a six foot staff.

ROMAJI: the system of writing Japanese words with the English alphabet.

RONBUN: essays.

RONIN: a wave person; a masterless samurai; the name implies someone who is washed about by the "seas of fate."

RYOKEN: both fists.

RYOTE: two hands; both hands.

RYOTE DORI: grabbing with two hands.

RYOWAN: both arms.

RYU: style or school. A suffix used to denote a school or style of a traditional art or discipline. This usage is not restricted to the martial arts. At the beginning of this century, Okinawan karate became more or less standardized in various schools. Presently, the Okinawa Karatedo Association recognizes the following styles and/or systems in what they term as the original and authentic karate of Okinawa.

a. Uechi-ryu b. Ryuei-ryu c. Kojo-ryu (also known as Kogusuku-ryu) d. Ishimine-ryu e. Gojuryu 1. All Okinawa Karatedo Gojuryu Association
2. International Karate and Kobudo League
3. Okinawa Gojuryu Karatedo Association
4. Itokazu-kei Gojuryu Karate Kobudo Kenkyu Association
5. Okinawa Gojuryu Karatedo Meibukai

f. Shorinryu
1. Matsubayashi-ryu
2. Chibana Shorinryu

a. Okinawa Shorinryu Karatedo Association
b. Okinawa Karatedo Shorinryu Shorinkan Association
c. Okinawa Shorinryu Karatedo Kyudokan Association

3. Matsumura Shorinryu

a. Matsumura Shorinryu Karatedo Association
b. Shorinryu Matsumura Seito Okinawa Kobudo Association

4. Okinawa Kenpo

a. Okinawa Kenpo Karatedo League
b. Okinawa Kenpo Karatedo Association

5. Kushin-ryu
6. Ryukyu Shorinryu
7. Chubu Shorinryu
8. Shorinji-ryu
9. Motobu-ryu
10. Isshin-ryu

g. Shito-ryu

1. Shito-ryu Kenpo
2. Shiroma-kei Shito-ryu

RYUEI-RYU: The present headmaster is Kenko Nakaima (born 12/23/1911), Hanshi 10-Dan, with the headquarters being located in Nago City, Okinawa. Ryuei-ryu comes from the teachings of Ryuryu-ko, the same teacher of Kanryo Higaonna. It should be noted that when Miyagi went to China for further training in Chinese boxing, he went with Norisato Nakaima, the grandfather of Kenko Nakaima. Ryuei-ryu teaches eleven kata including the following: sanchin, seisan, niseishi, sanseiryu, seiunchin, ohan, pachu, anan, paiku, heiku and paiho. It also teaches 14 different weapons (sai, kama, renquan, tendei, gekiquan, kon, bisento, yari, tonfa, suruchin, da-jo, nunchaku, tan-son and kusan) all with a definite Chinese flavor. As of 1990, Kenko Nakaima's senior student, Sakumoto Tsuguo, is the Chief Instructor for the Ryuei-ryu Karatedo Kobudo Hozon Kai.

RYU-HA KEIZU: the martial arts school genealogy. Simply stated, those worthy of being called a martial arts practitioner must know their own genealogy.

RYUKYU: Dynasty.

RYUKYU KEMPO TODE-JUTSU KUMITE: The Ryukyuan Boxing Chinese Hand Art Sparring Techniques; a book written by Choki Motobu and published in 1926.

RYUKYU KENPO TODE: the Ryukyu Boxing Chinese Hand; a book written by Gichin Funakoshi, the founder of Shotokan, in 1922.

RYUKYU KOBUDO KENKYUKAI: The Ryukyu Ancient Martial Arts Research Association. An Association of researchers/historians concerned with the martial arts of Okinawa. It was founded in 1970 at the University of the Ryukyus located in Shuri, Okinawa.

RYUKYU KOBU-JUTSU KENKYUKAI: The Ryukyu Ancient Martial Arts Technique Society founded for the promotion and preservation of Okinawan-style weaponry. This organization was founded by Moden Yabiku (1878-1941) in 1925. It was later renamed the Ryukyu Kobudo Shinkokai by Shinken Taira.

RYUKYU KOBUDO SHINKOKAI: The Ryukyu Ancient Martial Arts Preservation Society founded by Shinken Taira (1897-1970) in 1955. The present headmaster is Motokatsu Inoue in Japan and Eiko Akamine in Okinawa. This association deals mainly with weaponry and weapons training.

RYUSO: the founder or a style or system.

========== S ==========

SA!: Let's go!

SABAKI: body movement.

SAGIASHI DACHI: crane-foot stance; commonly referred to as ippon ashi dachi on Okinawa.

SAI: (k) In the Hogen dialect of Okinawan, the word sai means "hairpin(s)." The "hairpins" have always been considered fighting weapons and were never used as an agricultural implement. The Okinawan sai, weighing two to three pounds, can also be considered as an alternative to weight lifting and/or weight training. It is used to develop the grip, wrist, forearms and deltoids. It also helps in developing grabbing and blocking techniques.

SAI-JUTSU: The art of the sai; the most famous sai kata will include the following:

1. Tsuken Shitahaku-no-sai 6. Hantagawa-no-sai
2. Hamahiga-no-sai 7. Jigen-no-sai
3. Tawada-no-sai 8. Kojo-no-sai
4. Chatanyara-no-sai 9. Matsumura-no-sai
5. Yakaa-no-sai 10. Kuniyoshi-no-sai

SAITEN SHIAI: scoring points system. In this type of competition, contestants perform their favorite kata, one at a time. They are awarded points by a referee assisted by four judges. The lowest and highest marks are nullified - except in a tie decision - and the other points are added up to make the score. When there are three or less judges, all the points are added up.

SAKE: a rice wine. It is a common practice for women to place an honorific "O" in front of sake, i.e., O'sake. More polite men may do the same. In sake drinking etiquette, the individual who pours his own or allows his drinking companions to pour their own is considered unlettered or impolite. You fill the other person's cup, and they fill yours. Your cup should always be picked up and held in your hand when the other person is pouring. If someone offers you more sake and your cup is still full, etiquette requires you to at least take a sip from it and then hold it out for refilling (the same goes for beer drinking).

SAKUGAWA TODE: (1733-1815) is usually considered the founder of the Okinawan martial arts centered around the capital city of Shuri, Okinawa. Sakugawa passed on his favored staff fighting techniques in the bo kata, Sakugawa. There are numerous variations of this form.

SAMURAI: a Japanese warrior. The samurai developed a code based on Confucian and Zen Buddhist principles that came to be known as bushido (the way of the warrior). It should be noted that the Okinawans preferred the term bushi in referring to their warrior class.

SAN: the number three; a honorific suffix meaning Mr., Mrs, or Miss (for example, Estrada-san).

SANBON KUMITE: three step sparring (3 jodan, 3 chudan, 3 gedan).

SANCHIN: three battles; three conflicts. The three battles or conflicts involves the coordination of body, mind and spirit in the performance of a kata. This dynamic tension or isometric form is also a "common kata" familiar to gojuryu, Uechi-ryu and shorinryu practitioners. Initially, this kata was practiced, in one form or another, by all mainlined Okinawan styles until the turn of the 20th century. At that time, the kata was purged from the shorinryu styles because it was felt that it was "too strong of a kata" to be practiced by young practitioners who had not fully developed.

SANCHIN DACHI: the three conflicts stance (sometimes referred to as the "hour-glass" stance) involving the conflict of body, mind and spirit. This hour-glass stance is used in the performance of the Okinawan kata, sanchin.

SANCHIN SHIME: testing or assisting of the kata sanchin.

SANDAN KUMITE: three step or three level sparring (1 jodan, 1 chudan and 1 gedan).

SANKA SURU: to join; to participate.

SANKAKU TOBI: triangle leaping; a secret jumping technique used in pre-sparring Okinawa.

SANNIN OKONAEBA KANARAZU WAGA SHI ARI: A bushi maxim taken from the Analects of Confucius: "When I walk along with two others, they may serve me as my teachers. I will select their good qualities and follow them, their bad qualities and avoid them."

SATORI: Spiritual awakening or realization. This term is common in Zen Buddhism.

SATUNUSHI: A former Okinawan rank; equivalent to a page boy.

SAYONARA: Good-bye. Do not use when you are leaving a senior.

SEIKA TANDEN: A bushi maxim meaning "keep a strong center."

SEIKEN: fore fist.

SEIKEN CHOKU TSUKI: fore fist straight punch.

SEIRETSU: A command to "line up" in an orderly fashion. A class lines up before and after the instruction for "mokuso" and "rei."

SEIRI UNDO: supplementary exercises. These exercises can be completed after every training. They are intended to relax the body and mind and to steady the breathing and heartbeat. They help the body to return to a normal state and to recover gradually from the weariness of the training. Incomplete combustion of glucose remains in the muscles, slowing them down and giving a feeling of heaviness. These exercises are intended to burn lactic acid by stimulating the blood circulation and carrying more oxygen to the muscle groups. Thus, these exercises are to be done slowly with a particular emphasis on breathing. They are also followed by a period of meditation to relax the mind and gradually bring it back to its normal state.

SEIRYUTO: ox jaw hand.

SEITO: an orthodox style. The term for any student in a martial arts dojo (a place for studying the Way). The trainee is not considered a student for at least the first year, maybe longer, if the teacher has not made up their mind as to whether to accept the trainee or not.

SEIZA: correct sitting; calm sitting. The classic martial arts sitting posture as used in Okinawa. This is the formal Okinawan way of sitting on the floor with one's knees bent. Seiza literally means to sit correctly and requires that a person sit not rigidly but with his back straight and with an alert feeling.

SEIZA REISHIKI: seating etiquette. There is a specific place of honor in a Japanese-style room that determines the order of seating of guests. This seat of honor, called a kamiza, is the one in front of and nearest to the tokonoma, or beauty alcove. The chief guest sits with his or her back to the tokonoma, with the second ranking guest on his or her left, and the third ranking guest on the other side of the room, facing the first guest. The host sits at the lower end of the room, usually nearest the door. In any situation where two people are sitting side by side, the ranking person is on the left. The wife is always expected to sit on her husband's right.

SEMETE: (g) the attacker.

SEMPAI/SENPAI: previous companion; senior; one's senior in a training hall. It is used to refer to an individual of higher rank or of the same rank but who has longer tenure. The sempai-kohai (senior-junior) relationship is considered very important in Okinawan culture and is found in all areas of life. Okinawans, and Japanese, are always conscious of whether people they meet are above or below them in social status in regards to their seniority. {Generally, there is a senior sempai called a Dai Sempai in a training hall. This individual is the one who has been with the teacher the longest - regardless of their rank. When someone enters who has been with the teacher even longer, that person becomes the Dai Sempai. Generally speaking, anyone who is senior to you is referred to as sempai -ed}.

SEMPAI NI REI!: Bow to the senior student!

SEN: the number 1,000.

SENAHA SHIGETOSHI: (born 01/24/1941) Presently ranked a Hanshi 9-Dan and a senior student of Yagi Meitoku. Started his gojuryu training under Yagi Meitoku of the Meibukan in August of 1958. Received his 9th Dan Hanshi in June of 1987. Formed his own organization, the Ryusyokai around March of 1999. (Personal note: Senaha Dai Sensei is known for his potent awamori and his kindness and his power. An all around gentleman who has his doors open for all interested students wanting to learn. He has two excellent English speaking students presently studying gojuryu and ti – Jimmy East from Canada and Jon Hallberg from Michigan.)

SENSEI: teacher; instructor; professor. "Sen" means before and "sei" means life or "one who has experienced things in life before you have." In essence, a teacher (sensei) is a conduit through which knowledge is passed on from one to another. This is also a term of respect used in addressing one's teacher. This term can be used for any and all teachers of the martial arts. Broadly speaking, it may also apply to anyone who holds a position to guide or instruct another, such as a school teacher, doctor or a lawyer.

SENSEI NI REI!: bow to the teacher. A command given by the senior student to have all the students bow toward the teacher.

SEPPUKU: a ritual form of suicide. The abdomen was cut across and then up the right side, after which the man was beheaded by his second (called the kaishaku). The classical weapon for seppuku was a dagger (tanto) in a wooden scabbard and wrapped in white paper.

SETSU DO MOTSU: A bushi maxim meaning "be strong and know when to bend."

SHAKU: a length of 11.93".

SHAREIROKU: Payments received ledger. The book that contains all the payments made to the headmaster for lessons, seminars, special studies, etc. It also contains all the start and stop dates and rankings earned or given.

SHI: the number four; an alternate reading is death.

SHI-NO-KO-SHO: samurai, farmers, artisans, merchants; the four classes of society during the Edo period. Below these classes were the non-humans such as eta and ninja.

SHIAGE: the advanced level in the study of Okinawan karatedo. In the advanced level the student realizes that the result is worth their effort. The student enjoys karate for self satisfaction, and the long hours of vigorous training have now become a habit. The self esteemed karate student then begins showing other's how to effectively climb the ladder.

SHIAI: contest, match, competition.

SHIAI KUMITE: tournament contest; tournament fighting. In Okinawa "ippon shobu" (one point) matches are run for two minutes. The winner is decided by one judge and one referee who score the competitor's technique by awarding one point for a "clean" technique or two half points for a "close" technique.

The following are the terms used in shiai kumite:
a. Attacking Target (Target areas on a standing body):

1. JODAN (jyoo-dan) includes the face, neck, and head areas.
2. CHUDAN (chuu-dan) includes the chest, side chest, and back area but not the lower trunk.
3. GEDAN (ge-dan) is the lower trunk area.

Other target areas:
1. TOBU (too-bu) includes all of the head area except -

a. GANMEN (ga-n-me-n) which includes face area. Tobu replaces the term ganmen, which usually refers to the head area as well.

2. KEIBU (kei-bu) is the neck area.
3. KYOBU (kyoo-bu) is the chest area.
4. FUKUBU (fukubu) includes the diaphragm, abdomen, and side chest area.
5. HAIBU (hai-bu) means the back area.

b. Technique Terms:

1. TSUKI (tsu-ki) are punching techniques.
2. UCHI (u-chi) are striking techniques.
3. ATE (a-te) are smashing techniques of the elbow and knee.
4. KERI (ke-ri) are kicking techniques.

c. The terms (their meanings and the methods of signalling as used by the referee):

1. SHOBU IPPON (or sanbon) Hajime (shoo-bu ip-pon or san-bon ha-ji-me) shobu means "match." Ippon means "one point" (sanbon means "three points"). Hajime means "start." Start one point match or start three point match.
2. TSUZUKETE (tsu-zu-ke-te) means "continue" and is used when the match has been stopped without the proclamation of the referee.
3. TSUZUKETE HAJIME (tsu-zu-ke-te ha-ji-me) is used when the contestants are sent back to the starting point after the match has once started.
4. YAME (ya-me) means "stop" at the instant of proclamation by the referee.
5. JYOGAI NAKAE (jyoo-gai na-kae) jyogai indicates "contestants out of the match area" and nakae means "enter the match area."
6. MOTONOICHI (mo-to-no-ichi) means "return to original position." Moto means "original." Ichi means "position."
7. JIKAN (ji-kan) means "time." The time-keeper should stop the clock until the referee says to continue.
8. ATOCHIBARAKU (a-to-shi-ba-ra-ku) means "thirty seconds to end of match."
9. YAME, SOREMADE (ya-me, so-re-ma-de) means "end of match." Yame means "stop." Soremade means "end."
10. ENCHO (en-choo) means "continue the match into overtime."

Methods of signalling used by the referee.
1. WAZA-ARI (wa-za-a-ri) means "half-point". Waza means technique. Ari means "half."
2. IPPON (ip-pon) means "full point."
3. AIUCHI (ai-uchi) means "simultaneous attack," both sides receive no point.
4. HANSOKU (han-so-ku) means "disqualified" or match lost.
5. HANSOKU CHUI (han-so-ku chuu-i) means "foul warning." Two warnings result in disqualification.

Decision terms:
1. HANTEI (han-tei) means "decision."
2. AKA (or SHIRO) NO KACHI (a-ka or shir-ro no ka-chi) means "winner." Aka means red; Shiro means white. Contestants wear flags to signify red or white.
3. HIKIWAKE (hi-ki-wa-ke) means "draw."
4. SHIRO (or AKA) HANSOKU, AKA (or SHIRO) NO KACHI (shi-ro or aka han-so-ku and/or shi-ro no ka-chi) means "white(or red) disqualified" "red (or white) winner."
5. SHIRO (or AKA) NO KIKEN NIYORI AKA (or SHIRO) NO KACHI (shi-ro or aka no ki-ken ni-yo-ri a-ka or shi-ro no ka-chi) Kiken means "default," niyori means "according to," "white or red defaults," red or white is winner."
6. FUKUSHIN SHUGO (fu-ku-shin shuu-goo) means "corner judges come together for decision." Fukushin means "corner judge." Shugo means "meet."

SHIBU: a branch.

SHIBU-CHO: the branch director. In the Okinawan context this refers to the head of a dojo belonging to a specific organization.

SHIDOIN: an assistant instructor. One of the three levels of instructors as designated by the Okinawa Karatedo Association in 1967. The levels are Fuku Shidoin (Junior Instructor); Shidoin (Assistant Instructor); and Shihan (Senior or Master Instructor). This level is reserved for 5-Dan and 6-Dan holders.

SHIHAN: master or senior instructor; an individual "licensed" as an instructor by the Shihan-kai (Instructor's Association). This is the third level of instructorship as authorized by the Okinawa Karatedo Association in 1967. This level is reserved for 5-Dan (if running a dojo) and above.

SHIHAN DAI: an assistant master instructor.

SHIHOWARI: breaking in four directions.

SHIKAKU: the optimum angle; the "blind side."

SHIKO DACHI: four corner stance; the Okinawan horse stance.

SHIMABUKU(RO) EIZO: (born 1925) the late headmaster of Okinawa shorinryu (written as shobayashi-ryu) karatedo that was headquartered at the Rendokan Dojo located in Kin, Okinawa. Shimabukuro was a short time student of Chotoku Kyan, Chojun Miyagi and Shugoro Nakazato. The late founder of Seito Okinawa Karatedo Shudokan, Kanken Toyama, authorized Shimabukuro promotion to 10-Dan in 1959. Toyama also appointed Shimbukuro as General Manager of the All Japan Karatedo Association, Okinawa District.

SHIMABUKU(RO) KIICHIRO: (born 02/15/1938) the son of Tatsuo Shimabukuro and present headmaster of Isshin-ryu. Shimabukuro is presently ranked a 10-Dan under his own Isshin-ryu World Karatedo Association. The honbu dojo is located in Gushikawa City, Okinawa.

SHIMABUKU(RO) TATSUO: (09/19/1908 to 05/30/1975) the late headmaster and founder of Okinawa Isshin-ryu and former short time student of Chotoku Kyan, Chojun Miyagi and Shinken Taira. Shimabukuro is considered an innovator by his students and mixed the styles of Chotoku Kyan and Chojun Miyagi together and formed Isshin-ryu. Shimabukuro also vacillated between using a regular cork-screw punch or a vertical punch. The vertical punch won out and his style is presently known for its vertical punching techniques. His three senior students were Kenji Kaneshiro, Eiko Kaneshi (who coined the term Isshin-ryu) and Genyu Shigema.

SHIMABUKURO ZENRYO: (1904-1969) an outstanding student of Chotoku Kyan from 1928 until 1944, Shimabukuro opened his own dojo, the Seibukan, in 1947. He was a member of the All Japan Karatedo Federation and taught karate with his friend, Shigeru Nakamura, the headmaster of Okinawa Kenpo. The Seibukan, a shorinryu style dojo, is presently run by his son, Zenpo Shimabukuro, who is ranked a Hanshi 10-Dan.

SHIMANCHU: (h) People who come from the same village. In Okinawa, it also means the Okinawan people.

SHIMAJIRI: (h) The southern district of Okinawa.

SHIME: to choke.

SHIMOZA: the lower seat in the training hall; opposite of the kamiza; where the students sit.

SHINAI: a split bamboo training sword.

SHINJO KYOHIDE: (11/03/1951) A formidable fighter and 9 times Okinawa Kumite Champion. Presently ranked a 9th Dan.

SHINJO MASANOBU: (1938-1993) a Gojuryu Hanshi 9-Dan and former student of the late Higa Seiko.

SHINJUTSU: acupuncture.

SHINKEN: a live blade; a real sword.

SHINKEN: (s) "to be on the edge of a live sword." The belief that serious training is needed to help bring the reality of budo-type training.

SHINKEN KEIKO: (s) "training the spirit to be on the edge of a live sword." A favorite saying of of the late Choshin Chibana (1885-1969) referring to the fact that shorinryu budo training must be taught and practiced with all care and great seriousness.

SHINKEN SHOBU: a mortal confrontation; a fight to the death. This expression refers to a fight with swords (live blades) but in karatedo it means a fight to the knock-out or death.

SHINKO KATA: a kata required for promotion.

SHINKOKAI: an organization for the preservation of an art.

SHINKOKYU: deep breathing.

SHINPAN: a referee.

SHINSA: an examination for rank; rank testing.

SHINTO: gods way; the native religion of Japan. It is primarily an awareness of nature.

SHINZATO JINAN: (1901-1945) the most senior student of Chojun Miyagi who died during the American invasion of Okinawa. Shinzato was considered the most outstanding performer of gojuryu even though he only knew four kata. His favorite kata was seisan and he died at Kin Village on March 31, 1945.

SHIRO/HAKU: white.

SHIRO OBI: white belt.

SHISHI: lion dogs; the traditional guardians of Okinawan homes or buildings. The lion dogs, one with its mouth open and one with its mouth closed, are often referred to as Ah and Om gojuryu training circles.

SHISHU ANKOH: (h) an alternate reading for Shuri-te master, Ankoh Itosu (1830-1915). The name, Itosu, is the Japanese pronunciation of the Okinawan name, Shishu.

SHISO: an originator of a style or system.

SHITO-RYU: a style of karate founded by Kenwa Mabuni (1893-1957). Mabuni studied the styles of Ankoh Itosu (Shuri-te) and Kanryo Higaonna (Naha-te) before moving to mainland Japan in 1929. It is interesting to note that although the methods originated in Okinawa, the style was formulated in Japan. The name comes from the alternate reading of the first character in the Okinawan dialect (Hogen): Itosu (SHIshu) and Higaonna (TOOna). It should also be noted that Mabuni taught the largest number of empty hand kata of any Okinawan. They include the following: naihanchi 1-2-3, pinan 1-2-3-4-5, patsai sho and dai, kusanku sho and dai, jiin, jion, jutte, chinte, chinto, gojushiho, sochin, niseishi, unsu, kururunfa, saifa, sanchin, sanseiru, seipai, seisan, shisochin, suparinpei, rohai, wankan, wansu, aoyagi, and his own personal kata, juroku. Presently, the shito-ryu style is being taught at Untenbaru Motobu, Okinawa, by Kanyei Uechi (born 02/03/1904). He is the president of the Kenwa Mabuni Shito-ryu Karatedo Association.

SHITSUREI SHIMASHITA: Excuse me (for something I have done).

SHITSUREI SHIMASU: Excuse me for something I am doing or about to do; Thank you for being invited into someone's home; good-bye when departing from someone who is senior to you.

SHIZENTAI: a natural stance or posture.

SHIZENTAI DACHI: a natural walking stance.

SHIZOKU: Pre-1879 Okinawan upper class family titles. On Okinawa there were nine specific ranks: Anji, Uekata, Pechin, Satunushi-Pechin, Chikudun-Pechin, Satunushi, Waka-Satunushi, Chikudun and Chikudun-Zashiki.

SHO: small.

SHO FAMILY: the ruling family of Okinawa. The social hierarchy may be summarized as the royalty (the Sho family); second, the privileged classes (shizoku); and, third, the common men (heimin). Next in the hereditary ranks of the shizoku were the anji (lords) followed by the uekata or oyakata nobilities. Below the nobles stood a gentry class divided by a system of titles into three grades (each with a junior and senior rating). These were the pechin, satonushi and chikudun who were descendants of the king's soldiers and retainers. Within these three ranks a man might rise or fall according to his ability and deserts.

SHO ZENKUTSU DACHI: a small front leaning stance; commonly used as the front leaning stance in Okinawan weaponry.

SHOBAYASHI-RYU/SHORINRYU: (s) a style developed by Eizo Shimabukuro (1925-1994) based on the teachings of Chotoku Kyan (10 kata) and Chojun Miyagi (2 kata). The shobayashi-ryu kata taught are seisan, wansu, ananku, sanchin, naihanchin 1-2-3, seiunchin, chinto, patsai, gojushiho and kusanku. Shimabukuro taught out of his main dojo, the Rendokan located in Kin, Okinawa. During the height of the Vietnam War, Shimabukuro had five active training halls. His son, Eiko Shimabukuro (kyoshi 7-Dan), presently runs his late father's dojo and his own located at Kadena, Okinawa.

SHOBU: an official contest or match.

SHOBU IPPON (SANBON), HAJIME!: A sparring command indicating that the sparring match is for one point. Shobu means "match" while ippon means "one point" (sanbon means "three points). Hajime means "start." Start one point match or start a three point match.

SHOCHU: a potent rice wine that is distilled from the dregs of sake, the national drink. It is the fourth most consumed alcoholic beverage in Okinawa following beer, sake and various whiskeys and brandies.

SHOCHU GEIKO: summer training camp.

SHODAI: The founder of a style/system. He may be the originator of a system or he may have modified the techniques and principals of application of an already established ryu.

SHODEN: the lower level techniques. Also used to mean a person who has completed the lower levels of the system. This is not to be confused with kihon waza which are very basic things such as proper standing, punching, blocking, kicking and the like, which have to be learned before applying actual techniques. Traditionally, students in a dojo were referred to as Shoden-ka, Chuden-ka, or Okuden-ka (or lower-level man, middle-level man, or upper-level man).

SHODO: calligraphy; the Way of the Brush.

SHOJI: a sliding paper covered door.

SHOKAI: letter of introduction.

SHOKAIJO: introductions. Making proper introductions are very important to the Okinawans. Okinawa is a society based on groupings that are exclusive and not open to the casual entry by outsiders. It is therefore vital to an Okinawan that they know as much as possible about anyone they meet as quickly as possible because they do not automatically accept people at face value. An introduction from someone they know helps span this otherwise formidable barrier. Those Okinawans who do not normally deal with Americans are usually very wary of strangers who come to them without credentials or without an introduction from a mutual friend or martial art contact.

SHOKEN: (u) a small fist.

SHOMEN: the front of the training hall. A shomen is usually the front wall of a dojo where a shrine is placed. One may find a Shinto shrine or simply a photograph of the founder of the school to whom the class bows to express respect.

SHOMEN GERI: (g) a kick to the front.

SHOMEN NI REI: bow to the front. This is the first command the teacher gives when bowing to the front of the dojo.

SHORINRYU/KOBAYASHI-RYU: (s) the Chibana style of shorinryu is translated to mean the "small forest style." Choshin Chibana coined the term, small forest style, in 1933 and registered the name with the Dai Nippon Butokukai at the same time his friend, Chojun Miyagi, registered the name of gojuryu. Chibana often said that those individuals that did not know Okinawan karate would call his style kobayashi-ryu instead of shorinryu. He directed this statement to the Japanese pronunciation of the characters for shorinryu - spoken as kobayashi-ryu by the uninitiated. The kata that Chibana taught included kihon 1-2-3, naihanchin 1-2-3, pinan 1-2-3-4-5, patsai sho and dai, kusanku sho and dai and chinto. He did not teach gojushiho. It should be noted that prior to 1965 he also taught the kata seisan and jion at his Dai-Ichi Dojo located in Shuri, Okinawa.

SHORINRYU GOKOKU-AN-KARATE-JUTSU: the original name of shorinryu as coined by Sokon "Bushi" Matsumura circa 1858.

SHORINRYU KARATEDO DAI-ICHI DOJO: The name of Choshin Chibana's dojo located in Shuri, Okinawa. Chibana originally named the dojo Dai-Ichi Dojo in 1946 when he began to publicly teach his method of Shuri-te, which he called Shorinryu (the small forest style).

SHORINRYU KARATEDO KUSHINKAN: A Chibana shorinryu sub-style founded by the late Kensei Kinjo in 1937. Kinjo was one of five individuals promoted to Hanshi 9-Dan by Chibana (in 1967). It should be noted that Kinjo was also a student of Chojun Miyagi and he was one of the first to teach Chibana style shorinryu and Miyagi style gojuryu in the same dojo.

SHORINRYU KARATEDO KYUDOKAN: A Chibana shorinryu sub-style founded by Yuchoku Higa in 1955. Higa had originally been a student of Jinan Shinzato (Chojun Miyagi's senior student) and an instructor of gojuryu. When Shinzato died in 1945 he became a student of Chojun Miyagi. When Miyagi died in 1953, Higa became a student of Choshin Chibana. In 1965 Higa was the first person to be promoted to Hanshi 9-Dan by Choshin Chibana. He presently teaches Chibana style shorinryu but is also considered an expert in gojuryu by his peers. His senior student is Tankichi Nagamine who is ranked a Hanshi 9-Dan.

SHORINRYU KARATEDO SHIDOKAN: A Chibana shorinryu sub-style founded by Katsuya Miyahira in 1951. Miyahira started training under Chibana in 1933 and is recognized as Chibana's senior student. He was promoted to Hanshi 9-Dan by Chibana in 1967. When Chibana died in 1969, Miyahira became his successor and president of Chibana's Okinawa Shorinryu Karatedo Association.

SHORINRYU KARATEDO SHORINKAN: A Chibana shorinryu sub-style founded by Shugoro Nakazato in 1955. Nakazato began training under Chibana in 1946 and received his Hanshi 9-Dan at age 46 in 1967. Nakazato was also a student of Masami Chinen of yamane-ryu bo-jutsu. When Chibana died in 1969, Miyahira became president and Nakama and Nakazato became vice-presidents of the Okinawa Shorinryu Karatedo Association. Nakazato resigned in 1973 to supervise his own growing Shorinkan Association.

SHORINRYU KARATEDO SHUBOKAN: A Chibana shorinryu sub-style founded by the late Chozo Nakama in 1935. Nakama had been a student of Ankoh Itosu, Kenwa Mabuni, Choki Motobu and Choshin Chibana. He joined the Chibana dojo with his class-mate Ankichi Arakaki in 1928. He was promoted to Hanshi 9-Dan by Chibana in 1967 and was his oldest student.

SHORINJI-RYU: a style of Okinawan karate founded by Joen Nakazato (born April 13, 1922) based on the teachings of Chotoku Kyan. The shorinji-ryu kata taught are ananku, seisan, naihanchi, wansu, patsai, gojushiho, chinto and kusanku. Nakazato is presently a Shorinji-ryu Hanshi 10-Dan and president of the All Okinawa Karatedo Association. He is considered to be Chotoku Kyan's most senior student.

SHOSHIN O WASUREZU: A bushi maxim meaning "In your training do not forget the spirit and humility of a beginner."

SHOSHINSHA: a beginner. Those who have applied for entry into a training hall and are on trial. In ancient Japan they were allowed to sleep on the mat or floor of the training hall. They were not allowed to take part in any instruction, but had may duties around and in the training hall. When the teacher was convinced of the beginner's sincerity he might then allow them the right to train.

SHOTEI: palm heel.

SHOTOKAN: a training hall founded by Gichin Funakoshi (1868-1957) in Tokyo; the JKA style of karate. Initially, Funakoshi, an Okinawan student of Yasutsune Azato and Yasutsune Itosu, brought with him fifteen kata from Okinawa to Japan and formulated the Shotokan style. The kata included pinan 1-2-3-4-5, passai dai, kusanku dai, wansu, chinto, naihanchin 1-2-3, jion, jutte and seisan.

SHU-HA-RI: The Okinawan budo maxim of "shu-ha-ri" has always been stressed and it is important to try and pass on this concept to all students. Some manage to catch on faster than others and some have even faked it. The following is a very general idea of what this concept means:

SHU - indicates that a beginner must correctly copy all karate techniques from his or her instructor.

HA - means that after a number of years of training, when the student has attained a high degree of skill, he or she is allowed to develop new techniques provided that they are improvements. This applies to all movements with the exception of the basic techniques and kata.

RI - is the highest form. It means that after an even longer period of training than for HA, the student must be able to perform all forms of karate automatically not stopping to think about the movements.

SHUBAKU: a favorite Chinese kicking game practiced on Okinawa. It involves two opponent's hopping around on one leg and trying to "kick" or push their opponent off balanced. You are not allowed the use of your hands and the object is either to push your opponent down or cause them to lose their balance.

SHUBUKAN: "a house where you study the martial way." The honbu dojo of the Uechi-ryu karatedo located in Futenma, Okinawa. The present headmaster is Kanmei Uechi, son of Kanei Uechi. See Uechi.

SHUDOKAN: "a house where you study the way." A dojo name used by Kanken Toyama (1888-1966), Seikichi Odo (the present headmaster of Okinawan Kenpo) and Ernest Estrada (Chibana shorinryu kyoshi).

SHUGYO: austere training.

SHURI: the ancient capital of Okinawa.

SHURI-TE: the branch of Okinawan karate founded by Tode Sakugawa.

SHUTO: knife hand.

SHUTO BARAI: knife hand sweep.

SHUTO UCHI: knife hand strike.

SHUTO UKE: knife hand block.

SO DESU: That's right.

SO DESU KA?: Is that right.

SO DESU, NE?: That's right, isn't it?

SOJI: the cleaning of the dojo floor. This is a "tradition" in the dojo where the students help clean the dojo floor by hand mopping it after the last class. This ritual brings the dojo together and provides a quick and efficient way to clean the training area.

SOKE: head family or house; the hereditary headmaster of a ryu. In Okinawa this refers to an individual that is the blood successor of a martial arts tradition. An example of this is when Kanei Uechi, the headmaster of Uechi-ryu, died on February 24, 1991, his son became the Soke of Uechi-ryu.

SOKEN HOHAN: (1889 - 1982) Soken began his study of Matsumura Shorinryu under his uncle, Nabe Matsumura, in 1902. Nabe Matsumura, the grandson of Sokon Matsumura, taught the following kata: hakutsuru, naihanchi 1 and 2, pinan 1 and 2, gojushiho, kusanku, chinto, seisan and rohai jo, chu and ge. Soken was an expert kobudo practitioner and was known for his staff techniques (bo-jutsu) and for his flying kama (furi-kama). Soken disliked the Japanese for what they did to Okinawa and refused to speak Japanese. He normally conversed in the Okinawan dialect of Hogen. Soken imigrated to Argentina and lived there for 25 years working as a photographer. He spoke excellent Spanish.

SOKKO: top of the foot.

SOKO TSUKI: (g) an upper-cut punch.

SOKUCHO: (g) foot length.

SOKUMEN: laterally; to one's side.

SOKUTO: foot sword; foot edge.

SOKUTO GERI: kicking with the edge of the foot.

SOTO: the outside direction.

SOTO UCHI UKE: the outside forearm strike block.

SOTO UKE: the outside forearm block.

SUBURI: (k) slide swing; a sword exercise for developing basic techniques of motion and cutting.

SUBURITO: (k) a heavy bukuto designed for the suburi.

SUKI: an opening.

SUKOSHI: a few; a little bit.

SUKUI: scooping.

SUMIMASEN: Excuse me.

SUN DOME: a unit of measurement from the first joint to the second joint of the index finger.

SUNE: the shin.

SUNE GERI: a shin kick; a favorite Okinawan kicking technique.

SURI ASHI: sliding step; dragging step; shuffling step.

SURUCHIN-JUTSU: (k) The suruchin is a weapon made from a length of rope, usually about 6-10 feet in length, with a metal weight at each end. The weights are whirled in various patterns and struck against the enemy and then retrieved for further action. This difficult weapon is also favored by older masters and is considered a dying art form.

SUWARE!: Sit!

SUWARI: seated.

========== T ==========

TABI: a split toed sock for wear with the zori.

TACHI: a stance; an attitude of the body below the waist.

TACHI SAN NE!: a karatedo maxim meaning "to learn to stand properly takes three years!"

TACHI WAZA: standing technique(s).

TACHIKWA SARINDO/SUGURARINDO: (h) I am going to give you a beating!

TAIKAI: a tournament; a demonstration.

TAIRA SHINKEN: (1898-1970) Born in Maja, Nakazato village, Kume Island, Okinawa Province. His actual surname was Maezato of which he named a kobudo kata after, Maezato-no-tekko. He met Gichin Funakoshi, an Okinawan and a student of Ankoh Itosu, who was living and working in Tokyo in 1922. At the time, Funakoshi had a small shorinryu dojo at Suidobashi Koishiawa, Tokyo. Taira became a live-in disciple of Funakoshi and spent 18 years studying with him. Taira synthesized nearly 500 formal kata of history's most revered weapons warriors so he could hand them down to his followers. His most senior students included Eiko Akamine (Okinawa) and the late Motokatsu Inoue (Japan).

TAISABAKI: body motion especially of an evasive nature.

TAISAI: celebration commemorating the death of a headmaster or founder. The important anniversaries are the 1st, 3rd, 13th, 23rd and the 33rd. Usually, demonstrations are held during those anniversaries.

TAISHO: the period from 1912 to 1926.

TAISO: exercises; special exercises for a specific martial art.

TAKAMINE CHOBOKU: (born 03/24/1908) Seko Higa's most senior student and president of Higa's International Karate and Kobudo Federation. Presently ranked as a Hanshi 9-Dan, Takamine began training under Higa in 1927. Upon Higa's death in 1966, he was appointed president of the Association by Higa's son, Seikichi Higa.

TAKE ORI: bamboo break; breaking the opponent's finger(s).

TAKUSAN: a lot.

TAMASHII: spirit; a nationalistic spirt.

TAMASHIWARI: a test of strength by breaking boards, bricks or other objects.

TAN: a barbell; the barbell strengthens the muscles of the upper arms, the forearms and the lower limbs. It is also used to strengthen the wrists, hips and neck.

TANBO: (k) a short stick measuring about 24 inches.

TANDEN: the abdomen.

TANDOKU RENSHU: individual exercises.

TANMEI: A polite suffix; used with Okinawan surnames to denote a "respected old man."

TANREN: spiritual forging.

TANREN-UCHI: (s) an Okinawan training method where a tire is cut in half and tied to a post. The practitioner then uses the "tire makiwara" to strengthen the various punching and kicking techniques. It is also use by kobudo practitioners to test their power.

TANREN GEIKO: intensive training to develop the spirit.

TANTO: a dagger with a blade of less than one foot in length.

TANTO DORI: taking a knife away from an opponent.

TATAMI: The floors of traditionally styled Japanese rooms are covered with thick, rectangular staw mats called tatami. These mats measure approximately two inches thick, three feet in width, and six feet in length. This is the standard unit of measure in speaking of a Japanese room (a four mat room; a six mat room, etc.). The word tatami comes from tatamu, meaning "to fold," and the original tatami were floor cushions that were folded when not in use.

TATE!: Stand up!

TATE: vertical.

TATE ZUKI: vertical punch used in bogu fighting.

TE/TI: hand; the Okinawan martial art of fighting; pronounced "tay" in Japanese and "tea" in the Okinawan dialect of Hogen.

TE WAZA: hand techniques.

TEACHING METHODS: There are numerous methods of teaching the Okinawan martial arts and most instructors follow more than one method. The following are five of these methods:
• Command style method: This is the most common method used in teaching karatedo. It usually means doing things "by the count." It is very helpful in teaching large groups of students and it is the most common method of teaching in Japan and has been adopted by most Okinawan styles.

• Task Teaching Method: You demonstrate the task to be done and then have the students do it.
• Reciprocal Teaching Method: You demonstrate the technique and then break up the students in small groups. While two students perform the technique the others critique it.

• Guided Discovery Method: The student is asked questions which causes him to search for the answers.
• Problem Solving Method: Only the goal is given. The method needed to achieve this goal is left to the student.

TECHO: (k) horse stirrups used like the tekko.

TEKKO: (k) a fist loaded weapon; an iron knuckle duster. Few Japanese have ever heard of the tekko or the "iron fist" but it is one of several "fist loaded" weapons indigenous to the Ryukyu Islands. Others include the techu, the teko (this resembles a tekko but it has numerous points) and the wooden chizenkun-bo. They are usually used one in each hand.

TEKUBI: the wrist.

TEMOCHI SHIKI MAKIWARA: a hanging striking post; the good points of this hanging makiwara is that you can kick it from many different angles, and it is also portable. Training with the hanging makiwara strengthens the power of the punch, kick and elbow strikes.

TENCHI GAMAE: any kamae featuring a high-low combination.

TENGU: a mythological demon.

TENNO: the Emperor of Japan. The Showa Emperor is Hirohito who ascended the throne in 1926. He is the 124th Emperor of Japan and his son, Akihito, is the 125th.

TENSHIN: body shifting techniques.

TENSHO: a letter of introduction to a dojo.

TENTO UCHI: (k) basic striking method used in weaponry; commonly called the head strike in Ryukyu
kobudo.

TESSEN-JUTSU: (k) A favorite weapon of royalty that was widely used in Okinawa was the war fan or fighting fan called the tessen. The fan was usually made of iron but the commoners often used wood or bamboo. This weapon was also widely used on the mainland and in China.

TETSU: iron.

TETSU AREI: a dumb bell.

TETSU-BO: (k) an iron staff.

TETSU GETA: iron clogs. Exercises with the iron clogs, which consist of walking and lifting the legs, strengthen the muscles of the legs, abdomen and back. These exercises also give power to your kicks.

TETTSUI: hammer fist.

TI: (h) hand. An alternative name for the Okinawan method of empty hand fighting.

TI CHI KIA: (h) ‘demonstrating the hand.’ A demonstration of techniques taken from kata; see bunkai.

TI CHIKUN: (h) ‘use the fist this way.’ To punch.

TIGUWAA/TIGUA: (h)(k) the ancient term for Okinawan weaponry.

TINBE/TIMBE/TINBEI: (k) one who uses the tohai (turtle shield) and hera (a wooden or metal knife).

TINBE-JUTSU: (k) The art of tinbe jutsu is an ancient weapon on Okinawa. The actual weapon consist of two instruments. The first one is called the tohai which is a small circular shield made of wood, leather, or a tortoise shell. The second instrument is call the hera which is a short dagger- like weapon that was also used to harvest rice. Used together, the tinbe constituted a primitive weapons system that is almost unknown outside of Okinawa.

TOBI: jump.

TODAI MOTO KURASHI: A bushi maxim meaning "at the foot of a lighthouse it is dark."

TODE: an old name for karate meaning "Chinese Hand(s)"

TOGUCHI SEIKICHI: (1917-1998) a senior student of Miyagi Chojun and president of Shoreikan branch of gojuryu. He studied with his first teacher, Higa Seko, for 33 years and with the head of gojuryu, Miyagi Chojun, for 25 years. In 1954, Toguchi opened his first dojo in Koza City, Okinawa and called it the Shoreikan (House of politeness and respect).

TOHAI: (k) a turtle shield.

TOKACHI: an Okinawan holiday and day of celebration for all those eighty-eight years of age. It falls on the eighth day of the eighth lunar month. This day is also called "beiju" in Japanese, or "rice longevity," since the kanji character for rice also appears in the kanji character for eighty-eight.

TOKONOMA: the alcove in a Japanese room. It will usually contain a kakimono and a flower arrangement.

TOKUSHU GEIKO: special training; a training clinic.

TOMA: a long interval; a long distance.

TOMARI-TE: a style of karate created by Kosaku Matsumora; a blend of Shuri-te and Naha-te.

TOMODACHI: a friend; a class mate.

TOMOE: comma shaped; circular.

TOMOE ZUKI: circular block and punch technique;

TONFA: (k) "handle;" a wooden handle use in conjunction with a mill stone. See tunqwaa.

TONOCHI: (h) a position similar to being a lord of a small fief; the hereditary chiefs of towns and villages and corresponded to a Japanese "shomyo."

TOON-RYU: (h) A style of karate founded by Jyuhatsu Kyoda in 1945. Kyoda had been a student of Kanryo Higaonna and peer of Chojun Miyagi. See Jyuhatsu Kyoda.

TOONNA KANRYO: (h) In Japanese, Toonna is pronounced as Higaonna. Thus Kanryo Toonna is the Okinawan name for Kanryo Higaonna, the founder of Naha-te. See Kanryo Higaonna.

TORAGUCHI: (g) "tiger mouth" or circle block. See mawashi uke.

TORII: a Shinto gate.

TOSHOKAI: a meeting to encourage discussion; an annual association meeting.

TOSSHIN-NO-HEIHO: a lunging strategy.

TOU: cane or bamboo bundle(s); a training device consisting of cane or narrow bamboo sticks that are tied at both ends with straw rope. The trainee thrust at the cane with nukite (spear hand). This exercise strengthens the tips of the fingers. You can also try to grasp a piece of cane or bamboo after thrusting and then try to pull it toward you.

TOYAMA KANKEN: (09/24/1888 – 11/24/1966) The Headmaster of Okinawa Seito Karatedo Shudokan was born of nobility in Shuri City, Okinawa. He began his training under Cho Itarashiki in 1897. In the same year, Toyama apprenticed himself to Ankoh Itosu. In 1907, to round-out his studies, he was accepted as a student of Kanryo Higaonna. In 1930 Toyama moved to Japan and on March 30, 1930, he opened his first karate training hall in Tokyo. He called his school the SHUDOKAN which is translated as "The Hall for the Study of the Way." Toyama taught two complete systems - Shuri-te and Naha-te. The Shuri-te kata included naihanchin 1-2-3, pinan 1-2-3-4-5, patsai dai, chinto, kusanku dai and gojushiho. The Naha-te kata included sanchin 1 and 2, tensho, saifa, seiunchin, seisan, seipai, sanseiru, kururunfa and petchurin.

TOZAN-RYU: A shorinryu system founded by Shinsuke Kaneshima (born 1896) in 1955. Kaneshima had been a student of Shinpan Gusukuma and Choki Motobu. There is only one dojo of Tozan-ryu and when Kaneshima dies, Kyuyu Kinjo, his senior student, will be the new headmaster.

TRAINING COMMANDS: The following are common training commands given in an Okinawan dojo:
• KIHON NO KEIKO (ki-hon no ke-i-ko) practice in basic techniques.
• YOI (yo-o-i) command to be mentally alert and ready for action.

• KAMAETE (kama-e-te) a command to move into a ready position (stance) for action either for defense or attack. While there can be any number of stances that would enable one to move into action, the best position would be that which would allow one to move with economy of energy and motion consistent with effectiveness. At the beginning, zenkutsu no kamae (ze-n-ku-tsu no ka-ma-e) forward stance ready position is stressed for strengthening of legs from which good karate techniques can be executed. Advanced students will be taught jiyu-no kamae (ji-yu-u no ka-ma-e) free ready stance for flexible motions.

• HAJIME (ha-ji-me) a command to commence the movement.
• KARUKU (ka-ru-ku) a command to move lightly but with correct motion.

• TSUYOKU (tsu-yo-ku) a command to execute strong techniques, which are based on speedy correct movements.
• MAWATTE (ma-wa-t-te) is a command to turn around.
• MAE NI (ma-e ni) a command to advance forward.
• USHIRO NI (u-shi-ro ni) a command to step backward. This command may be sono mama ushiro ni or "step backward."

• YAME (ya-me) a command to stop.
• MODOTTE (mo-do-t-te) a command to return to the starting ready position.
• NAOTTE (na-o-t-te) a command to relax from alert ready position.

• KUMITE NO KEIKO (ku-mi-te no ke-iko) practice in sparring.
• KUMITE literally means to engage one's hands (skills) with an opponent. There are two types of kumite training:
• KIHON KUMITE (ki-ho-n ku-mi-te) basic sparring training. There are three kinds of kihon kumite where attack techniques and target areas are predetermined.

• KIHON IPPON KUMITE: one attack one defense sparring training from the basic stance.
• SANBON KUMITE: three time continuous attacks and defense techniques training.
• JIYU IPPON KUMITE: one attack one defense training from free stance and distance.

• JIYU KUMITE free sparring. The distance timing and techniques to be used are left to the judgement of the two opponents except that they be effective for the purpose of maximum control.

• MUKAI ATTE (mu-ka-i a-t-te) a command for two practicing partners to face each other.
• OTAGAI NI REI (o-ta-ga-i ni re-i) a command to show respect to each other with a bow.
• MAAI (ma-a-i) a term which refers to effective distance between two opponents. It is a distance which is moving constantly relative to the positions of the opponents and the techniques one wishes to execute.

• KOGEKI (ko-o-ge-ki) to attack.
• UKE (u-ke) to block or ward off.
• KIME (ki-me) refers to psycho-physiological focusing of technique to achieve maximum effectiveness.

• KATA NO KEIKO (ka-ta no ke-i-ko) formal exercises.
• KATA (ka-ta) form. There are two major classifications of kata in training.
• GOODOO-GATA group from where a group of students perform a kata in unison.
• KOJIN-GATA an individual form, usually performed alone by advanced students.
• HAYAKU (ha-ya-ku) a command to move with speed.
• YOWAKU (yo-wa-ku) a command to release the strong tension from the movement or move lightly.
• YUKKURI (yu-k-ku-ri) a command to move more slowly.

• KIAI (ki-a-i) a command to let out a sound at the moment of kime to aid in the tensioning of body muscles and focusing of the mind for a more effective kime.

TSUBA: a sword guard.

TSUGI ASHI: succeeding or following steps. The back foot does not pass the front foot but instead is brought up quickly maintaining the relative position between the feet.

TSUGI KATA: a training method where a teacher directs the student or students to follow along while teaching a kata.

TSUKI/ZUKI: a punch or thrust.

TSUMASAKI: (s) the tip of the big toe.

TSUMASAKI GERI: (s) a toe tipped kick.

TSUNAHIKI: a gigantic Okinawan tug-of-war used to commemorate the harvest and falls on the 26th day of the six month of the lunar calendar. Two teams (east and west teams) tug on a huge rope five feet in diameter at its center, tapering to about three feet in diameter at its ends. The fun comes from the side betting.

TSUTSUMI KEN KAMAE: bundled fist posture; from the chinte kata where one fist is held inside the other hand.

TUITE: (h) literally, "grabbing hand(s)." A method of grappling favorite by the Okinawans centering around joint and nerve techniques. The art of tuite was first introduced to the U.S. by Seiyu Oyata, Ryukyu Kenpo 10-Dan.

TUIFA: (k) handle; the tuifa/tonfa/tunfa/tonqwaa was developed from the handle of a millstone that was used to grind grain into flour. As with the art of the kama, tuifa-jutsu training is rapidly declining in Okinawa. It is a difficult weapon to master and there are very few experts in its use. It should be noted that this weapon is called a tuifa in Okinawa and tunfa/tonfa in Japan.

TUNQWAA: (k)(h) Matayoshi Shinpo, Okinawa Kobudo Hanshi, claims that his father (Matayoshi Shinko) was the first one to introduce the tunqwaa/tuifa/tonfa as a weapon to Okinawa at the turn of the century. He indicated that the original name for the weapon was tunqwaa but it is more commonly known by its Japanese name of tonfa.

TUSHIBI YUWE: (h) Okinawan birthdays that are celebrated very elaborately-the 1st, 13th, 25th, 37th, 49th, 61st, 73rd and the 85th birthday.

========== U ==========

UCHI: inside; to strike.

UCHI DESHI: inside student; a live-in student. The student lives in the training hall and works for the teacher as an apprentice. By being an uchi deshi the student develops "shugyo" (self discipline through mental training). The student trains everyday and also helps to teach everyday. By staying in the training hall it helps to instill spirit in the art. It develops mental toughness. The student learns to train with injuries so as to develop that mental edge. The student lives a spartan existence and has no personal life. Only then does the student begin to live the "DO" of karatedo.

UCHI WAZA: striking techniques.

UCHIKOMI GEIKO: This is a basic offensive training against a passive partner. At first your opponent does not move and you execute the same technique several times; then moving on to a combination of techniques, using different angles and rhythms of attack, perfecting your stance, body motion, and the execution and precision of your techniques, without any rest until breathless. Then change the roles with your partner assuming the offensive.

UCHINA: (h) meaning "Okinawa" in the dialect of Okinawa.

UCHINANCHU: (h) ‘Okinawa People’ or the people from Okinawa.

UCHINAGUCHI: (h) ‘Okinawa Speak.’ The Okinawan dialect.

UCHINAN-NO-TE: meaning "Okinawan-hands" (another word for karate) in the Hogen dialect of Okinawa.

UDE: forearm.

UDE GAESHI/UDE MAWASHI: arm twist.

UDE GARAMI: arm wrap.

UDE TANDEN: arm conditioning; arm strengthening.

UDE TATE FUSE: a push up.

UDON: (h) an Okinawan lord of a large fief; this corresponded to the Japanese rank of "daimyo."

UECHI KAMEI: (born 05/10/1941) the third headmaster and grandson of the founder, Kanbun Uechi.

UECHI KANBUN: (05/05/1877 – 11/25/1948) the founder of Uechi-ryu Karate-jutsu.

UECHI KANEI: (06/26/1911 – 02/24/1991) the second headmaster and son of the founder.

UECHI-RYU KARATEDO SHUBUKAN: one of the four major styles of Okinawan karatedo and founded by Kanbun Uechi (1877-1948). The second headmaster was his son, Kanei Uechi (1911-1991). The present Shubukan headmaster is Kanei Sensei's son, Kamei Uechi, with headquarters in Futenma, Okinawa. Uechi-ryu teaches the following kata: sanchin, kanshiwa, kanshu, seichin, seisan, seiryu, kanchin and sanseiryu. The most knowledgeable practitioner in the United States is James Thompson, Kyoshi 8-Dan, who teaches at his Okinawan Karate Academy located in Kalamazoo, MI.

UEHARA SEIKICHI: (03/24/1904 – 04/03/2004) the founder of Motobu-ryu and senior student of Choyu Motobu.

UESHIBA MORIHEI: (12/14/1883 to 04/26/1969) the founder of aikido and a Daito-ryu student of Sokaku Takeda (1860-1943). See aikido.

UHUGUSHIKU KANAKUSHIKU: (1841-1920) was the founder of the Uhugushiku-ryu kobu-jutsu school of Okinawan weaponry. In 1912, at age 71, Uhugushiku planned to commit seppuku out of respect for his king, who had died and left Okinawa under Japanese control. Several Okinawan martial artists approached Uhugushiku and requested that he pass on his knowledge of kobu-jutsu before committing ritual suicide. Uhugushiku trained two chief disciples: Saburo Takashiki and Shosei Kina. When Uhugushiku finally committed seppuku on October 13, 1920, Kina inherited the style. Upon Kina's death in June of 1981, the style's leadership was passed on to Kaishu Isa who studied with both of Uhugushiku's senior disciples.

UKANSEN ODORI: the traditional royal Okinawan dances that bear a strong resemblance to karatedo.

UKE: to block; to receive. Blocking and receiving are two different concepts in Okinawan karate. One keeps something out while the other brings the technique in.

UKE KIME ICHIJO: "Blocking and attacking are one."

UKEMI: breakfall.

UKETE: (g) defender.

UKIMI SO CHI: (h) Good morning.

UN: luck. Okinawans have many lucky and unlucky signs, some of them going back to ancient times (and some very similar to Western superstitions). Three of my favorites are: if you are out in the open and bird droppings fall on you, it is a good omen; if you stare at someone over your rice bowl (while holding it close to your mouth and eating) you will get uglier as you get older; and, if your ear itches, you will soon hear some good news.

UNDO: exercises. Refers to exercises or movements done in calisthenics.

UNSOKU: footwork.

URA: the back; backward.

URAKEN: back fist.

URAKEN UCHI: back fist strike.

USHIRO: backward or backwards.

USHIRO GERI: a backward kick.

UWAGI: a jacket; the upper part of the uniform.

========== W ==========

WA: peace.

WABI: an aesthetic quality based on simplicity.

WAKA SENSEI: young sensei or young teacher; the son of the headmaster.

WAKARIMASEN: I don't understand.

WAKARIMASU: I understand.

WARAJI: straw sandals similar to zori but with additional laces to hold them to the feet.

WARIBASHI: a pair of split chopsticks similar in shape to the kogai. The chopsticks in a restaurant that have to be broken apart.

WASHIN: peaceful heart; this is a favorite word for calligraphy practice and is often used on gifts of calligraphy.

WAZA: technique.

========== Y ==========

YABIKU MODEN: (1882-1941) Okinawan weapons expert and Shuri-te student of Itosu Ankoh. In 1911 Yabiku founded the Ryukyu Kobujutsu Kenkyukai so as to spread the traditional martial art weapons of Okinawa. He had received extensive training in yamane-ryu bojutsu under Sanda Chinen and Ryukyu weaponry under Pechin Tawada and Kanagusuku Uhugushiku. His most famous student was Taira Shinken of Ryukyu kobudo.

YABU KENTSU: (1863-1937) the senior-most student of Itosu Ankoh and one of the early Okinawan Shuri-te karate masters. Yabu, a retired Lieutenant of the Japanese Army, introduced his art to the U.S. and Hawaii in 1927. While on a personal business trip to the U.S., Yabu demonstrated and taught Okinawan karate at the American Okinawan Club in Los Angeles. On his return to Okinawa, Yabu was persuaded by a large group of Okinawan citizens to stop in Hawaii for a short while for the purpose of teaching karate. Yabu consented to do so, and taught karate in the private homes of a number of Okinawans. According to Nakazato Shugoro (Chibana-ha Shorinryu), Yabu was known for his rendition of the kata, useishi. Presently, Nakazato’s Shorinryu Shorinkan Dojo is the only school that still teaches this form under the name of (Yabu) Gojushiho.

YAGI MEITOKU: (03/12/1912 – 02/07/2003) a senior student of Miyagi Chojun, the founder of gojuryu. Ranked a Hanshi 10-Dan by the Zen Okinawa Karatedo Renmei and the headmaster of the Meibukan school of Gojuryu in Naha, Okinawa. His Okinawan senior students include the following: Shinjo Masanobu (1938-1994); Kanei Katsuyoshi (1941-1994); Senaha Shigetoshi (born 01-24-1941); and Yagi Meitatsu (born 07-07-1944). The Meibukan Dojo is presently be run by his oldest son, Yagi Meitatsu, Hanshi 10-Dan.

YAGUI: (h) ‘spirit yell.’ See kiai.

YAKUSOKU: "promised" or pre-arranged.

YAKUSOKU KATA: pre-arranged formal exercises.

YAKUSOKU KUMITE: pre-arranged sparring techniques. It consists of a sequence of techniques and motions practiced by two opponents in a completely predetermined way.

YAKUSOKU KUMITE UNDO: a series of five exercises developed by Shugoro Nakazato for his American students in 1973. In 1985 he added two more and is presently developing more. These exercises were developed for foreigners and are very rarely practiced in Okinawa.

YAMANE-RYU/YAMANI-RYU: an Okinawan weapons style specializing in Okinawan bo-jutsu as taught by Masaru Chinen (1898-1976). Chinen named the style after his father, Sanda Chinen (who was known by the Okinawan name of Tanmei Yamane), a famous Okinawan bo-jutsu expert. The Yamane-ryu ceased to exist when Chinen died in 1976 but two of his students still carry on with the system: Shugoro Nakazato of Chibana-ha Shorinryu and Seitoku Higa of the Bugeikan-ryu.

YAMATUNCHU: (h) the Okinawan term used in referring to Japanese from the mainland.

YAME: stop.

YANAGUCHI: (h) Speaking badly of someone.

YARA CHIRIKATA: better known as Chatan Yara (1816-1898), a Shuri-te stylist known for his sai and bo weaponry. His legacy, Chatan Yara-no-sai and Chatan Yara-no-kon are still very popular not only on Okinawa but also mainland Japan.

YASUME!: Rest!

YOI: ready.

YOKO: side.

YOKO GERI: side kick.

YOKO MEN UCHI: a strike to the side of the head.

YOSH/YOROSH/YOROSHIKU/YOROSHIIE: yosh or yorosh is an abrupt version of saying, "okay" or "right." This is commonly used by a senior speaking to a junior or by social equals. Yoroshiku and Yoroshiie are the polite version of yosh.

YU: heroism; bravery. This means taking a risk or "to go for it." This deals with helping those less fortunate than yourself in your everyday life. This is the sixth moral and ethical value as taught in Okinawan karatedo.

YUCHI: (h) the number four.

YUBISAKI GERI: (u) toe tip kick. A kick using the big toe as its striking point. A kick favored by the Uechi-ryu and Shorinryu stylist.

YUDANSHA: graded; a holder of the black belt.

YUDANSHA NI REI!: Bow to the black belt(s).

YUDANSHAKAI: a black belt association.

YUGI: games. The three most popular indoor adult games are go, shogi and mahjong.

YUKATA: a cotton kimono commonly indigo in color worn after a bath. Men's yukata will usually have a geometrical pattern while a women's yukata tend toward flowered designs.

YUKKURI: slowly.

YUKKURI ASHI: a slow step.

YUKUIMISORE: (h) Take a rest; Relax.

========== Z ==========

ZANSHIN: lingering spirit; an aspect of mental conditioning; an alert and ready manner which is maintained after the completion of a technique.

ZAREI: sitting bow. The following is the formal "zarei" kneeling bow) as practiced in Okinawa and is used when a more formal salutation is appropriate:
The left and then the right knees are lowered to the floor with the toes of both feet gripping the floor surface. The feet are then extended and flattened as the seat is lowered onto the heels.
Be careful to avoid folding or overlapping the feet or toes. From this seiza kneeling posture, lean forward and place the right palm in front of the right knee and then place the left palm in from of the left knee.

With your back and neck straight, lower your face toward the triangle formed by your outstretched hands for about three heartbeats and then immediately return to the upright position.

Bring your left hand back to your left thigh and then your right hand back to your right thigh.

To rise, lift your seat and grip the floor with the toes of both fee. Bring your right foot into position on the floor and then straighten your left knee to rise.

The entire bowing procedure should be a series of smooth and flowing actions, each one leading into the next. Avoid abrupt or jerking motions.

ZASHIKI: seated etiquette. The proper ways to sit, bow and move while in seiza.

ZAZEN: sitting meditation. This should be done at the beginning and at the end of each training session. One usually sits in a seiza (formal sitting position) or the lotus position. Zazen becomes a moment of stilling the mind, ridding it of needless thoughts, leaving the social ego behind because these will distract, distort and slow reflexive consciousness. A good sensei wants a student to be in a supple, instinctively quick no-mined mode when instruction begins. The physical body and technique will only be as fast and as focused as the mind is able to react. Just as a relaxed muscle is quicker and more responsive than a tensed one, so too is a relaxed consciousness quicker and responsive to sensory stimuli.

ZEN: a sect of Buddhism that advocates seated meditation as a means of attaining satori. It was founded in China by Daruma in 557 A.D. and brought to Japan in 1191 by Eisai Myoan.

ZEN NIPPON KARATEDO RENMEI: the All Japan Karatedo Association. Originally founded in Tokyo, Japan, by the Okinawan karate expert, Kanken Toyama, in 1935. In 1957 Toyama was asked to unite and systemize Okinawan karatedo. He tried but fail to persuade the suspicious fellow Okinawan karate experts to unite under one banner. In 1959 he appointed the only Okinawan willing to follow him, Eizo Shimabukuro, as his official representative in the hopes that others would follow.

ZEN OKINAWA KARATEDO RENMEI: The All Okinawa Karatedo Association/Federation; formally known as the Okinawa Karatedo Association, was founded in 1956 with Choshin Chibana elected as its first president. The original association included only the "main Naha groups" of gojuryu, shorinryu (Chibana-style), shorinryu (matsubayashi-style) and Uechi-ryu.

ZENKUTSU DACHI: a forward leaning stance.

ZENPO DAI SHARIN: a forward cartwheel.

ZINKASA: (k) an older name for the tinbe. See tinbe.

ZOKKO: continue.

ZORI: sandals.

ZUBON: the trousers/pants.

ZUKI/TSUKI: punch.

APPENDIX 1
==========
Okinawan Karate Kata

The following is a list taken from the Zen Nippon Karatedo Renmei (the All Japan Karatedo Association). It is from the chapter, "The True Kata of Okinawan Karatedo:" (Many thanks to Hanaue Toshio Sensei of Toyama-ryu (SHUDOKAN) for this information.)

Orthodox Okinawan karate is wide and varied. The ancient masters of yesterday devised by instinct, training and experience of actual combat a number of techniques and movements into what we today call the Okinawa karatedo ORTHODOX KATA (Okinawa karatedo seito kata). From these ancient fighting experts, techniques and kata have been passed on to the present generation that began during the turn of this century.

This generation of experts passed on to us all of the following kata that we call the ORTHODOX KATA. I must also state that many of the early teachers knew only one, two and sometimes three kata. Their idea of training was based on quality and not quantify. It is good to learn all of the kata that one's teacher is able to teach but it is also good to exam one or two kata deeply. It is also good to look at other systems but one must have a strong foundation of one before one starts to examine others.

The following kata have been passed on to us from those masters that emerged in this century. These are the real kata of Okinawa and are the one's that hold secrets which can only be taught by an expert status instructor.

It must also be understood that there are numerous variations to the following kata based on the understanding of the one's who taught them or passed them on. So, another important point that I must make is to examine not only the instructor's credentials but also their sincerity to see if they are following the real path or one that they have made up.

The true/recognized orthodox kata of Okinawan karatedo are as follows:

Shuri-te kata:
=========
naihanchi kata 1-2-3 (basic forms)
pinan kata 1-2-3-4-5 (basic forms)
patsai sho and patsai dai (advanced forms)
kusanku sho and kusanku dai (advanced forms)
chinto and chinte (advanced forms)
useishi (presently called gojushi-ho)

Naha-te kata:
==========
sanchin and tensho (basic forms)
gekisai ichi and gekisai dai (basic forms)
saifa
seiunchin (spoken as seienchin in Japan)
shisochin
seisan, seipai and sanseiru
kururunfa
petchurin (presently spoken as suparinpei in Japanese)

Tomari-te kata:
===========
seisan (basic form)
jiin, jion and jitte (jutte)
wankan, wanshu and wantou
rohai 1-2-3

RECOGNIZED OKINAWAN KARATEDO KATA
====================================
On August 4, 1973, the All Japan Karatedo Association under the direction of the Federation of All Japan Karatedo Organizations organized a special group called the Technical Council to set up guidelines for recognition of traditional and authentic Okinawan karatedo kata as needed for future promotional examinations. With the input of various headmasters and the All Okinawa Karatedo Association, the following Okinawan karatedo kata were designated as traditional and authentic:

1. pinan 1-2-3-4-5 19. sochin
2. naihanchi kata 1-2-3 20. kensei sho and dai
3. kusanku sho and dai 21. kunshu
4. patsai sho and dai 22. kukan
5. ananku 23. shinsei
6. niseishi (nijushi ho) 24. shuri seisan
7. useishi (gojushi ho) 25. naha seisan
8. rohai 1-2-3 26. sanchin
9. jiin 27. tensho
10. jion 28. gekisai ichi and gekisai ni
11. jitte (jutte) 29. saifa
12. chinto 30. seiunchin (seienchin)
13. chinte 31. shisochin
14. chinsho 32. seiru
15. wankan 33. seipai
16. wanshu 34. sanseiru
17. wantou 35. kururunfa
18. unshu 36. suparinpei (pitchurin)

Kata translations:

kihon kata: "basic form"
fukyugata: "basic form"
shihokaze: "stepping to the four winds"
naihanchi/naihanchin: "staying and fighting"
shodan, nidan, sandan first, second and third
pinan: "peaceful mind"
seisan/sesan: "thirteen"

Naha seisan
Shuri seisan
Tomari seisan

patsai/passai/bassai: "to breach a fortress"
sho, dai: small, large

Matsumura patsai
Tomari or Oiadomari patsai
koryu patsai

kusanku/kushanku:Chinese attache's name
sho, dai: small, large

Chatanyara kusanku
Shiho kusanku
Uehara kusanku
Kuniyoshi kusanku
Machibata kusanku

chinto: "fighting to the east"
Matsumura chinto
Itosu chinto

wansu/wanshu: Chinese attache's name
wankan/o-kan: "the king's crown"
wanto: "the fighting king"
rohai: "vision of a white heron"
sho, chu, dai: small, middle and large
jion: "the temple sound"
jitte: "temple hand"

jiin: "the temple ground"

chinte: "the winning hand"

gojushiho/useishi: "the fifty-four steps"
sho, dai: small, large

ananku/ananko: "light from the south"

Unshu: "Hand in the clouds"
Aragaki Unshu: Aragaki's hand in the clouds

sochin: "the grand prize"

niseishi/nijushiho: "the twenty-four steps"

seiru: "sixteen"

aoyagi: "the green willow"

nipaipo: "twenty-eight steps"

papuren: "eight steps at a time"

hakucho: "one hundred birds"

sanchin: "the three conflicts/battles"

gekisai dai-ichi: "to destroy or demolish # 1"

gekisai dai-ni: "to destroy or demolish # 2"

saifa: "to tear or rip"

shisochin: "four peaceful facings"

seisan/sesan: "thirteen"

seipai/sepai: "eighteen"

sanseiru/sanseru: "thirty-six"

seiunchin/seenchin: "marching far quietly"

kururunfa: "forever stops, peacefulness, rip"

suparinpei/petchurin: "one hundred and eight"

tensho: "revolving hands"

BIBLIOGRAPHY
=============
Although I have hundreds of books on the martial arts, the following books have contributed the most concerning the Okinawan Martial Arts Dictionary. In English:
Bishop, Mark, OKINAWAN KARATE, England, A & C Black 1989
Corcoran and Farkas, MARTIAL ARTS TRADITIONS, HISTORY, PEOPLE, New York, Gallery Books 1983
Estrada, Ernest J., HISTORY AND TRADITIONS OF OKINAWAN KARATEDO, OKA Publishing 1984, 1987 and 1992
Estrada, Ernest J., OKINAWAN KARATEDO PERSONALITIES (PART I), OKA Publishing 1984 and 1992
Estrada, Ernest J., OKINAWAN KARATEDO PERSONALITIES (PART II), OKA Publishing 1985 and 1991
Estrada, Ernest J., THE OKINAWAN KARATEDO INTERVIEWS (PART I), OKA Publishing 1985 and 1991
Estrada, Ernest J., THE OKINAWAN KARATEDO INTERVIEWS (PART II), OKA Publishing 1986 and 1991
Estrada, Ernest J., RYUKYU CLASSICAL MARTIAL ARTS, OKA Publishing 1986 and 1992
Estrada, Ernest J., OKINAWAN KARATEDO: A GUIDE, OKA Publishing 1987 and 1994
Estrada, Ernest J., SHORINRYU KARATEDO: PRACTICES AND RANKING PROCEDURES, OKA Publishing 1994
Funakoshi, Gichin, KARATEDO KYOHAN, Vermont, Charles E. Tuttle Company 1979
Higaonna, Morio, TRADITIONAL KARATEDO VOL 1, 2, 3 & 4, Tokyo, Japan, Minator Research 1985, 1986, 1989 and 1989
Mattson, George, UECHIRYU KARATE DO, Newton, Mass., 1974
McCarthy, Patrick, THE BUBISHI, International Ryukyu Research Society 1994
Nagamine, Shoshin, THE ESSENCE OF OKINAWAN KARATEDO, Vermont, Charles E. Tuttle Company 1976
Nakaya, Takao, KARATEDO HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY, Texas, JSS Publishing Company 1986
Okazaki, Teruyuki, THE TEXTBOOK OF MODERN KARATE, New York, Harper & Row Publishers 1984
Riley, Robin, THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN KARATE, New Jersey, Semper Fi Co., Inc. 1970
Sakagami, Ryusho, KARATEDO TAIKAN (PINAN), Tokyo, Japan, Kyusei Inc, Tokyo 1974

IN JAPANESE:
===========
Hokama, Tetsuhiro, KARATEDO NO AYUMI, IKO, Naha, Okinawa, 1984
Inoue, Motokatsu, RYUKYU KOBUDO VOL 1, 2 AND 3, Tokyo, Japan, Buren Shuppan 1972
Mabuni, Kenwa, KARATEDO NYUMON, Tokyo, 1938
Miyazato, Eiichi, OKINAWA-KEN GOJURYU KARATEDO, Okinawa 1978
Murakami, Katsumi, KARATEDO TO RYUKYU KOBUDO, Tokyo, Japan, Seibido Shuppan 1973
Nagamine, Shoshin, OKINAWA NO KARATEDO, Tokyo, Shinjin Butsuoraisha 1975
Taira, Shinken, RYUKYU KOBUDO TAIKEN, Tokyo 1964
Toyama, Kanken, KARATEOKINAWAN MARTIAL ARTS DICTIONARY

My love for the martial arts began in 1960 when I started my study and training in Okinawan karatedo. Since then I have lived in Japan and Okinawa and have professionally taught Okinawan karatedo since 1972. I have studied at length Chibana-style shorinryu and Higa-style gojuryu karatedo. I have also researched and practiced Taira and Matayoshi-style Ryukyu kobudo (weaponry), honbu style aikido, Okinawa kenpo and Okinawa yamaneryu bojutsu (Okinawan staff art).

I began formally teaching the Okinawan martial arts on June of 1972. While teaching karate full time, I also managed to attend college full time. I received a Masters Degree in Counseling from Michigan State University while continuing to teach karate six days a week. It was during my college days that I began to keep notes on various words and instructors that I came across. This dictionary is the result of my notes, research and constant questioning.

Presently, I do not know if there is a great need for a martial arts dictionary covering the various terms that are presently in use on Okinawa. Hopefully, there is.

The Okinawan martial arts is full of history, tradition and misunderstandings. Although this dictionary is not complete - I feel that I can still add a few more pages - I will see what the finish product will look like and make revisions as the need arises.

Please note that there is also room for improvement in a number of words and there may even be some mistakes - for this, I take complete responsibility. I would hope that the martial arts student that goes over this book will have patience with me in some of my rantings. To me, some of these words have much meaning - more than I can really express.

Sincerely,

Ernest J. Estrada, Chief Instructor
Okinawa Karatedo Association - USA

(g) = a gojuryu term
(k) = a kobudo (weaponry) term
(h) = an Okinawan word (hogen, Okinawan dialect)
(s) = a shorinryu term
(u) = a Uechi-ryu term

========== A ==========
ABAYO!: A jaunty way of saying, "So long!"

ABUMI: (k) an iron stick about 8" long used by Okinawan farmers.

ABUNAI!: Dangerous! Look out!

ADA UCHI: an enemy conquered; a type of revenge killing. There was no law against this in mainland Japan's Tokugawa era.

AGE: upward; rising.

AGE UKE: a rising block.

AGE ZUKI: rising punch.

AGO: the jaw.

AGO UCHI: a strike to the jaw.

AGU: a hogen word for jaw.

AGURA: to sit like a barbarian; to sit cross legged.

AGURA WO KAKU: the cross-legged sitting position

AIKIDO: A Japanese martial art meaning the "way of harmony" developed by Ueshiba Morihei (12/14/1883 - 04/26/1969). The "Ueshiba honbu style" aikido is the most common form taught on Okinawa with over 2,000 dojos worldwide. The techniques of this system are circular in movement involving numerous grappling and throwing techniques.

AIUCHI: simultaneous strikes; the act of hitting an opponent at the same time as he/she hits you.

AKA: the color red.

AKA OBI: a solid, red belt. An optional belt worn by 9-Dan and 10-Dan practitioners of Okinawan karate.

AKA SHIRO OBI: a red and white belt; this is a special belt awarded to those holding the rank of 6-Dan, 7-Dan and 8-Dan. Historically speaking, it cannot be bought but it is given to the individual by his respective instructor.

AKAMINE EIKO: (05/01/1925 - 01/14/1999) ranked a kobudo hanshi 10-Dan and a Funakoshi Shorinryu kyoshi 10-Dan. Akamine was an Okinawan weapons expert and former student of the late Taira Shinken. He had been the president of Taira's Ryukyu Kobudo Preservation Development Association - Okinawa District - since 1970. After his death in 1999, his son, Akamine Hiroshi (1954), became the third headmaster of the Shinbukan Dojo.

Kata presently taught at Akamine's dojo:

1. Sakugawa-no-kon sho and dai 14. Hamahiga-no-sai
2. Shushi-no-kon sho and dai 15. Hantagawa-no-sai
3. Choun-no-kon 16. Jigen-no-sai
4. Urasoe-no-kon 17. Tawada-no-sai
5. Tsuken Sunakake-no-kon 18. Kojo-no-sai
6. Yonegawa-no-kon 19. Yakaa-no-sai
7. Chatanyara-no-kon 20. Yakaa-no-tunfa
8. Chinen Shichanaka-no-kon 21. Hamahiga-no-tunfa
9. Sesoko-no-kon 22. Suruchin Nichokama
10. Soeishi-no-kon 23. Tinbe
11. Shirotaru-no-kon 24. Tekko
12. Tsuken Shitahaku-no-sai 25. Nunchaku
13. Chatanyara-no-sai

AKISAMIYO: (h) ‘Wow’ in the Okinawan dialect. Often used when surprised.

AKUSHU: a handshake of greeting.

ANJI: An Okinawan feudal lord. See Shizoku.

ANZA: a sitting form referred to as the "lotus position." Also, generally referred to as a simple cross-legged sitting position.

ARA KEZURI: the beginners level of Okinawan karatedo. At this level, the student loses his fear of the unknown, of being unsure, and is shown the proper direction. It is comparable to discovering a ladder against an object that you have decided to scale. You start your climb up the ladder, grasping a rung with one hand and then the other hand, one foot perching on the bottom rung, and then the other foot. Similar to the basics of climbing, you progress one step at a time in the basics of Okinawan karatedo, breaking the system into as many steps as needed in order to learn the style.

ARAKAKI ANKICHI: (1899-1929) a student of Chibana Choshin and an outstanding practitioner of the toe tipped kick. He is known for the Arakaki bo-jutsu form and for the kata, Arakaki Unsu.

ARAKAKI SEIKI: (1923-1982) A senior student of Soken Hohan and past president of the Matsumura Shorinryu Karatedo Association. Arakaki was also a former student of Higa Seko (gojuryu) and only began shorinryu training in 1946. Arakaki's contribution to Okinawan karate was his large, square, rubber-pad makiwara that is suitable for hand techniques or toe-tipped kicking.

ARIGATO: ‘existing burden.’ The common and informal way of saying "thank you." This is not to be used towards a senior.

ARIGATO GOZAIMASHITA: Thank you very much (for what you have done).

ARIGATO GOZAIMASU: Thank you very much (for what you are doing).

ARUKI GATA: a style of walking; the way a person walks.

ASAHI: the rising sun.

ASHI: leg; a foot.

ASHI BARAI: a leg or foot sweep. A technique of using the inside of one's foot to sweep an opponent's leg(s) from under him/her.

ASHI-KOSHI WAZA: (s) foot-hip technique; a technique for developing the foot and hip movement; a technique stressed by Chibana Choshin.

ASHI KUBI: a foot neck; the ankle.

ASHI NAGE: a foot or leg throw.

ASHI SUKUI AGE: an upward leg scooping.

ASHI-TE WAZA: (s) foot-hand technique; a technique for developing the foot and hand movement; another important technique stressed by Chibana Chibana.

ASHI TORI: a leg hold.

ASHI WAZA: a foot or leg technique.

ASHI YUBI: a toe.

ASHI ZURI: a stamp of the foot.

ATARASHII: new; modern.

ATE: to strike a specific point.

ATE WAZA: smashing techniques with the elbow, knee or palm heel.

ATEMI: to strike; to strike the body. The ancient methods of striking the vital areas/points of an individual so as to maim or kill the opponent. This skill is relatively hidden in the Okinawan martial arts and is only taught to senior practitioners. It requires a comprehensive knowledge of both the human anatomy and of striking methods.

AWAMORI: a very potent Okinawan rice wine. This drink is popular with the Okinawan laborers and is distilled from rice but was originally made from millet (awa). Foreigner martial artists should take care in drinking! See shochu.

AWASE: a blending movement; from the verb awaseru meaning to blend or harmonize: working together.

AWASE UKE: a reinforced block; an assisted block.

AWASE ZUKI: a double punch with both arms side by side.

AYUMI ASHI: normal, ordinary walking, where the legs move forward alternately.

AZATO ANKOH: (1835-1915) The most famous member of the Azato clan and a master martial artist. Azato Ankoh received the bulk of his martial arts training in Shuri-te under Bushi Matsumura. He was a recognized master fencer of the Jigen school of ken-jutsu. Azato was a large, powerful individual who was also an expert in the Okinawan grappling arts. His approach to karate was to train as though one's hands, feet and arms were like swords. His method of training stressed kata which he practiced over and over for months and even years, until they were mastered.

========== B ==========

BANZAI!: Ten thousand lives!; HURRAH!

BEIKOKU: Rice Country. The Japanese name for the U.S.A.

BEIKOKU-JIN: an American.

BENJO: a toilet. This is very crude and not to be used in polite company. The correct term would be o-te-arai.

BENJO GIMU: a toilet cleaning obligation. A common practice in Okinawa where the most senior students are required to clean the toilet while the junior students clean the dojo.

BIWA: a Japanese pear tree wood. A light, golden wood sometimes used for a deluxe wooden sword (bokken). There is a legend in sword training halls that you can develop bone cancer three years after being hit with a biwa bokken.

BO/KON: (k) staff, stick, cudgel. Common name for the rokushaku-bo (six foot staff). It is made of hard oak about one inch or more in diameter with sufficient strength to withstand the cut of a bladed weapon. The bo itself owes its origin to the tonbin, a stick held across the shoulders which was used to carry parcels or buckets. When the need arose, it was quite easy to convert this instrument into a weapon. See kon.

BOJUTSU KATA: The art of staff/stick. The most traditional of the bo kata will include the following:

1. Shuji-no-kon sho 11. Sesoku-no-kon
2. Shuji-no-kon dai 12. Kongo-no-kon
3. Shuji-no-kon (koryu) 13. Shirotaru-no-kon sho
4. Sakugawa-no-kon sho 14. Shirotaru-no-kon dai
5. Sakugawa-no-kon dai 15. Chatanyara-no-kon
6. Sakugawa-no-kon(koryu) 16. Yonegawa-no-kon
7. Soeishi-no-kon sho 17. Tsuken-no-bo
8. Soeishi-no-kon dai 18. Choun-no-kon
9. Sueyoshi-no-kon 19. Chinen Shichanaka-no-kon
10. Urasue-no-kon 20. Tsuken Sunakake-no-kon

(note: "koryu" refers to the ancient form of the kata)

BO-JUTSU (NON-STANDARD): (k) There are several types of bo other then the standard rokushaku-bo or the "six foot staff." There is the kushaku-bo (nine foot staff), the yonshaku-bo (four foot staff), the sanshaku-bo (three foot staff) also called the han-bo, and the shoshaku-bo (one foot staff). The older Okinawan kobudo experts call the two foot staff a tan-bo. The tan-bo is the single version while the double version is called the nitan-bo.

BO-JUTSU RENSHU: (k) staff training.

BOGU: the protective equipment used in karate training; defense equipment; armor consisting of a chest protector, head protector and fist protector; or any variations.

BOGU KUMITE: sparring with body armor.

BOKKEN: (k) a wooden sword; a wooden sword of about the same size and shape as a Japanese sword. In prearranged fighting it replaced the steel Japanese sword as a "safer" weapon.

BOKKEN-JUTSU: (k) the art of using a bokken as a weapon. Although a bokken is normally used as a training weapon in the style of a real sword, in bokken-jutsu it is used as a club.

BOKUTO: (k) a wooden sword. While bokken refers to a wooden sword of a particular style, bokuto can refer to any wooden sword.

BONSAI: a dwarf tree created by periodically trimming its roots.

BOSHI: the thumb; more commonly called oyayubi.

BU: martial or military. Originally meant "to prevent two weapons from coming together." This word also expresses the ideal that by training we will become both strong and just, and violence can be averted by one’s presence, not actions.

BU-JIN: a military or martial man; a soldier.

BU-JUTSU: martial art; martial technique.

BUBISHI: Originally, a Chinese book (Wu Pei Chih in Chinese) on military tactics from the Ming Dynasty. It contained 240 chapters on the Chinese martial arts and their related subjects. It is also an Okinawan book about Chinese martial arts and medicine. Existing copies have been handed down from Higaonna Kanryo and Miyagi Chojun.

BUDDHISM: A religion that came from India and spread throughout the Far East. It was founded by Buddha, who died in 544 B.C. The religion reveals an eight-fold path and four noble truths that show the path to enlightenment. There are many sects of Buddhism in existence today.

BUDO: The Martial Way. Although usually translated as "martial art," a more precise translation is "martial way." This implies a martial discipline for character or spiritual development that has been studied so long that it has become a way of life. This word refers to the use of martial skills as a way of seeking self-perfection through hard training.

BUDO KICHIGAI: a person who is "crazy about the martial way." An individual who gives up everything to practice the martial arts. An individual who believes that the martial arts is the only thing that matters and has a tendency to overdue everything. See kichigai.

BUDO-KA: a student of budo; a martial artist; a practitioner of the "martial way."

BUDOKAN: a building where the martial arts are taught. To rate the title of "Budokan" there should be more than one type of martial art taught in the building. A Budokan may also contain more than one dojo.

BUGEI: military or martial arts.

BUGEIKAN-RYU: "the Martial Arts Hall Style." An Okinawan karate style founded by Higa Seitoku in 1951. Higa was one of the founding members of the All Okinawa Karate and Kobudo United Association and president for ten years. The Bugeikan teaches a mixture of Okinawan karate kata, kobudo, aikido and the older version of Okinawa-te.

BUGEISHA: a warrior; a master of the military or martial arts.

BUGU-GURA: an arsenal. The storeroom in a training hall where the weapons and training equipment is kept.

BUKI: weapons.

BUKI HO: the practice of weaponry.

BUKI WAZA: weapon techniques.

BUN BU RYO DO: bun = academic study; bu = martial art; ryo = together; do = the way or path. "The academic study and martial arts (karate) together will lead to the right path." The belief that the martial arts and schooling go hand-in-hand.

BUNKAI: to take something apart; the analysis of technique.

BUNKO: a branch school.

BUSHI: a martial person; a warrior (class); a gentleman warrior; a term used to denote a person skilled in the fighting arts of Okinawa. In Japan the term samurai was used to denote the warrior class. In Okinawa the term used was bushi.

BUSHI-TE: "the hand of the bushi." This term was used prior to the 20th Century to denote the fighting art of the warrior class of Okinawa.

BUSHIDO: the Way of the Warrior; Bushido is the Japanese feudal military code of behavior.

BUTOKU: martial virtue; honor; one of the favorite sayings of Chibana Choshin.

BUTOKUDEN: Headquarters of the Dai Nippon Butokukai. It was founded in 1895 and located next to the Heian Shrine in Kyoto, Japan. It was operated by the leading headmasters of the martial arts.

BUTOKUKAI: Martial Virtue Association. See Dai Nippon Butokukai.

BUTSUDAN: a Buddhist altar. This is usually found in the form of a lacquered cabinet. The interior is covered with gold leaf and it contains a small statue of Buddha.

BUTSUDO: Buddhism. It is a philosophy based on four major points: life is full of pain; pain is caused by desire; the way to eliminate pain is to eliminate desire; desire can be eliminated by following a specific life style.

BYOBU: a folding screen or room divider.

BYODOKAN GEIKO: a type of practice in which all of the students train together and are treated as equals. This is not seen in traditional Japanese style schools.

========== C ==========

CHA: tea.

CHADO: the Way of Tea.

CHADOGU: the equipment for serving tea.

CHA-NO-YU: the tea ceremony created by Murata Shuko (1422-1502).

CHAGANJU?: (h) How are you? The equivalent of saying in Japanese, "O-genki desu ka?" Used as a greeting or when meeting someone.

CHAKUCHI ASHI: the replacing foot step or putting one foot where the other one was.

CHAN MIGWA: "small eyed Kyan." The hogen nickname for Kyan Chotoku.

CHI, GO, ICHI!: A bushi maxim, "Knowledge and action are one!"

CHI-ISHI/CHIKARA-ISHI: (h) power stone or a stone lever weight. A weight lifting apparatus used to develop hand and arm strength. The power stone was used mainly to strengthen the grip and wrists. Power stone training also help to strengthen the elbow, shoulder and wrist joints. It further gave one sharpness of movement when doing punching exercises, it developed muchimi (heavy sticky hands) and gave one focus intensity in their movements.

CHIBANA CHOSHIN: (1885-1969) Chibana was born on 06/05/1885, at Tottori-cho in Shuri City, Okinawa. He was a student of Itosu Ankoh for 15 years. He studied with Itosu from 1900 until his teacher's demise on January 26, 1915. He was the first president of the Okinawa Karatedo Association and in 1957 he received the title of Hanshi from the Butokukai. On 04/29/1968, Chibana brought further honor to Okinawan Karatedo by being awarded the 4th Order of Merit by the Emperor in recognition of his devotion to the study and practice of Okinawan karatedo. He died of throat cancer at 6:40 a.m. on the 02/26/1969. At the time of his death he left five senior practitioners (in order of seniority): Higa Yuchoku, Miyahira Katsuya, Nakama Chozo, Kinjo Kensei and Nakazato Shugoro. A note of interest is that Chibana's sister was married to the sai-expert, Tawada. Tawada's sister was in turn married to Chibana's instructor, Itosu Ankoh.

CHIBANA-HA SHORINRYU: Chibana originally named his style Shorinryu in 1933. The kata that he taught included the following: kihon 1-2-3, naihanchin 1-2-3, pinan 1-2-3-4-5, patsai sho and dai, kusanku sho and dai, and chinto. Prior to 1965, Chibana also taught the kata jion and seisan but because he felt that the techniques found in these kata were also present in the others, he officially dropped them from his curriculum. He did not teach the kata gojushiho or weaponry.

CHIDORI ASHI: a bird foot. A zig zag stepping pattern.

CHIGAIMASU: it is different; a polite form of saying you do not like something.

CHIISAI: meaning "small." Chibana Choshin used this word to explain the meaning of "sho" in shorinryu.

CHIISAI WAZA: a small technique.

CHIKAMA: close interval; a distance at which you can strike without taking a step.

CHIKARA: physical, extrinsic strength.

CHIKE: a hogen word for punch (in Japanese it would be tsuki)

CHIN-TE: (k) A fighting stick made of bamboo or wood that is tied to the forearm. The front end is blunted while the rear is sharpened. The common practice is to tie one chin-te to each arm. This method is virtually unheard of outside of Okinawa.

CHINEN MASAMI: (1898-1976) A famous Okinawan bo-jutsu expert from Tobaru, Shuri, and headmaster of Yamane-ryu school of Bo-jutsu. Chinen, an ex-policemenan, was Nakazato Shugoro's weapons instructor. He came from a long line of bo-jutsu experts tracing their roots straight to Tode Sakugawa. Few people in Okinawa could match Chinen's powerful bo-jutsu techniques and fewer still would cross staff's with him. He was known for his powerful striking techniques and for his quick, flowing attacking patterns.

CHINKUCHI: (h) the Okinawan term for inner energy (ki or chi).

CHIRA: a hogen word for face.

CHIRASHI DAIKO: the drum signalling the end of a class.

CHIZENKUN-BO: (k) a small stick about six inches long and one inch in diameter with a string in the middle. The kobudo practitioner uses two chizenkun-bo, one in each hand, for fighting.

CHOCHIN: a paper latern.

CHOKU ZUKI: a straight punch; a punch with the leading hand.

CHOSEN: Korea.

CHOTTO!: Just a minute! Very informal and not to be used toward a senior.

CHOTTO-MATTE KUDASAI!: Just a moment, please!

CHU: (h) people.

CHU: mid; the middle.

CHU UGANABIRA: (h) Good day. Hello.

CHUDAN: middle area; the area from the waist to the neck.

CHUDAN KAMAE: middle defensive posture; normally done with the left leg forward and with both hands in the style's defensive posture.

CHUDAN UKE: the middle area block.

CHUDEN: the middle level technique(s). Also used to mean a person who has completed the middle level techniques.

CHUGO: devotion; loyalty. Okinawans believe that one's first loyalty is to your parents and family. Secondly, loyalty to your teacher and art. This is the first cornerstone of Okinawan karatedo involving moral and ethical values. See Gi, Jin, Makoto, Rei and Yu.

CHUGOKU: the middle country; the Japanese name for China.

CHUSHIN: the center.

CHUSHIN DORI: (k) taking control of the center line.

CHUTEN: the center of balance of the body; the center of anything.

CHUTO: the half way point of a kata where you start the return to the starting point.

CHUYO: the Buddhist concept of moderation in all things.

CONFUCIANISM: the Chinese doctrine followed by early Okinawan martial arts practitioners. It was founded by Confucius who was born about 550 BC. Its teachings placed great importance on the order of things, both within the life of an individual and within the order of society.

COUNTING:
English Japanese Hogen (Okinawan)
one ichi tichi
two ni tachi
three san michi
four shi yuchi
five go ichichi
six roku muchi
seven shichi nanachi
eight hachi yachi
nine ku kukunuchi
ten ju to

========== D ==========

DAI: a suffix denoting a generation; large; big; a prefix for numbers, for example, dai ichi means number one or the first.

DAI ICHI BAN: number one; the best.

DAI NIPPON/DAI NIHON: Great Japan; the Empire of Japan.

DAI NIPPON BUTOKUKAI: The Greater Japan Martial Arts Association. This group was formed in 1895 in order to promote traditional martial arts and to cultivate martial virtues. The stated goals of the Butokukai was to construct the Butokuden, a large martial arts hall within the precincts of the Heian Shrine in Kyoto; to hold a martial virtues festival each year; to preserve, support, and promote martial arts; to collect arms and historical materials; and to publish a regular bulletin. By 1930 there were over two million black belts and 200,000 registered instructors. It was disbanded in 1946 by the American occupying forces. It was re-instituted in 1953 with Prince Jigo Higashi Fushimi as Chairman.

DAI SENSEI/O SENSEI: great teacher; a term of deep respect.

DAIJOBU!: It's okay!; very informal.

DAIJOBU DESU KA?: Is it all right?

DAISHO: large, small; a pair of swords in matching sword furniture; a pair of swords.

DAITO: any sword with a blade length of over 2 shaku; a wooden sword in the shape of a Japanese sword; a Japanese sword.

DAITO-RYU: a traditional style of aiki-jutsu first introduced to the Okinawan nobility by Takeda Sokaku at the turn of the century. This was the most common form of grappling practiced by the nobility until karate was publicly introduced in 1904.

DAME!: That's wrong!; That's bad!; That is incorrect!

DAN: step; level; a grade; a black belt ranking. A permanenA grade indicating that a person has acquired a certain level of skill. This word is borrowed from judo and is used in the modern martial arts of Okinawa to denote rank. A dan ranked practitioner wears a black belt which indicates a commitment to the martial arts. The lowest rank is a shodan (literally, the "first step") and indicates a serious student. The highest rank is judan (tenth step) indicating complete mastery. The dan system is also used in disciplines unrelated to the martial arts such as the game of "go." The first karate black belt was awarded by Funakoshi Gichin on 04/12/1924.

DANCHU: a striking point at the center of the sternum.

DARUMA: a Japanese word for the 28th patriarch of Buddhism, Bodhidharma; A doll representing Daruma. It has no legs and is weighted so it straightens up after being tipped over. Legend states that Daruma did continuous zazen for nine yeors and lost the use of his legs.

DEKIMASEN!: I can't do it!

DEKIMASHITA: I have done it.

DEKIMASU: I can do it.

DENBU: the buttocks.

DENCHU: an initiation into the secrets of the ryu.

DENKO: the striking point located at the floating ribs.

DENSHO: lists, usually on scrolls containing secrets (Gokui) of various levels, and the Okuden (the kata of the ryu). Some are illustrated, others are strictly calligraphy. In Samurai days they were often cryptic so as to keep the contents secret from outsiders and enemy spies. Although some were written by the masters themselves, many were written by priests and monks because the masters were often illiterate. Contrary to popular belief, there were many sets of densho in any given ryu. They were given to those who had mastered a particular level of training to use as training and reference aids.

DESHI: a disciple; a follower; a serious student.

DIKKA!: (h) Let's go!

DO: the Way; the road or path that a martial artist follows. This word implies a life-long discipline through which one may achieve character improvement and, ultimately, self-realization.

DO ITASHIMASHITE: Not at all. This is commonly misused by Westerners as "You are welcome" but it is more correct as a response to a compliment.

DO MUKYOKU: An Okinawan proverb meaning "There is no end to training."

DO-GI: a martial arts training uniform for budo. See keiko-gi.

DO-GU: the martial arts training equipment.

DOGAKU: Confucianism. See Confucianism.

DOJISEI NO UKE-ATE: a simultaneous block/strike.

DOJO: a training hall. Originally it meant the place or hall used for religious exercises. It is now used also for halls or places where the way of the martial arts (BUDO) is practiced. DO means the Way and JO means the place or "the place where you find the WAY." Terminology relating to a dojo will include tatami (a 3' x 6' mat or simply referring to the matted area of training), the shinza (the altar), the kamiza (the upper seat or place of honor - this is where the shinza is usually located), the shimoza (the lower seat which is on the opposite side of the shinza), the joseki (found usually to the right side of the shinza area where guests or visiting dignitaries usually sit), the shimoseki (the lower side which is opposite to the joseki and usually to the left, facing the shinza), the kobudo kake (the weapons rack), the nafudakake (the name tag boards), the kagami (the mirror), the densho (the technique lists or an instruction scroll, and the traditional makiwara (punching board).

DOJO ARASHI: dojo storming; challenging the headmaster of a dojo.

DOJO KUN: training hall precepts; the guiding maxims of a karate dojo. The five precepts of Tode Sakugawa commonly seen in a karate dojo: seek perfection of character; be faithful; work hard; respect others; refrain from violence.

DOJO YABURI: to defy a dojo.

DOJO-CHO: the director of the dojo; the training hall head instructor.

DOKKO: the pressure point behind the ear.

DOKUSHU: studying by oneself.

DOKUSO WAZA: an original technique.

DOKYO: teaching the Way.

DOMO: very much; a very casual way of saying, thanks!

DOMO ARIGATO GOZAIMASHITA: polite form of "arigato gozaimashita."

DOMO ARIGATO GOZAIMASU: polite form of "arigato gozaimasu."

DORI: to grab.

DOSHU: "Leader of the Way." A term designating the leader of a school or group, martial or otherwise. The head of a martial art.

DOZO: a very casual way of saying, "please do this."

DRAEGER, DONN F: (1922-1982) one of the greatest American martial artist. Although an expert in numerous Japanese martial arts (judo, kendo, karatedo, aikido, iaido, etc) he also took an interest in the Okinawan martial arts, especially gojuryu. He wrote numerous books, articles and papers concerning history, traditions and martial art training. He served in World War II as a U.S. Marine and retired after 16 years to live in Japan. He is the founder of the International Hoplological Research Center. See hoplology

========== E ==========

EIGO: English language.

EIMEIROKU: A record of names. This refers to the attendance books kept by the masters of various disciplines containing the names, dates of attendance or study, and usually the location of the training. See Shareiroku.

EKU: (h)(k) an oar. The Japanese word for oar is kai.

EKU-JUTSU: (h) The art of the boat oar. It is used very much like the staff except that it is more of a slicing weapon.

EMBU: a performance; a demonstration.

EMBUSEN: the performance line of a kata; embu means performance and sen means line.

EN GEIKO: a form of practice in which the defender stands within a circle of other students, who randomly attack him.

ENPI/EMPI: the elbow. See hiji.

EMPI UCHI: an elbow strike.

ENSHO: the back of the heel.

========== F ==========

FU GEN JIKKO: A bushi maxim meaning "let your actions speak for you."

FUDOSHIN: an immovable mind which cannot be distracted.

FUKU SHIDOIN: a junior instructor. This is the first level of instructorship ratings as authorized by the Okinawa Karatedo Association in 1967. This apprentice level instructor is reserved for 2-Dan and 3-Dan holders. See Shidoin and Shihan.

FUKUBU GERI: (h) a kick to the stomach area.

FUKUSHIKI KUMITE: the attacker executes a combination of two, three, four or five offensive techniques which are blocked and evaded by the defender who then executes a counterattack.

FUKYU: a first group of techniques; a set of techniques that are widely practiced by many different schools.

FUMIKOMI: an attack step; stomping.

FUMIKOMI GERI: a stomping kick. It should be noted that the Okinawans did not favor a high side kick. Their idea of a side kick was a stomping or "side" kick to the knee joint. By the 1960's the fumikomi geri was slowly being replaced by the yoko geri.

FUNAKOSHI GICHIN: (1868-1957) known as the father of modern karate. As a former student of Ankoh Azato and Itosu Ankoh, he went to Japan in 1917 to spread Okinawan style karate. He was the first one to adopt the Judo belt ranking system and awarded the first black belts on April 12, 1924. He later founded his own dojo and called it Shotokan. By 1922 Funakoshi had introduced his method of Okinawan karate by teaching 15 kata. They included the "shorin kata" of pinan 1 thru 5, kusanku (dai), and passai. He also taught the "shorei kata" of naihanchin 1-2-3, seisan, wanshu, chinto, jitte and jion. By the time of his death in 1957, Funakoshi's Shotokan style was the mostly widely practiced karate in Japan. Funakoshi authored five books: Ryukyu Kempo Karate (1922), Renton Goshin Karate-jutsu (1925), Karatedo Kyohan (1935) and an xpanded edition of Karatedo Kyohan (1958). In 1957 an autobiography was published entitled "Karatedo Ichiro" or "Karatedo, My Way of Life." His most famous saying (taken from the 1922 edition of Ryukyu Kempo Karate) about the difference between modern karate and traditional karate was, "The old masters used to keep a narrow field but plough a deep furrow. Present day students have a broad field but only plough a shallow furrow." And this was written in 1922!

FUNAKOSHI YOSHITAKA: (1904-1945) The son of Funakoshi Gichin who is also known as Funakoshi Gikko. He founded the Shotokai group which later became the Nippon Karate Kyokai (JKA) in 1957. He made high, long range kicks popular while the Okinawans had preferred the low kicks and throwing techniques.

FURI: to swing something.

FURI-KAMA-JUTSU: This is a combination of a kama and a rope. The "flying kama" is swung in various patterns to ward off attackers from a distance. This weapon is one of the favorites of many of the older kobudo experts and is probably the most difficult weapons system of all of Okinawan kobudo to master.

FUSHA GAESHI: (k) a windmill bo rotation.

FUSHITA GERI: (s) kicking to the outside of the thigh for conditioning.

========== G ==========

GAIJIN: a foreigner.

GAKKO: a school; a public school.

GAKU: a framed piece of calligraphy hung on the dojo wall.

GAKUSEI: a student.

GAKUSEI NO BENRAN: The Student Handbook.

GAMBATTE!: Hang in there!; Go for it!

GAN: a tomb; also called a turtle shell or kane-no-ko. There are over 30,000 "turtle-back" tombs on Okinawa. Many Okinawans feel that the shape symbolizes a woman in childbirth and link the design to the idea of returning to the source or womb. Other Okinawans simply believe that it was patterned after the turtle shell because the Okinawan turtle is the symbol of long life.

GANJUI?: (h) Are you well?

GASSHO: A bushi maxim meaning "be grateful for each moment;" a type of bow (Buddhist) done with the hands together in front of the face in a prayer position.

GASSHUKU: training camp.

GATAME: to hold; holding.

GE: down; low.

GEDAN: the lower area; the area below the waist.

GEDAN BARAI (UKE): low sweep (block); from the inside outward; commonly referred as the "down block." In Okinawa, gedan barai, refers to sweeping or to brush aside. Gedan uke refers to stop an action or to ‘interrupt’ said action.

GEDAN NO KAMAE: the low defensive position.

GEIKO-GI/KEIKO-GI: training uniform. The parts of a uniform will include the uwagi (jacket), the zubon (trousers), himo (the drawstring on the trousers), the obi (belt), the hachimaki (sweat band), and zori (shower shoes or thongs).

GEKON: the pressure point below the lower lip.

GENKAN: the front entrance of a dojo.

GENKI DESU!: I am well.

GENSHIN: intuition; a premonition of an attack.

GERI: to kick.

GERI WAZA: kicking techniques.

GESSHA: the monthly tuition at a dojo.

GETA: wooden sandals.

GI: Gratitude. Making the right decision in every situation and doing it without wavering. The right decision is a moral one, the just one, the honorable one. This is the second moral and ethical value as taught in Okinawan karatedo.

GI: uniform; a common word used for the training uniform.

GI, SHIN, FUKI: The technique and the mind are inseparable.

GIFA: (k) a hairpin worn by Okinawan men to denote rank during the turn of the century.

GIMU: the concept of obligation, in particular the obligation that a student has toward their teacher. Even today, this principle can be seen both in family life and in business. See giri.

GIREI: etiquette; the techniques of formal behavior.

GIRI: a debt of gratitude or obligation that one has towards their teacher. Giri and gimu are terms of mutually understood obligation. For example, a student will continue to pay his dues or tuition to their teacher even though they are not training. An instructor continues to pay a monthly or yearly stipend even though they have not seen their teacher in years. This is giri or an obligation to the family (or teacher). The Okinawans say that "Death is as light as a feather but giri is heavier than a mountain."

GISHIKI: a ceremony; the techniques of ceremonial behavior.

GISHIKI BARAME: informal.

GISHIKI BARAME GEIKO: informal training; an open training period when students can work on whatever they want.

GO: five; an ancient board game of strategy. Like chess, it is easy to learn but difficult to master. The goal of the game is to capture as much territory as possible on the go board.

GO KENKI: (1886-1940) a Chinese tea merchant and martial artist known for the kata, hakucho or hakutsuru (the white crane). He trained with Miyagi Chojun, Kyoda Jyuhatsu, Chibana Choshin and Mabuni Kenwa. His style is still presently being practiced at the Kodokan dojo of the late Matayoshi Shinpo.

GOBAN: five times; the go (game) board.

GODAN: a fifth degree black belt.

GOHEI: the zig zag paper strips hung in a Shinto shrine to ward off evil. They represent flowing water.

GOHON KUMITE: five step kumite (receiving five attacks with five blocks and then countering). Rarely practiced in modern schools, this was once considered a very advanced form of karate training because it is so difficult to retain a strong stance while taking five rapid steps backward.

GOJURYU: "hard soft style." Founded by Miyagi Chojun (1888-1953) from the teachings of Higaonna Kanryo (1853-1915). When Miyagi died in 1953 there was no official successor. In 1963 the Miyagi family presented Miyagi's belt and uniform to Yagi Meitoku (1912-2003) making him the legal heir and successor. The kata presently taught in gojuryu will include gekisai dai ichi, gekisai dai ni, sanchin, saifa, seiunchin, shisochin, seisan, sanseiru, seipai, kururunfa, suparinpei and tensho. See Gojuryu Meibukan and Yagi Meitoku. According to Toguchi Seikichi, Miyagi's senior students are (in order) Jinan Shinzato, Meitoku Yagi, Eiichi Miyazato, Anichi Miyagi, Seikichi Toguchi and Seiko Higa.

GOJURYU JUNDOKAN: The honbu dojo of Miyazato Eiichi (1922-1999), Hanshi 10-Dan, and former student of Miyagi Chojun. This is the headquarters dojo for the Okinawa Gojuryu Karatedo Association of Miyazato. The Jundokan was opened in 1957 and rebuilt in 1969 at its present site in Asato, Naha. The Jundokan has 500 registered students who train under the direction of Miyazato. It should be noted that Miyazato is also president of the the Okinawa Prefecture Judo Association and is ranked as a 6-Dan in Kodokan Judo.

GOJURYU MEIBUKAN: The honbu dojo of Yagi Meitoku (1912-2003), Hanshi 10-Dan and senior a most student of Miyagi Chojun and late head of the Meibukan School of Okinawa Gojuryu. The present headmaster of the dojo is Yagi's oldest son, Meitatsu Yagi (born 07-07-1944), Hanshi 10-Dan.

GOJURYU SHINBUKAN: The honbu dojo of the late Kanei Katsuyoshi (1941-1994) Hanshi 9-Dan, and student of Yagi Meitoku.

GOJURYU SHOBUKAN: The honbu dojo of the late Masanobu Shinjo (1938-1994). Shinjo had been a student of Toguchi Seikichi (gojuryu Hanshi 9-Dan) and Higa Seiko (gojuryu Hanshi 10-Dan). Shinjo was affiliated with Yagi Meitoku's Meibukan and held the the rank of Hanshi 9-Dan.

GOJURYU SHODOKAN: The honbu dojo of Higa Seikichi (born 02/10/1927), Hanshi 9-Dan, and son of the late Higa Seiko. The Shodokan is the original dojo of Higa Seiko. The Shodokan was founded in 1931 where Higa taught a mixture of Higaonna Kanryo's Shorei-ryu and Miyagi Chojun's gojuryu. In 1939 he was awarded the title of Renshi by the Butokukai and was considered an expert teacher of gojuryu. By 1956 Higa formed his own association, the International Karate and Kobudo Federation with the Shodokan as the honbu dojo. Upon Higa's death in 1966 his son, Higa Seikichi, became the headmaster of the Shodokan and Higa's senior student, Takamine Choboku, became the president of the Association. It should be noted that the Shodokan was the first, actual karate dojo on Okinawa and it continues to teach the same style (gojuryu) at its Itoman location.

GOJURYU SHOREIKAN: The honbu dojo of Toguchi Seikichi (05/20/1917 – 08/31/1998), Hanshi 9-Dan and former student of Miyagi Chojun and Yagi Meitoku. This is a gojuryu sub-style developed by Toguchi. Toguchi was a student of Miyagi Chojun and later Higa Seiko. He was promoted to his present rank of Hanshi 9-Dan by Yagi Meitoku. Toguchi, an Okinawan, resided and taught Tokyo, Japan. His Okinawan Shoreikan Dojo located in Okinawa City, Okinawa, is presently being run by Kuba Yuichi, gojuryu Shoreikan Kyoshi 8-Dan. His senior U.S. representative is New York based Tamano Toshio, gojuryu Shoreikan Kyoshi 8-Dan.

GOKOKU: the pressure point in the fleshy area between the thumb and forefinger.

GOKUI: a deep secret; techniques taught only to higher level students. {GOKUI means mysteries and are the "secrets" of the Ryu -ed}. {HIDEN - also secret traditions of the Ryu -ed.}

GOKURO SAMA DESHITA: thank you for your service; thank you for doing your part. The response a teacher makes to the students at the end of class.

GOMEN NASAI: Excuse me; this is an informal statement and is to be used only to someone lower in status.

GOREI: an order.

GOREI NASAI: to do a kata without commands as opposed to have the instructor count cadence.

GORIN-NO-SHO: The Book of Five Rings; a famous book of strategy written in 1645 by Musashi Miyamoto. He wrote it while living in a cave called Reigendo, on the island of Kyushu, for his student, Teruo Nobuyuki.

GOSEKI: the stones (white and black) used for the game of Go.

GOSHIN-JUTSU: the art of self defense; self defense techniques; the practice of self defense techniques. This term is sometimes mistakenly used to refer to a specific jujutsu school when in fact it is a generic term.

GUMA/GUMAGWA: (h) tiny; small.

GUMI/YAKUZA: gangs; organized gangs are now called yakuza and are involved in gambling, sporting events, nighttime entertainment and prostitution.

GUNSO: sergeant; the nickname of Yabu Kentsu. Although Yabu was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant in the Sino-Japanese War, the Okinawans always referred to him as Gunso Yabu.

GUSUKUMA SHINPAN: (1890-1954) An Okinawan Shuri-te practitioner and student of Itosu Ankoh. Gusukuma Sensei was also known by his Japanese name, Shiroma Shinpan, and was an outstanding strategist who stressed power in punching and kicking. Although a Shuri-te stylist, Gusukuma also studied under the Naha-te expert, Higaonna Kanryo.

GUSUYO: (h) everybody; the equivalent to "ladies and gentlemen."

GYAKU: reverse.

GYAKU HANMI: Reverse or opposite stance; the situation in which the attacker and defender are in ready stances with the opposite foot forward.

GYAKU MAWASHI GERI: inverted circle (roundhouse) kick.

GYAKU-TE: reverse hand(s); methods of grappling or of locking the arms. Although this method resembles aikido, it is strictly of Okinawan origin. It includes locks, twists, hold-downs, wringing, pushing, slapping, stomping, grabbing, choking, bending, and throwing.

GYAKUTE-MOCHI: (k) reverse hand grip; the fisherman's method of gripping a wooden fighting staff with the hands facing in an opposite direction.

GYAKU ZUKI: the reverse punch.

========== H ==========

HACHIJI DACHI: the figure eight stance. The name comes from the position of the feet (in the shape of the kanji character for the number eight).

HACHIMAKI: a headband. The Okinawans have traditionally worn headbands when engaged in strenuous physical work, participating in some festival activity, or engaging in some kind of labor or political demonstration. In feudal times, a hachimaki was a length of cloth about five feet long and sixteen inches wide, wrapped around the head as a pad under a helmet. As it refers to karatedo, the hachimaki are only worn for a real fight or a very serious training session.

HACHIMAN: the Japanese god of war. The Hachiman mon (emblem) is the same emblem as used by the Sho Family of Okinawa. It is the mitsu-domoe (the three commas going in a circle).

HADAKA: naked.

HADAKA JIME: a naked strangle. One that does not require a grip on an opponent's clothing.

HAFU: a square tomb found all over Okinawa.

HAI!: That's right!; Yes!; No! This word is used primarily for an affirmation or consent as in "yes" or "ok." It is also used to urge and give commands as in "OK, let's go" or "OK, now." This is often misused for "yes" but hai actually means that you agree with the question.

HAI DOZO!: a very informal way of saying, "Yes, please!"

HAISHU: the back of the hand.

HAISOKU: the instep; hai means back or rear and soku means foot.

HAITO: the ridge hand.

HAJIME: This means the beginning or the start. As a command, it is "begin," "start" or "go."

HAKAMA: pleated skirt. Usually black or dark blue in color worn by senior practitioners of aikido, kendo, kyudo and some forms of jujutsu. The hakama is actually the lower half of a Japanese kimono that resembles baggy pants. This is not normally worn in the Okinawan martial arts but has been adopted by a number of American practitioners to show that they practice a "traditional" martial art.

HAKKAI SHIKI: the opening ceremony of a class.

HAKU/SHIRO: The color, white.

HAKU SHU: hand clapping.

HAKUTSURU NO KATA: the white crane form of Okinawa Matsumura Seito as taught by Soken Hohan.

HAKUTSURU NO MAI: a kata developed by Seikichi Toguchi (gojuryu Hanshi 9-Dan) from Chinese white crane techniques and performed to music. The kata and bunkai tell the story of a white crane fighting a snake.

HAMA HIGA: an island off the coast of Okinawa known for its sai and tuifa weaponry.

HANASHINU NAGASAN!: (h) The speech is too long!

HANASHIRO CHOMO: (1869-1945) A famous Okinawan practitioner of Shuri-te and student of Itosu Ankoh. When Yabu Kentsu died in 1937, Hanashiro assumed the head of the Itosu line of Shuri-te. When he died in 1945, Chibana Choshin was then recognized as the leader of the Itosu line. Hanashiro was the first one to use the term karate to mean empty hand in his 1905 booklet entitled Karate-Kumite. Hanashiro was referred to as “Gunso” (meaning “sergeant”) Hanashiro due to his service in the Japanese Imperial Army during the Sino-Japanese War. He was a grabbing and punching specialist with his favorite kata being the Matsumura Patsai.

HANGETSU HOKO: half moon stepping.

HANKO: a seal; an ink stamp. Usually carved from soap stone and used with red ink, it is legal as a signature in Okinawa. You will usually see several seals on a promotional certificate (menkyo). These include the instructor's personal seal, the school seal, and possibly the ryu seal. The partial stamp on the edge of the certificate is used to register the document. The other half of the seal is on the appropriate entry in the record book.

HANKO-RYU: half hard style; an early name for shito-ryu.

HANSHI: a model person; a teacher of instructors; generally, a Hanshi means a "role model to others". The title indicates a master of the Art in both the physical and esoteric sense. Among some of the “older” practitioners, he would be respectfully referred to as "KEN-SHI" or a Fist Saint. A ryu may have several Hanshi.

HANSHI-DAI: the heir apparent of a ryu.

HANSHI-NO-SOGO: Doctoral Master. A special title awarded to Chibana Choshin, who was then president of the Okinawa Karatedo Renmei by the Dai Nippon Butokukai (Greater Japan Martial Virtue Association) on May 5, 1957.

HAPPYO: the notification and posting of those who passed their rank examinations. These test results are usually pinned on the dojo wall shortly after the test date. See kaisetsu.

HARA: the stomach; the abdomen; the vital center; the location of one's soul in the lower abdomen, located approximately two inches below the navel; spiritual strength.

HARA GEI: the art of developing the hara (see above).

HARAKIRI: belly cutting. This is an impolite but common expression for the act of ritual Japanese suicide. The correct term is seppuku but Westerners are more familiar with the colorful expression of harakiri.

HARYU-SEN: the Okinawan dragon boat races. Races are held on the 4th day of the 5th lunar month generally early in June by the Western calendar. This holiday calls for heats of boats competing for the honors. Okinawans race in 34 foot canoes, each manned by 12 paddlers. Nakazato Shugoro's Shorinryu Shorinkan dojo has a competing boat that often thrills the audiences with their karate kata performed while racing!

HASAMI: scissors.

HASHI/OHASHI: chopsticks. The restaurant chopsticks are called waribashi meaning half split chopsticks.

HAYAKU!: "Hurry up!"

HAZUKASHII!: This is very embarrassing!

HEIGO: the language of the martial arts. One of the important points of practicing a martial art is also learning its language. Hence, this manual.

HEIHO: strategy.

HEIKO DACHI: parallel stance; a formal stance with both feet parallel and at shoulder width.

HEIMIN: the Okinawan common people. This included farmers, fishermen and laborers, but in the Ryukyuan Islands even a farmer was sometimes given courtesy titles in ordinary usage. Itinerant players, pig-butchers, beggars and prostitutes were at the bottom of the social order in Okinawa.

HEISOKU DACHI: feet together stance; closed feet stance; a formal stance with both feet parallel and touching.

HEKUNA: (h) hurry up!

HENTE: changing the lead hand while fighting.

HERA: (k) a wooden or metal knife used with a tohai.

HERE: (h) an Okinawan word for hooligan or ruffian.

HIBACHI: a charcoal brazier; traditionally it was just a wooden box containing sand.

HIDARI: left.

HIDARI ASHI MAE: a command for the left foot forward.

HIDEN: secret teachings.

HIGA SEIKICHI: (born 02/10/1927) the son of Higa Seiko and ranked a Hanshi in Okinawan gojuryu. He presently runs his late father's dojo, the Shodokan, in Yogi, Naha City. Higa also teaches Ryukyu Kobudo as taught by the late Matayoshi Shinpo. Although, he is the present headmaster of Higa style gojuryu, it is his father's senior student, Takamine Choboku, who is president of the association, the International Karate and Kobudo Federation.

HIGA SEIKO: (11/08/1898 – 04/16/1966) a gojuryu practitioner and student of Higaonna Kanryo and Miyagi Chojun. A school teacher and ex-police officer, Higa opened his Shodokan gojuryu karate dojo in 1931. When the Okinawa Karatedo Association was formed in 1956, Higa was appointed vice-president. In 1958 Higa became the second president of the Association and was awarded the rank of Hanshi 10-Dan by the Board of Directors. It should also be noted that Higa is credited for opening the first professional karate dojo on Okinawa. His original dojo is located in the city of Itoman and is still in operation. It is also a point of interest in that Matayoshi Shinpo, upon his return from mainland Japan in the early 1960’s, first taught his Matayoshi-style kobudo at the dojo of Higa Seiko.

HIGA SEITOKU: (born 01/20/1921) Higa is presently ranked a Hanshi 10-Dan and runs the Bugeikan Dojo in Shuri, Okinawa. He is a former student of Toyama Kanken, Chinen Masami and Uehara Seikichi of Motobu-ryu. As president of the All Okinawa Karate Kobudo United Association he was responsible for the promotion of the following individuals: Shimabukuro Zenryo (of Chubu Shorinryu), Soken Hohan (of Matsumura Seito Shorinryu), Nakaima Kenko (of Ryuei-ryu), Matayoshi Shinpo (of Matayoshi Kobudo) and Kaneshima Shinsuke (of Tozan-ryu).

HIGA YUCHOKU: (1910-1994) A student of Shinzato Jinan, Miyagi Chojun and Chibana Choshin. Upon the death of Shinzato (in 1945) and later Miyagi (in 1953), Higa began training under Chibana (in 1954) and by 1965 was promoted to Hanshi 9-Dan. He was the first individual to be promoted to this rank by Chibana Choshin. Higa also became the Chairman of the Board of Directors for the All Okinawa Karatedo Association in 1967. He was the headmaster of the Kyudokan Dojo of Shorinryu Karatedo and was ranked a Hanshi 10-Dan in Shorinryu. One of his most senior senior students and the present headmaster of the Shinjinbukan in Naha, Okinawa, is Onaga Yoshimitsu.

HIGAONNA KANRYO: (03/10/1853 – 12/04/1915) born in Nishimura, Naha, Okinawa. He began his Okinawa-te training in 1873 under Arakaki Seisho in Kume Village, Naha. In 1876 he left for Fuchou (mainland China) and studied Chinese boxing under Ryuryu-ko and Wan Shin Zan. The training under these masters was difficult but Higaonna would often sing his favorite Okinawan song that said "anybody can put up with a little, but it takes a man to put up with a lot." He returned to Okinawa in 1893 and began teaching in Naha. He left three outstanding students: Miyagi Chojun, Kyoda Jyuhatsu and Gusukuma (Shiroma) Koki. Higaonna often referred to his style as Shorei-ryu (Enlightened Spirit Style) while others called it Naha-te.

HIHYO: criticism. In Okinawa, being criticized by your instructor is a sign of real acceptance.

HIJI: the elbow.

HIJI ATE: an elbow smash.

HIJI JIME: an elbow lock.

HIJI TORI: an elbow grab.

HIJI UCHI: an elbow strike.

HIJI UKE: an elbow block.

HIKI: to pull.

HIKITATE GEIKO: energetic training.

HIMO: the drawstrings on your uniform jacket.

HINERI HANMI: rotation of the trunk as in punching.

HINERI ZUKI: the rotation of the punch; a twist punch.

HIRAGANA: the Japanese cursive phonetic alphabet.

HITO KOME HITO ASE: A bushi maxim meaning "one grain of rice, one drop of sweat."

HITO-TSUKI, HITO-GERI!: One punch, one kick! This means that a karate person strives to obtain the power of either a punch or a kick strong enough to kill an opponent.

HIZA: the knee(s).

HIZA ATE: a knee smash.

HIZA GERI: the knee kick; kicking with the knee.

HOBO KORE DOJO!: "Your life is your dojo!" A Zen saying among priest which indicate that training not only occurs in the training hall but also in your everyday life.

HOGEN: (h) to express; the Okinawan dialect. Hogen is both a Japanese and an Okinawan word. In Japanese, this word translates as "dialect." In the Hogen language of Okinawa, the word translates to mean "language, or a method to express oneself."

HOJO UNDO: complementary exercises. These exercises are often referred to as the "technique exercises." The student is taught the basic blocks, punches and kicks of their system and is encouraged to develop power in their techniques. A side effect of this training is the student also develops their cardiovascular system with the practice of basic techniques. These techniques are the actual "building blocks" of one's system and must be practiced at every class. These exercises also offer different defensive and counter-attacking techniques. Strength, endurance and reflexive actions are developed with each repetition. The student must also develop striking power by working on the bag and must develop each weapon taught in the exercises by working on the makiwara. Hojo undo should take from 5 to 10 minutes for an hour class and 10 to 20 minutes for a two hour workout.

HOKAMA TETSUHIRA: (born 1944) a gojuryu practitioner (9-Dan Hanshi) and former student of Higa Seiko. Author of the History of Okinawan Karate. Hokama opened the first karate and kobudo museum in 1986 at his home in Nishihara-cho, Okinawa. When visiting Okinawa, the museum is a "must see" place.

HOKO: walking.

HOKO UNDO: walking exercises (see Itosu Shinko or Kyan Shinko).

HOKO WAZA: walking techniques; the practice of the various stances in a straight line.

HONBU/HOMBU: headquarters. This is a general term used by many organizations to refer to their main school.

HONBU-CHO/HOMBU-CHO: the person in charge of the honbu.

HONTE-MOCHI: (k) a normal grip. A peasant's method of holding a wooden fighting staff with both hands facing in the same direction.

HONTO?: Is that right?

HONTO, NE?: That's right, isn't it?

HOPLOLOGY: the academic and practical study of combative arts and martial cultures around the world. An organization formed by the late Donn F. Draeger (1922-1982).

HOSHO: Japanese paper for ceremonial use. Although often called rice-paper, Japanese paper is normally made out of kozo (mulberry). This is the paper used for most hand-written certificates.

HOSO KEZURI: the semi-advanced level in the study of Okinawan karatedo; this is when the student develops a desire for the perfection of “his/her” method of karatedo and begins to seek more knowledge. This phase is comparable to reaching the top rung of the ladder. The karate student now adds the “silent focus” to the kata and begins to comprehend their own progress. Due to the fact that the student has started to gain true self confidence, they begin to project speed and power in their technique and kata on a regular basis.

HOTEI: A Chinese monk. He is the subject of many Zen paintings, usually being depicted carrying a sack over his shoulder.

HYAKU: the number 100.

HYOSHIGI: the wooden clappers used in a dojo to signal the beginning of class and during breathing exercises.

========== I ==========

IAIDO/IAIJUTSU: "the way/art of the sword;" the jigen-ryu was the most prominent style of swordsmanship that was practiced on Okinawa during the turn of the last century; the jigen-ryu kenjutsu method was a style that was strongly favored by Okinawan nobility.

IAIGOSHI DACHI: kneeling stance.

IBUKI: exhalation with vigor; a breathing method featuring a long exhalation, followed by a short "cough" to expel the last of the air.

ICHARIBA CHODE: (h) ‘Work together as a family’ in the Okinawan dialect. This is often used in partner type drills.

ICHI GO, ICHI E!: "One period of training, one encounter!" or "One encounter, one chance!" An old dojo maxim that urges a student to approach each class as if it were to be the only one he gets.

ICHI MAN: the number 10,000.

ICHI NICHI ISSHO: A bushi maxim meaning "one day, one lifetime."

ICHIBAN: number one; the best.

ICHIDAN: First Step. Originally, Funakoshi Gichin, who adopted the karate ranking system from judo, called the shodan rank, ichidan. Many people confused this word with the first rung of a ladder. After time, the term was changed to shodan.

IDO: movement.

IEMOTO: house founder; the grand master. The position of grand master is hereditary or passed on to a favorite student, who would continue the system. The grand master has the exclusive right to issue promotion certificates and grant teaching licenses to former students - for which the grand master receives a fee to sustain the honbu dojo. Despite criticism of this system, it has not only persisted, it has gained in strength and importance and must be reckoned with in any dealings with the various Okinawan ryu's.

IFU: a dojo tradition.

IGEN: dignity.

IHA SEIKICHI: (07/09/1932) born in Nishihara City, Okinawa, and is the senior most exponent of Chibana-style shorinryu residing in the United States. Iha originally started training in shorinryu under Gusukuma Shinpan (1890-1954) around 1950. When Gusukuma died in 1954, Iha was introduced to Miyahira Katsuya by his friend, Miyazato Shoei. On 03/12/1989, Miyahira Katsuya promoted Iha to Hanshi 9-Dan. In March of 2001, Iha Seikichi became the first Okinawan Hanshi 10-Dan to reside in the United States. Miyahira continues to be the president of Chibana Choshin's Okinawa Shorinryu Karatedo Association. Iha has been teaching at his Original Okinawa Karate School in Lansing, Michigan since 1978.

IIE!: No!; That's wrong!; Yes! Like hai, iie is not an absolute word. It indicates disagreement and can mean either yes or no depending upon the question.

IKAGA DESU KA?: How are things? How do you feel?

IKEBANA: flower arranging. The standard form requires that an arrangement consist of three main elements: the tallest branch symbolizes heaven; the middle branch (on the left side) represents man; and the lowest branch (on the right side) represents earth. The total arrangement must also contain an odd number of elements.

IKI: the physical act of respiration.

IKKEN HISSATSU: "Victory with one blow."

IKU KUMI: (g) the gojuryu equivalent of free sparring with all attacks geared for the targets that they were designed for.

IMA: now.

IMA NI: right now.

IN: expansive quality; centrifugal; the female principle.

IN-YO: "yin yang."

INCHI: a stamp pad for a hanko (seal); a prisoner.

INOUE MOTOKATSU: (12/02/1918 – 01/01/1993) An expert in Ryukyu Kobudo and senior student of the late Shinken Taira. He also studied under Konishi Yasuhiro (karate-jutsu), Fujita Seiko (the last living Koga Ninja) and Shioda Gozo (Aikido). Inoue is commonly referred to as the First Hanshi of Ryukyu Kobudo, a title given to him by his teacher, Taira Shinken. When Taira died in 1970, Inoue became his successor in Japan and Akamine Eiko was appointed the Okinawan director of Taira's association. Inoue was the president of Taira Shinken's Society for the Promotion and Preservation of Ryukyu Classical Martial Arts (Ryukyu Kobujutsu Hozon Shinkokai).

INTOKU: a good act done in secret.

IPPAN GEIKO: General training; this refers to an open class session as opposed to special training.

IPPE NIHE DEBIRU: (h) Thank you very much.

IPPON: a full point.

IPPON ASHI DACHI: one leg stance; standing on one leg.

IPPON KEN: one knuckle fist.

IPPON KUMITE: one point sparring. It consists of a single predetermined attack followed by a counterattack. This is the first step in the practice of kumite.

IPPON NUKITE: one finger spear hand.

IPPON SHOBU: one point match (in sparring).

IRASSHAIMASU: Welcome. Please come in.

IRI KUMI: (h)(g) free sparring stressing distance and timing, speed and power and combination of techniques. The concept and practice of iri kumi was first taught by Miyagi Chojun from 1929 to 1930. Initially, Chojun Sensei used protective equipment borrowed from the kendo club at the Naha Commercial High School. Iri kumi was first introduced at the Naha Police Academy but due to the numerous injuries sustained by the students using the protective equipment, it was halted after one year.

ISHI SASHI: a stone padlock; a training devise shaped like a stone dumbbell. The ishi sashi is used to develop and strengthen the muscles of the forearm, upper arms and wrists. Exercising with the ishi sashi also gives crispness to your hand and pulling techniques.

ISHI-BUKURO: a stone sack. Used by Okinawan karate practitioners for reflex training and for toughing the hands and improving one's grip.

ISOGI!: Hurry up!

ISSHIN-RYU: "the one heart style." An Okinawan karate system founded by Shimabukuro Tatsuo on 01/14/1955. The name isshin-ryu was coined by one of Shimabukuro's senior students, Kaneshi Eiko. Shimabukuro had been a student of Kyan Chotoku, Miyagi Chojun, Motobu Choki and Taira Shinken (of Ryukyu kobudo). Shimabukuro Tatsuo died on 05/30/1975 and Shimabukuro Kiichiro (his first born son) is the present headmaster. The isshin-ryu kata will include: sanchin, seisan, seiunchin, naihanchi, wansu, chinto, kusanku and sunsu.

ITOSU SHINKO: the Itosu Lines; a walking exercise developed by Itosu Ankoh in 1903 to teach a large group of people. It is composed of six different techniques done in a forward and backward motion. See Kyan Shinko.

ITOSU ANKOH: (1830-1915) Itosu was born in Shuri, Yamakawa village, Okinawa. He began studying Shuri-te under Matsumura Soken while very young and was later named as the official clerk of the Shuri government. When karate became part of the physical education training at the Shuri Elementary School in 1901, Itosu Sensei was its first instructor. This was the first step for the popularization of modern Okinawan karate. Between 1905 and 1915, Itosu was a part-time karate instructor at the Okinawa Dai Ichi High School. He devoted his entire life to the spread of Shuri style karate and died on January 26, 1915. His senior students were: Yabu Kentsu, Hanashiro Chomo, and Chibana Choshin.

ITTAI!: Hurt! Pain! Ouch!

ITTEN: the one point located about two-three inches below the navel. The center of balance of a human body.

========== J ==========

JA MATA/JA NEH: this is an abbreviated way of saying, "until I see you again." Commonly used by Okinawan karate practitioners when leaving their training partners in the dojo. It is considered a "jaunty" good-bye.

JAFE: (h) dreadful; awful; What a mess! (haihen in Japanese).

JAN-KEN-PON: the paper-scissors-stone game played by Japanese children.

JARI BAKO: a box filled with beans, sand or gravel used for karate training. The hands are thrust into it to toughen the skin and joints.

JICHINSAI: a ground breaking ceremony when building a new dojo.

JIGOTAI: to squat.

JIGOTAI DACHI: a squatting stance.

JIKAN!: Time! The end of class or sparring session.

JIN: love, compassion. Striving to find ways in expressing our love and compassion for our family, friends, neighborsand those less fortunate than ourselves. This is the third moral and ethical value as taught in Okinawan karatedo.

JIN-GWA:(h) money.

JINCHU: the pressure point on the upper lip below the nose.

JINJA/JINGU: a Shinto shrine.

JINZO: the kidney area.

JITEN/JIBIKI: an encyclopedia; a dictionary.

JITSU: truth; reality.

JIYU: free; freedom.

JIYU KUMITE: free style fighting.

JIYU WAZA: free style technique(s).

JO: upward.

JO: (k) a short staff measuring approximately four feet in length and one inch in diameter and made of Okinawan kashi wood (a red oak). Commonly used by the Okinawan police to subdue criminals. The only weapon allowed on the Shuri palace grounds.

JODAN: upper area; an area above the neck.

JODAN AGE UKE: the high rising block.

JOGAI!: Outside the contest area; out of bounds.

JOGE: up and down.

JOSEKI: the right side of the training area where the black belts sit in a traditional karate dojo.

JU: the number ten; meaning gentle or soft as in Gojuryu (the hard-soft style). One should not confuse this term with being weak. Softness refers to flexibility or yielding, or turning an opponent's force against him by yielding and using it to your advantage.

JU YOKU GO O SEISURU!: Softness controls hardness!

JUCHU: the striking point on the upper lip.

JUDO: the "gentle way." A Japanese martial Way and now an Olympic sport. Judo was developed by Kano Jigoro in 1882. It consist of throwing, holds, locks and strangles. The Okinawans quickly took to judo and many have obtained high ranks in this art. Presently, Miyazato Eiichi, gojuryu hanshi 9-Dan and ranked a judo 6-Dan, is president of the Okinawan Judo Association.

JUJUTSU: the gentle art; the original form of judo.

JUKEN: a bayonet.

JUKEN-DO: the way of bayonet fighting.

JUKU: a private school.

JUNBI UNDO: warm up or preliminary exercises; After the bowing in procedures, these exercises are performed to loosen and warm up the muscle groups. Performing these exercises at the beginning of each work out lessens the possibility of muscular strain during the more strenuous movements which follow. These preliminary exercises are usually referred to as the "warm ups." It should also be noted that each Okinawan dojo has their own particular methods of warming up and it will vary from dojo to dojo even in the same association.

These conditioning exercises are used to condition the body so as to develop coordination, balance, posture and agility. Each exercise has a specific function and must be done properly in order to achieve its purpose. While moving slowly enough to avoid a strain or injury, the student must make every effort to stretch as far as possible. The body should usually be relaxed while doing the exercises. At the same time, the exercises should be done briskly enough to thoroughly warm up both the muscles and the cardiovascular system. This period of training should last from 5 to 10 minutes for an hour class and from 10 to 15 minutes for a two hour class.

All the preparatory exercises fall into one of the following categories: jumping, stretching, bending, twisting and circling. They should be performed in a sequence starting with the extremities of the body and proceeding gradually towards the heart. Thus one should start with exercises for the legs (toes, ankles, and knees), then hips, trunk, shoulders, arms (elbows, wrists, and fingers), and finally the neck.

JUTSU: art; a science.

========== K ==========

KA: a suffix denoting a student (i.e., a karate-ka is a student Of karate.

KABUKI: Japanese theater. There are 18 classical plays.

KAESHI: to counter.

KAETTE!: Change your positions!

KAGAMI: a mirror.

KAGAMI BIRAKI: A traditional Japanese New Year's celebration which involves the cutting of rice cakes. Many martial arts dojos hold such ceremonies to mark the beginning of the New Year. Typically speeches and demonstrations are followed by a party. This is usually a major dojo event with special classes and a lecture by the headmaster. It is traditionally celebrated on the second Sunday of January.

KAI: the Japanese name for a ship's oar.

KAI/KYOKAI: an association.

KAICHO: "the head of the association;" the chief instructor of an association.

KAIDEN: master's certificate. The final license awarded according to the classical martial art teaching system.

KAISAI: (g)(h) a word coined by Chojun Miyagi meaning the "analysis of technique." Part of the three methods of Chojun-sensei's teaching: 1. shoho = the beginning way meaning the blocking methods as taught in kata. 2. kyoho = the middle way meaning the block is now used as a counter. 3. kaisai = the understanding, the reality, the truth of what is being done. See bunkai.

KAISETSU: the explanation of one's rank test. The teacher outlines the criteria he used to judge the student and point out their strengths and weaknesses and then explain the test results.

KAISHU: open hand.

KAITEN: round, wheel.

KAIZEN: Consist of two words – kai meaning to change and zen meaning good. Simply stated ‘to change for the good.’ This refers to one’s training where an individual continues to train and improve their karate skill. The opposite of kaiaku or to change for the worst. Kaiaku is accomplished by poor training methods or by taking ‘short cuts’ in ones training.

KAJAA: (h) an Okinawan nickname meaning "one who will never give up."

KAKARI GEIKO: attack practice. This is usually performed by high ranking students against successive opponents. It develops a strong offensive attitude.

KAKATO: the back of the heel; the heel.

KAKATO GERI: a heel kick favored by gojuryu practitioners.

KAKE: hooking; a rack for holding weapons.

KAKE-DAMESHI: challenge match or an exchange of technique. This was quite common on Okinawa until the early 1960's.

KAKE GERI: hook kick.

KAKE-TE: hooking hand.

KAKE-UKE: hooking block.

KAKIWAKE UKE: a wedge block; the word kakiwake literally means to shove aside or to push one's way through a crowd.

KAKE-ZUKI/KAKE-TSUKI: hooking punch.

KAKIE: (g) arm strengthening. A form of Okinawan sticky hands training used to develop sensitivity and arm strength.

KAKIMONO: a hanging scroll.

KAKUSHI GEI: hidden talent. The Okinawans have traditionally developed a particular skill (such as singing, solo dancing, or doing imitations), that they keep quiet about. At Okinawan parties, dinners, and other social gatherings, it is common for the participants to be called on to perform some kind of entertainment act. Having a kakushi gei prevents them from being embarrassed and allows them to demonstrate their skill. Many foreign students who come to Okinawa have been put on the spot at such gatherings and, because they do not have a hidden talent, are unable to perform. Their sensei and peers are not trying to embarrass them as the Okinawans have been conditioned to take it for granted that everybody has at least a little kakushi gei.

KAKUSHI ZUKI: a hidden fist punch.

KAKUSHITE: hidden hand(s). Each kata contains bunkai, or the application of each movement. Without application, the movements are nothing more than a dance. Bunkai makes the training realistic. Certain complex kata, in addition to containing bunkai, also contain kakushite, or hidden hand techniques. Kakushite was designed and built into the kata to preserve the deadly and secret techniques of a given ryu (school/style of karate). The kakushite is not readily recognized by casual observation; kakushite must be taught.

KAMA: (k) a sickle. A farming implement used as a weapon. The Japanese preferred to use one kama while the Okinawans used two kama in fighting. The kama is regarded as one of the five main weapons of Okinawa which included the bo, sai, tuifa and nunchaku.

KAMA-JUTSU: (k) hand helded sickle; developed from and is still used for various agricultural tasks. It is a serious and dangerous weapon system (even for the practitioner) where precautions are used in training. The kama teaches and builds up finger and hand dexterity. It also brings back the element of danger and concentration in the study of the traditional martial arts.

KAMAE: stance; this is the combative posture used in facing an opponent. In the Okinawan martial arts this term is used to describe both the combative and sporting postures taken while training but the Okinawan bushi used the kamae as a chess master uses the pieces on the board. Often an Okinawan bushi took up a kamae that left no opening for an attack.

KAMAE-TE: to be in a position to start; to be ready.

KAMI: a spirit; paper; also a heavy earthenware jar.

KAMI DANA: shrine shelf; a symbolic home of the dojo spirit.

KAMIKAZE: the divine wind; the hurricane that destroyed the mongol invasion fleet in 1281.

KAMIZA: the upper seat; The upper side of the training area in a dojo immediately in front of the dojo shrine (where the instructor sits). It can also be the area to the immediate right of the dojo shrine.

KAMOKU: A lecture on the history and philosophy of your specific art. See koshu renshu.

KAN: a building; a house.

KANA: a phonetic symbol; an abbreviation of a kanji; see hiragana and katakana.

KANBAN: a signboard of a dojo.

KANCHO: the head of the house; the chief instructor of the dojo.

KANGEIKO: An intensive practice session lasting several days during the coldest month of winter. This type of training dates from the mid-Edo period, when it was used to get samurai back into shape (after several months of garrison duty) and attendance was mandatory for all junior samurai.

KANJI: Chinese characters used/borrowed by the Japanese. The kanji characters are pictographs (picture words) used by the Japanese for writing. The short hand version is called hiragana while a method for writing foreign words is called katakana.

KANO JIGORO: (1860-1938) The founder of Kodokan Judo. He studied Tenshin Shinyo-ryu in 1877, Kito-ryu in 1881 and founded the Kodokan in 1882. He is the man most responsible for bringing martial arts to the general public. Kano believed that, although most people would never even get to the shodan level, a little training was better than none at all. This was a radical departure from classical thought.

KANSETSU: joint.

KANSETSU GERI: A kick against a joint to dislocate it.

KANSETSU WAZA: a joint technique involving a lock or a pinning method.

KANSHA: gratitude. Okinawan karatedo emphasizes the expression of gratitude, not just for instructors and fellow practitioners but to society in general. Hence, one of the first things a students learns in an Okinawan training hall is respect and gratitude to the ancient practitioners of their art who passed it on to the modern generation.

KANTAN NA MONO YOKU SHO O SEISU: A bushi maxim meaning, "the balance between victory and defeat often hangs on simple matters."

KAPPO: methods of resuscitation and massage; a unique life preserving techniques primarily utilized in injuries incurred in the martial arts practice.

KARA: empty; air; also a Japanese term for the T'ang dynasty of China (A.D. 618-970).

KARA-SHISHI: this is a traditional ceramic Chinese guardian lion. These lions sit on the Okinawan roofs to guard the house against ill winds and evil spirits.

KARATE: a term first used by the Shuri-te stylist, Hanashiro Chomo in 1905; an indigenous Okinawan martial art first brought to Japan by Funakoshi Gichin (1868-1957) in 1917. Funakoshi had been a student of Ankoh Itosu and Ankoh Azato and had merged the teachings of these two great instructors. He brought his version of Shuri-te to Japan and adopted the DAN/KYU ranking system in 1924. He promoted the first student to Dan rank on April 12, 1924.

KARATEDO: the way of the empty hand.

KARATE-GI: A karate training uniform. Other names used for it are do-gi (a uniform for the practice of the WAY) or simply a keiko-gi (training uniform). White uniforms are generally worn to symbolize "purity" and "cleanliness" of the mind and body.

KARATE-JUTSU:the art of the empty hand. The old name of the Okinawan art prior to 1936.

KARATE-KA: a student of karate. When the suffix "ka" is added to any martial skill the term means an exponent or student of that skill. Thus a student of kendo is a kendo-ka, etc.

KARATE KENKYUKAI: the Chinese Hands Research Association; a karate group established in Shuri around 1918. Experts like Choshin Chibana, Chojun Miyagi, Chotoku Kyan, Genwa Nakasone, Shinpan Gusukuma, Gichin Funakoshi, Chodo Oshiro, Kenwa Mabuni, Kentsu Yabu, Chomo Hanashiro, Shinko Matayoshi and Kenki Go were members and trained together to better their fighting arts.

KARI: a reaping technique involving sweeping an opponent's legs from beneath him. O-gari is done with the heel while ko-gari is done with the bottom of the foot.

KASAMI-UCHI: (k) a strike to the temple.

KASHI: this is a Japanese red or white oak which is favored for wooden weapons; in Okinawa the word kashi is used to refer to the Okinawan red oak used for wooden weapons.

KASUMI: the technique of flipping your hand, or anything else, toward an opponent's eyes to distract him; a feint.

KASUMI ZUKI: a snapping punch.

KATA: the shoulder.

KATA: form; formal exercise; The ideogram for the word kata may be interpreted as the following: form, shape, style, type, pattern, design, mold, cast, model, tradition or stereotype. Kata is a prearranged series of techniques involving attack and defense; it is used as a learning method and often considered a living text book. The kata contains all the fundamental information of a system that is in turn used to perfect technique and understanding of a particular ryu (style).

KATA GASSHO: a one handed bow (gassho) done while walking as a gesture of respect.

KATA SHIAI: forms competition.

KATACHI: a form or formal exercise done with spirit.

KATAHIZA DACHI: a one knee stance; the common Okinawan kneeling method used for taking "martial arts pictures."

KATAKANA: The Japanese angular phonetic alphabet used primarily for writing foreign words; dates from the 8th century.

KATAME WAZA: grappling techniques. They consist of osae-waza, kansetsu waza and shime waza.

KATANA: a long sword; a Japanese sword.

KATANA BUKURO: a sword bag.

KATANA KAKE: a horizontal sword stand. It normally holds two swords; the sword rack on the wall of a training hall designed to hold many swords or bokuto.

KATATE: one hand.

KATATEDORI: one handed grab.

KATATORI: shoulder grab. The meaning is identical to katadori. The Japanese are very loose about distinguishing between "t"s and "d"s.

KATSU: a form of resuscitation used in certain styles. It is rarely taught today in Okinawa but at one time it was part of the training one receive in learning how to deal with common injuries.

KATSUSATSU-JUTSU: the art of studying the vital points of the human body that can be used to either kill or cure. Once again, this has fallen into disuse on Okinawa and there are very few practitioners of this ancient art form.

KATTE KABUTO O OSHIME YO!: A bushi maxim meaning "After victory, tighten your helmet cords!"

KAZE: the wind.

KEAGE: snapping; rising.

KEICHU: the striking point on the back of the neck.

KEIKO/GEIKO: practice; training; in shorinryu the term keiko is used when "training the spirit" as opposed to shorinryu renshu which means a "physical practice." Keiko specifically refers to training under the supervision of a teacher, i.e., "learning." There are two ways to engage in keiko: If you are practicing with a partner who is less or more skilled, you are doing hikitate keiko. This type of training allows the senior to try a wide range of techniques freely. He in turn provides his junior with deliberate openings and chances to attack. Gokaku keiko is training against a student of equal skill and ability. In gokaku keiko, basic methods of attack and defense are sharpened. See renshu.

KEIKO-GI/GEIKO-GI: a practice or training uniform.

KEIKOKEN/SHOKEN: a forefinger fist; the favorite punching technique of Choki Motobu (1871-1944).

KEIZU: genealogy. The Okinawans consider it very important that a student of the martial arts be aware of their roots. Hence, it is a common practice to have a ko-mondo (lectures with a question and answer period) session as part of the dojo training.

KEKOMI: thrusting; "kicking off;" "kicking inward."

KEN: fist; depending on the kanji character, it can also mean sword.

KEN, ZEN ICHI: the fist and Zen are one.

KENDO: the way of the sword; Japanese fencing.

KENJO NO BITOKU: A bushi maxim meaning "with true strength comes humility."

KENPO/KEMPO: the law of the fist.

KENSHI: a fist saint; a nickname for Kanryo Higaonna.

KENSHINKAN: a shorinryu style developed by Fusei Kise of Matsumura Seito shorinryu. The style is based on the teachings of Hohan Soken and modified by Kise during the early 1980's.

KENTSUI: a hammer fist.

KEPPAN: a blood oath; a blood seal. This is the signing of an enrollment register with one's own blood as a pledge of one's sincerity and serious intent. An oath sworn by pricking a finger and sealing the document with a fingerprint of blood.

KERI WAZA: kicking techniques.

KESA: scarf

KI: intrinsic energy or life force. In Chinese this is called chi and in India it is known as prana. A healthy person is said to have a strong flow of the life force within them. In a sickly person, the life force is weak. The flow of the life force may be improved with healthy activity and a healthy mind.

KIAI: spirit shout. In combat the kiai is used to cause the attacker to either freeze or be distracted long enough to gain a victory. The kiai "comes from the stomach." In Okinawa, the kiai is rarely used except in demonstrations. This is because most dojo are located next to or near family residences and they do not want to disturb their peace by yelling continuously.

KIBA DACHI: the Japanese straddle leg stance which is commonly called the horse riding stance.

KICHIGAI: crazy; a crazy person. In street English, "Someone who is a couple of bricks shy of a load." See budo kichigai.

KIHON: basic.

KIHON IDO: basic movements.

KIHON KATA: basic formal exercises.

KIHON KATA BUNKAI: basic analysis of movements.

KIHON KUMITE: basic sparring.

KIHON WAZA: basic techniques.

KIME: focus; synchronization of body action.

KIMONO: the traditional dress of Japan worn by both men and women. The man's kimono is made up of a long sleeved jacket and baggy pants called hakama. Over the jacket a coat called a haori is worn, on which is the family crest. Popular men's colors are black and brown.

KIN(TEKI) GERI: the groin kick.

KINA SHOSEI: (1882-1981) Kina began studying under Ankoh Itosu at the Okinawan Teachers College in 1904. Shortly after Kina began his training, Itosu appointed his senior student, Kentsu Yabu, to take over. Kina studied with Yabu from 1906 to 1910. At the same time, he started training in weaponry under Kanakushiku Uhugushiku. In 1974 the Zen Okinawa Karate-kobudo Rengokai promoted him to Hanshi 10-Dan.

KINGAI-RYU: A style of Okinawan karate taught by Kenki Go, a Chinese White Crane stylist. Presently, the only practitioner of this style is Matayoshi Shinpo of Matayoshi Kobudo.

KIRITSU!: Stand up!

KISE FUSEI: (05/15/1935) a senior student of Hohan Soken and Shigeru Nakamura. Presently, Kise is ranked a Hanshi 9-Dan in Matsumura Shorinryu and runs the Kenshinkan School of Okinawan Shorinryu in Okinawa City, Okinawa.

KITEN: the starting point of a kata.

KIYOTSUKE!: Attention! Pay attention. Watch out.

KIZA: sitting on the heels with the toes curled forward.

KIZAMI ZUKI: jab punch; cutting punch. A snap punch done very much like a boxing jab.

KO: small; a prefix meaning "old."

KO GAKU SHIN: A bushi maxim meaning "keep your mind open in order to learn."

KO-HAKU SHIAI: red and white contest. In this form of competition, two contestants wearing a red or white ribbon perform a kata selected beforehand or imposed by the judges. It is a direct elimination system where the winners of each phase compete until defeated.

KO-MONDO: lectures and questions and answers. Modern karate training recognizes, in addition to kata and kumite training, lectures (called ko) and questions and answers (called mondo) as legitimate methods of study.

KOBAYASHI-RYU: The incorrect Japanese pronunciation of the Okinawan word for shorinryu. Choshin Chibana, the originator of shorinryu, often stated that those who knew nothing of Okinawan karate would mispronounce his style by calling it kobayashi-ryu.

KOBU-JUTSU: "ancient martial art."

KOBUDO: "ancient martial way"; a common expression used for weaponry or weapons training. The meaning of kobudo: "ko" means ancient, "bu" means military, warrior or martial and "do" means a road, path or way. So, kobudo actually means the "ancient martial way." With this translation, the art of kobudo means any ancient martial art whether it be weaponry or the various methods of empty hand fighting. Present day usage gives one the impression that it is strictly a weapon-based art but this is incorrect.

KOBUDO KAKE: a weapons rack.

KODO TO SHINDO: the old way and the new way. The Okinawans use this phrase to denote an ancient technique with a new interpretation. Okinawan instructors also indicate that the old ways were good for the time but one tends to improve the style without changing it.

KODOKAN: The headquarters for Judo located in Tokyo, Japan; the headquarters dojo of Shinpo Matayoshi's Ryukyu Kobudo Association; the headquarters dojo for the All Japan Karatedo Association located in Fussa City, Tokyo, Japan.

KODOKAN JUDO: The style of jujutsu founded by Jigoro Kano in 1882. Although it was originally created as an organization of traditional jujutsu, it quickly became a unique art. Due to the fact that Kano was both intelligent and highly educated, his Judo was systematically organized making it very easy to learn. Old jujutsu, as well as older karate, have a tendency to present their techniques in a very disorganized manner with one lesson having no relationship to the previous one. Kodokan Judo is also responsible for the introduction of the kyu-dan ranking system and the modern keiko-gi (training uniform). Due to its success, many other martial arts system have adopted its teaching methods, concepts and principles.

KOFU: dojo traditions.

KOGAN GERI: a kick to the groin with the instep.

KOHAI: behind companion; a junior. This term refers to a junior person in a dojo, fraternity or organization. It is used to refer to someone of lower rank or of the same rank but who has been in the dojo for a shorter period of time. See Sempai.

KOHO: to the rear.

KOI: a carp. On Boy's Day (May 5th) a paper koi is flown from the roof of a home for each son in the family. A multi-colored streamer goes at the top of the pole to represent flowing water.

KOJIKI: Records of Ancient Matters. The oldest book in Japanese history which dates from 712 A.D. The Kojiki is a mythological work somewhat akin to the Bible and contains a creation story of Japan and the lineage of the first 33 emperors.

KOKORO: spirit; heart; will; intention.

KOKUSAI BUDO RENMEI: The International Martial Arts Federation.

KOKUTSU DACHI: a back leaning stance.

KOKYU: breathing; with the mind and body coordinated.

KON: (k) staff. The original term used by Okinawans to identify a fighting staff. This term, which is actually a Chinese word, fell out of favor during the 1930's when the Japanese invaded China. During this period of time, the militant Dai Nippon Butokukai (Greater Japan Martial Virtue Association) indicated to the Okinawans that in order for their indigenous Okinawan martial art to become Japanese, that they would have to rename anything that had a Chinese flavor to it. At this time the term kon was dropped and the word bo was formally accepted. Instead of Sakugawa-no-kon, the Okinawans called it Sakugawa-no-bo.

KONBAN WA: Good evening; good night.

KONNICHI WA: good day; good afternoon; do not use toward a senior, to members of your own dojo or to a person you have greeted earlier in the day.

KORYU: ancient or traditional; classical martial arts traditions, schools or styles.

KOSA: cross; crossed.

KOSA DACHI: cross stance.

KOSA GERI: a cross kick.

KOSA UKE: cross block involving one hand in the middle blocking position and the other hand in the low blocking position.

KOSHI: ball of the foot; the hip.

KOSHI NAGE: hip throw.

KOSHI O IRERU!: Put the hips into it! A favorite saying of Choshin Chibana (1885-1969).

KOSHU RENSHU: a special class for students that are being tested for rank. Koshu renshu usually covers a particular skill that is not extensively practiced in daily training. Sometimes koshu takes the form of lectures concerning the history and philosophy of the art. These lectures are called kamoku.

KOTE: the wrist; also called tekubi.

KOTE GAESHI/KOTE MAWASHI: a wrist twist.

KOTEKITAE/KOTEKITAI: strengthening the body; a method that teaches physical and mental endurance through body pounding techniques involving hand and leg blocks.

KOTEKITE: strengthening the arms; a method often called "arm pounding" that is used to condition the arms for blocking. It builds blocking power through contact with a training partner.

KOTOWAZA: proverbs. Okinawan, like people everywhere, have their favorite proverbs. Here are three of my favorite: A protruding nail gets hammered down. When in a village, do as the villagers do. Travelers are shameless.

KUBI: the neck.

KUBIWA: to encircle the neck; to throw an opponent by wrapping your arm around his neck.

KUCHI: the mouth.

KUCHI BUSHI: a mouth warrior; a derogatory term meaning an individual who just talks about being a warrior. Even as Gichin Funakoshi often said, "even today, these kuchi bushi are as common as grains of sand on a beach."

KUMANKAI KUWA/KUMANKAI MENSORE: (h) Come here!

KUMI-BO: (k) a method of sparring using a wooden staff; other methods used would include kumibo-sai, kumibo-tuifa and kumibo-kama.

KUMI-ODORI: a weapon's dance performed by two or more exponents at Okinawan festivals.

KUMITE: a meeting of the hands; sparring. In kumite there are three methods of showing initiative-sen (meaning initiating the attack), go-no-sen (counter attacking), and sen-no-sen (meaning starting after one's opponent but finishing first). The various methods of kumite include: gobon kumite; sanbon kumite; ippon kumite; bunkai kumite; kihon kumite; oyo bunkai kumite; yakusoku kumite; kiso kumite; kakie kumite; jiyu ippon kumite; kaishu kumite, shiai kumite; randori kumite and bogu kumite.

KUNETI: (h) please forgive me.

KUNIGAMI: (h) the Northern district of the island of Okinawa. People from this district were teased by being called a yanbara or "a country bumpkins."

KUNIYOSHI MASAYOSHI: the most famous student of Kitoku Sakiyama. Bushi Kuniyoshi was a Naha-te practitioner who specialized in punching techniques. He is most noted for his sai weaponry with his Kuniyoshi sai 1-2-3 being practiced throughout Okinawa.

KURO OBI: The black belt. The first black belts were awarded by Gichin Funakoshi on April 12, 1924. Seven Japanese students received the shodan award. They included Otsuka, Tokuda, Akiba, Shimizu, Hirose, Gima and Kasuya.

KUWA(KE): (k) a farming implement, the hoe. This particular weapon is practiced by the Matayoshi
school of Ryukyu Kobudo.

KUZUSHI: balance; to break or upset the balance; to destroy the posture of an opponent; the initial move of breaking the balance in a throwing technique.

KYAN CHOTOKU: (1870-1945) was an Okinawan Shuri-te karate expert. Kyan was first taught tode by his father while he was still a teenager. Kyan was trained by four noted instructors: Sokon Matsumura of Shuri; Kosaku Matsumora of Naha; Ankoh Itosu also of Shuri; and Pechin Kokan Oyadomari of Naha. Kyan learned rapidly, absorbing both Shuri-te and Tomari-te; his Chinto kata was said to have been flawless. He taught eight kata: ananko (a personal kata devised by Kyan while living on Formosa), wanshu (from Saneida), naihanchi (from Itosu), chinto (from Kosaku Matsumora), patsai (from Kokan Oyadomari), kusanku (from Chatan Yara), seisan and gojushiho (both from Sokon Matsumura). Kyan's favorite kata were the chinto, patsai and the Chatanyara Kusanku. He also favored the bo. He was challenged frequently but was never defeated.

KYAN SHINKO: The Kyan Lines. A walking exercise devised by Chotoku Kyan to teach large groups of people. It is composed of six forward and backward motions. Since Kyan favored leg exercises, these training methods stressed leg strengthening techniques. See Itosu Shinko and hoko undo.

KYOBU: (s) the chest.

KYOBU GERI: (s) the chest kick.

KYODA JYUHATSU: (1887-1968) Jyuhatsu Kyoda was born on December 5, 1887. Kyoda began training with Kanryo Higaonna in 1902. A month later, Chojun Miyagi joined the dojo. On March 2, 1934, Kyoda was appointed by the governor of Okinawa to be the karate instructor for the Okinawa Branch of the Dai Nippon Butokukai. On May 4, 1938, he was awarded the Sho Nanai Award by Emperor Hirohito. After his retirement in 1944, Kyoda moved to mainland Japan and lived in Beppu, on the island of Kyushu, until his demise. Kyoda died at 9:00 a.m. on August 3l, 1968, in Beppu City, Kyushu, Japan.

KYOKAI: an association. Kai commonly means "a group" and kyo means "cooperation." So a kyokai means people working together for a similar goal.

KYOSEI: a student teacher.

KYOSHI: teacher; a title awarded by an association to an individual holding the rank of seventh or eighth dan.

KYOSHI MENKYO: a teaching license. A specific certificate, written in Japanese, stating that an individual is authorized to teach a particular style.

KYU: class. The lowest ranking system under the black belt rank. The kyu ranks are called mudansha meaning ungraded. Typically, the system is based on a 10-kyu system with the 10-kyu being the lowest and 1-kyu being the highest.

KYU-CHO: the senior mudansha in a dojo.

KYUDO: the way of the bow and arrow. The study of archery as a way of life.

KYUSHO: the vital points of the body.

KYUSHO-JUTSU: vital point(s) art. The following are the kyusho-jutsu points as taught in Okinawa and are especially worked with by the followers of Motobu-ryu:
1. tendo (the crown of the head) 2. komekame (the temple
3. mimi (the ears)
4. miken (the summit of the nose by the forehead)
5. gansei (the eyeballs
6. jinche (the philtrum, under the nose)
7. mikazuki (the jaw)
8. hichu (the base of the throat)
9. danchu (the sternum)
10. suigetsu (the solar plexus)
11. ganchu (the spot below the nipples)
12. denko (spot between the 7th and 8th ribs - over the heart)
13. kinteki (the testicles)
14. fukuto (outside part of the lower thigh)
15. hizakansetsu (the knee joint
16. uchikuobushi (inside the ankle joint)
17. kori (upper surface of the instep)
18. keichu (the nape of the neck)
19. shofu (the side of the neck)
20. jinzo (the kidney)
21. hijizume (the elbow joint
22. kanzo (the liver)
23. kote (the wrist or back of the lower forearm)
24. bitei (the coccyx)
25. shuko (the back of the hand)

KYUSHU: The southern most island of Japan and home of the Satsuma Clan. The Satsuma Clan, of Kagoshima, invaded Okinawa in 1609.

========== M ==========

MA: distance; an interval.

MA-AI: spacing; combative distance; the proper spacing between two partners; this varies according to the height of the practitioners and whether they are holding weapons.

MABUNI KENWA: (1889-1952) The founder of Shito-ryu karatedo, one of the four major styles of Japan. Mabuni was a student of Kanryo Higaonna and Ankoh Itosu. He merged both styles together to form his own style which he called Shito-ryu. The name Shito comes from his two main teachers. In the Okinawan dialect, Itosu is pronounced as Shi-shu and Higaonna is pronounced as To-on-na. The Shi (Itosu) and To (Higaonna) formed the name Shito. His senior students include Kanei Mabuni, Manzo Iwata, Kosei Kokuba, Ryusho Sakagami, Chojiro Tani and Kanei Uechi (who has the only Shito-ryu school on Okinawa). The Shito style is presently headed by his son, Kanei Mabuni.

MACHI YAKKO: street gangs found on Okinawa after World War II.

MACHU: (g) the nickname of Chojun Miyagi (1888-1953), founder of Okinawan style gojuryu karatedo.

MAE/SHOMEN: front.

MAE GERI: front kick.

MAE GERI KEAGE: front kick snap.

MAE GERI KEKOMI: front kick thrust.

MAE TOBI GERI: front jump kick.

MAKI: a type of certificate in the form of a scroll.

MAKIMONO: a scroll.

MAKIWARA: coiled rope. A straw punching pad used in karate to develop power. The makiwara is attached to an often mounted, flexible, wooden post or wall. The student practices punching and kicking techniques on the makiwara to harden the striking areas of the hands and feet. This punching board is used in the training of focus or focusing of body strength. The true makiwara is a board wrapped with coarse straw rope, hence the meaning of makiwara - a coiled rope.

MAKOTO: truthfulness; being sincere and honest. This was constantly stressed by Choshin Chibana in his lectures. This is the fourth moral and ethical value as taught in Okinawan karatedo.

MANJI: a Buddhist symbol resembling a swastika.

MANJI SAI: the Japanese word for a nunte; a weapon devised by Shinken Taira based on the swastika symbol.

MAJIMAN-ISHI: (h) These are stones often sold at shrines and are used for the protection against devils or bad omens. An Okinawan version of a ‘mojo’ stone.

MATAYOSHI KOBUDO: Matayoshi kobudo was originated through the teachings of Shinko Matayoshi. Presently, it is one of four schools of Okinawan weaponry that is affiliated with the All Okinawa Karatedo Association. The present headmaster is Shinpo Matayoshi who is ranked a Hanshi in Ryukyu kobudo.

Weaponry Presently Taught: 1. Matayoshi style bo-jutsu (3, 4, 6 and 8 foot bo) 2. Matayoshi style sai-jutsu (2 and 3 sai techniques) 3. nunchaku-jutsu 4. sanchaku-jutsu (three sectional nunchaku)
5. tunqwa-jutsu (tuifa-jutsu)
6. nunte-jutsu
7. suruchin-jutsu (weighted rope)
8. tinbe-jutsu (turtle shield and small spear)
9. kama-jutsu (two sickle methods)
10. eku-jutsu (Okinawan oar methods)
11. tettsu-jutsu (iron staff methods)
12. tekko-jutsu (iron fist methods)
13. kuwa-jutsu or kuwa-no-te (a handheld farming hoe)

MATAYOSHI SHINKO: (1888-1947) was born in Kakinohana Village, Naha City. During the height of his prowess, Shinko was known to have dedicated himself to both physical and spiritual training. By the end of the Meiji era, Shinko had traveled to the far reaches of Hokkaido, Karafuto, Manchuria, Shanghai, Fukushu and Taiwan. He was so well respected by the martial arts practitioners of Okinawa that he was often called, Kama Matayoshi. This nickname was based on his extraordinary skill with the kama. In 1947, Shinko Matayoshi passed away at the age of 59. His successor is his son, Shinpo Matayoshi.

MATAYOSHI SHINPO: (1922 - 1997) Matayoshi began his weapons training in Kawasaki, Japan, shortly after World War II. He remained in Japan until 1960 when he returned to Okinawa. Upon his return he did not open a dojo but taught in a number of Okinawan training halls. His main training hall was in the dojo of gojuryu master, Seiko Higa. By 1969 the spread of Okinawan style weaponry and the need for this specialize knowledge was being felt by all martial artist not only in Okinawa but also in Japan. At this time Shinpo opened up his first real Okinawan kobudo training hall, the KODOKAN. From his father's name, Shinko, he took the character "KO" (meaning light) and called his dojo, "The house that Lights the Way." Presently, his son, Matayoshi Yasushi (1965) is the chief instructor of the Kodokan and president of the Okinawa Prefecture branch of the Butokukai.

MATSUBAYASHI-RYU: one of the four main Okinawan styles and presently headed by Shoshin Nagamine (1907-1997), Hanshi 10-Dan. This style is based on the teachings of Bushi Matsumura, Chojun Miyagi and Chotoku Kyan. Nagamine often stated that his style was formed on the day he was born. The matsubayashi-ryu kata taught at Nagamine's Kodokan Dojo include the following: fukyu kata 1-2, pinan 1-2-3-4-5, naihanchi 1-2-3, ananku, rohai, wankan, patsai, gojushiho, chinto and kusanku.

MATSUMURA SEITO KARATEDO: a shorinryu style founded by Hohan Soken (1889-1982) based on the teachings of his uncle, Nabe Matsumura. Nabe Sensei was the grandson of Sokon "Bucho" Matsumura. The Matsumura Seito kata will include the following: Hakutsuru, naihanchi 1-2, pinan 1-2, gojushiho, kusanku, chinto, seisan, and rohai 1-2-3.

MATSUMURA SHORINRYU KARATEDO KYOKAI: The Matsumura Shorinryu Karatedo Association headed by Seiki Aragaki (born 12-01-1923) and a senior student of Hohan Soken.

MATSUMURA SOKON: (1809-1901) Matsumura was born in Shuri- Yamakawa village, Okinawa, and was the chief bodyguard for the 17th, 18th and 19th king's of Okinawa. The Okinawan king sent Matsumura to Fukien, China, on at least two occasions. While in China he used the name Bu Seitatsu and studied not only the empty hand fighting arts but also Chinese weaponry. After-wards, the king sent Matsumura to Kagoshima, Japan, to study the martial arts under Ishuin Yashichiro of the Satsuma Clan. Matsumura is most remembered for his sai and bo weaponry and for the Matsumura Patsai (patsai sho in the Chibana style of shorinryu). He died in 1901 and left Ankoh Itosu as his most senior student.

MATTE!: stop; wait.

MAWASHI: circular; round.

MAWASHI GERI: circle kick; round-house kick.

MAWASHI UKE: circular block.

MAWATTE!: A command to turn around.

MEGOSA TAKWA SUN DO: (h) I'll give you a tap on the forehead.

MEIJI: the Meiji era from 1886 until 1912; the Emperor of Japan during this period was Meiji.

MEIJIN: a title given to the leading genius of a martial arts field; a great master; a magician.

MEIKYO SHI SUI: A bushi maxim meaning "a bright mirror calmly reflects the world but is not changed by it."

MEISHI: a business card; a calling card. The Okinawans consider it vital that people know the name, rank, position, and relative standing of anyone they meet in order to use the right level of language and appropriate behavior toward them. Normally, the younger or lower ranking person offers his or her name card first (turned so that the other person can read it immediately). It is impolite to hand out cards that have been written on or damaged.

MEISHIN: superstitions. Most of the Okinawan superstitions concern numbers or dates and directions. The two unluckiest numbers in Okinawa are four and nine. The Japanese word for "four" is shi and is pronounced like the word that means "death." Ku, the word for "nine," suggests suffering. Thirteen is also an unlucky number (perhaps because it is unlucky in the West). As a result of these superstitions, many hotels in Japan and Okinawa do not have rooms numbered four, nine or thirteen. Unlucky days include the 4th and the 14th. The luckiest days of the month are the 15th and the 28th, and these are good days for beginning new projects and strarting trips. Unlucky ages are 19, 33 and 42. In the Zodiac, the Year of the Horse and Monkey are considered unlucky. With directions, the best are east and south. The unluckiest are north and northeast. Many people today are still concerned about which way their houses face and where the doors are.

MEN: the head area.

MENKYO: a certificate; teacher's licenses. Menkyo are given to those who have been judge to have the ability to pass the art to others without distortion or compromising the integrity of the techniques. Menkyo are sometimes limited. That is, they may state that a person may only teach a certain level of technique or may limit the teaching to the dojo in which the menkyo was issued. But this differs with the Ryu. See shihan.

MENKYO KAIDEN: a certificate of advanced proficiency; a master's teaching license. It is usually earned several years after being issued a Menkyo. A few have skipped the MENKYO position and have gone directly to menkyo kaiden. Many times they are in charge of a territory containing several schools.

MENSORE: (h) Welcome! Please come in! Similar to dozo irrashai in Japanese.

METSUKE: Eye-to-eye contact without focusing on a single point which permits awareness of the total field of vision.

MICHI: the Way; the road; the path. The alternative reading of the word, DO.

MIGI: right.

MIGI ASHI MAE: a command for the right foot forward.

MIKAZUKI: crescent moon; curved.

MIKAZUKI GERI: crescent kick.

MISEKAKE: to catch the gaze; a fake; a feint.

MISOGI: a Shinto purification; a breathing method of inhaling through the nose with a feeling of drawing the air into the top of the head; hold, with a feeling of letting the air settle into the lower abdomen; and exhale through the mouth. A complete cycle should take 30-90 seconds.

MITSU DOMOE: three commas going in a circle; presently, this symbol stands for Okinawa and is often found on karate patches. This emblem/symbol was the crest of the royal family, Sho.

MIYAGI CHOJUN: (04-25-1888 - 10-08-1953) Miyagi started his formal training in 1902 under Kanryo Higaonna. After training in karate for 13 years, Miyagi sailed to China and studied Chinese Kenpo in Foochow City, Fukien Province. In 1937 Miyagi received the title of Karatedo Kyoshi (Teacher of Karatedo) from the Butokukai. In 1953, Miyagi was instructing at the Ryukyu Police Academy in Naha City, Okinawa. He died on October 8, 1953, of a heart attack. He was 65 years old.

MIYAHIRA KATSUYA: (08-16-1918 – 11-28-2010) born in Nishihara City, Okinawa, and is recognized as Choshin Chibana's most senior student and president of Chibana's Okinawa Shorinryu Karatedo Association. He began training under Chibana in 1933 and also received training under Anbun Tokuda and Choki Motobu. He received his Shihan ranking from Chibana in 1948. By 1958 he had been awarded a Kyoshi ranking by the Dai Nippon Butokukai. Chibana promoted him to 8-Dan Kyoshi in 1962 and 9-Dan Hanshi in 1967. When Chibana died in 1969, Miyahira became the president of the Association with Chozo Nakama (Hanshi 9-Dan) and Shugoro Nakazato (Hanshi 9-Dan) serving as vice-presidents. His senior student (as of 1991) is Iha Seikichi, Hanshi 10-Dan, who teaches in Lansing, MI.

MIYAMOTO MUSASHI: (1584-1645) also known by his real name of Shinmen Musashi-no-kami Fujiwara Genshin. A famous swordsman and author of Gorin-no-Sho.

MIYAZATO EIICHI: (1922 - 1999) began training in gojuryu under Chojun Miyagi in 1935. During World War II he resided in Manchuria "working." Upon his return to Okinawa he became an assistant instructor under Miyagi. Miyagi's dojo was located at the family home in Tsuboya, Naha. Upon Miyagi's death in 1953, Miyazato continued to teach at the Miyagi residence until he opened his own dojo in 1957. The Jundokan, located in Asato, was rebuilt in 1969 and is still in operation and with Miyagi's original training equipment still in use. Presently, Miyazato is ranked a Hanshi in his Okinawa Gojuryu Karatedo Association and a 6-Dan in Kodokan Judo.

MIZU: water.

MODOTTE!: A command to return to the original position. An example is when a class or student continues to make errors in the performance of kata, the student or class may be asked to return to the original position without finishing the kata.

MOICHIDO!: One more time!

MOKUROKU: catalogue. Also a scroll which contains the densho and some esoteric principles, the full meaning of which were transmitted orally.

MOKUSO!: Meditate!

MOKUSO: "meditation" or "quiet contemplation." The purpose of mokuso is to achieve mental and physical quiet and tranquility before and after training. The Okinawans believe that the primary purpose of meditation before training is to prepare the mind and clear it for a disciplined and rigorous work out. An individual should throw everything out of their mind before training so as to be more receptive to information and techniques that will be forthcoming.

First, the student concentrates on breathing in the lower abdomen. Later, the student practices as if his mind has stopped. One must empty his mind and keep it totally clear. The student tries to focus his mind on training and to develop a clean slate so as to absorb the information that will be taught. This clean slate is also referred to as no mindedness or mushin.

This mushin state is an ideal state of mind in which to face your opponent. So, in reality, meditation is preparing your mind for training, for opponents, and for life. Of course, there are many different levels of mushin, and it takes years of training to use it effectively.

At the end of training, an individual is usually very tired. Therefore, the student should once again clear their mind. Although they are tired, meditation can not only clear their mind but also relax their spirit. The student should therefore try to integrate this mentality and keep it in their daily life. One eventually learns how to instantly develop this mentality even in a combat situation.

MON: a family crest; on a kimono it appears in five places: on both breasts, on the back of both sleeves and in the center of the back. On a man's kimono the mon are about 1.5" in diameter; on a woman's kimono they are about half that size. Note: the stenciled mon are considered to be much more formal than embroidered mon.

MONDO: a class period consisting of questions and answers.

MONO UCHI: (k) the tapered end of a wooden fighting staff.

MOROTE: with both hands; with one arm helping the other.

MOSHI MOSHI: hello.

MOTOBU CHOKI: (1871-1944) a famous Okinawan pugilist and street fighter. Although born to nobility, Motobu was a brawler and was forced to leave Okinawa in 1921. He settled in Osaka, Japan, and worked as a security guard until he was recognized as an Okinawan "karate boxer." He taught karate-jutsu for several years but never founded a school or system. He returned to Okinawa in 1939 but with a changed attitude and disposition. By the time of his death in 1944, he was considered a genuine karate expert. He favored three kata, naihanchin shodan, patsai and gojushiho. He authored a small booklet in 1926 entitled Ryukyu Kempo Karate-jutsu Kumite-hen (Ryukyu Boxing Art of Karate-jutsu and Sparring Techniques). His favorite saying was "defend the center of the body and learn to attack the center of the body."

MOTOBU-RYU: a style of Okinawan karate founded by Seikichi Uehara (1904 – 2004) in 1961. Uehara was a student of Choyu Motobu, the elder brother of Choki Motobu. Originally, the art was called goten-te (palace hand) which was an art of the Imperial family of Okinawa. It has many grappling and throwing techniques. It also makes use of the sword, spear and halbert.

MUCHIMI: (h)(g) heavy, sticky hands; various methods of arm/hand conditioning involving grappling or blocking.

MUDANSHA: ungraded; those individuals under the rank of black belt. The rank structure can run from 10-kyu (the lowest karatedo rank) which wears a white belt to 1-kyu (the highest rank under the black belt level) which would wear a brown belt.

MUNEN MUSHIN: no regrets, no thoughts; to strike without conscience.

MUNEN MUSO: no regrets, no plans; the impassive state of mind that is the goal of zazen; to strike without conscience or goals.

MURASAME: a pressure point on each side of the throat behind the MUSHA SHUGYO: a knight errantry; in the Okinawan context, this refers to a bushi wandering from dojo to dojo to test his strength and hone his skills. During his younger years, Chojun Miyagi did this not only in Okinawa but also in mainland China.

MUSHIN: without thought; no mindedness.

MUSO: without a plan; a state of mind where one fights without a plan is a common goal of all traditional ryu.

MUSUBI DACHI: an informal stance with the heels touching and the feet open.

MUZUKASHII!: This is difficult!

MUZUKASHII, NE?: This is difficult, isn't it?

========== N ==========

NAFUDA-KAKE: the name boards in a dojo that list the members of the dojo or association.

NAGAMINE SHOSHIN: (1907-1997) was ranked as a Hanshi 10-Dan and the originator of Matsubayashi-ryu (commonly called shorinryu) in 1947. A former student of Chotoku Kyan, Chojun Miyagi and Choki Motobu. After his the death of his father in 1997, Nagamine Takayoshi became the Chief Instructor of the World Shorinryu Karatedo Association. The Matsubayahisryu Kodokan Dojo is presently being run by his son, Takayoshi Nagamine, Hanshi 9-Dan.

NAGAMINE TAKAYOSHI: (born 08/12/1945) the son of Nagamine Shoshin and presently ranked an Hanshi 10-Dan. He is the head instructor at his late father's dojo in Naha, the Kodokan. Nagamine speaks excellent English having spent approximately eight years in the U.S.

NAGASHI UKE: a sweeping or sliding block.

NAGE: to throw.

NAHA: the capital city of modern Okinawa Prefecture.

NAHA-TE: the Hand of Naha. A style of fighting originating in the vicinity of Naha. Kanryo Higaonna is often associated with the style which is noted for its heavy, powerful techniques and emphasizes breathing.

NAIWAN: the bottom surface of the arm; the ulna side of the arm.

NAKA: the center.

NAKA KEZURI: the intermediate level in the study of Okinawan karatedo. In this level, the techniques can now be compared to reaching the middle of the ladder or middle of the climb. The student begins to feel confident in his or her ability, polishing what they have been practicing and developing an understanding of the techniques. Here they become more inquisitive. In this state of learning karate, many hours are spent in front of a mirror as the student checks for proper stance, position of the blocks, the angles of punching, kicking, and other moves. This period is particularly difficult because the student feels their training is becoming routine.

NAKADAKA IPPON KEN: a fist with the middle knuckle extended.

NAKAGAMI: (h) The middle or center district of Okinawa.

NAKAIMA: this moment in real time; the eternal present.

NAKAIMA KENKO: (born 11-02-1911) the present headmaster of Ryuei-ryu Karate and Kobudo Preservation Society. His dojo is called the Ryuhokan Honbu Dojo and is located in Nago City, Okinawa. Nakaima originally learned Ryuei-ryu as a family style from his father, Kenchu Nakaima. Presently, Nakaima only teaches kobudo at the family dojo with his senior student, Tsuguo Sakumoto, running the dojo as its chief instructor.

NAKAMA CHOZO: (1899-1982) a senior student of Choshin Chibana and was one of the five individuals promoted to Hanshi 9-Dan by Chibana. Nakama was also called Kaka (one who stutters) Nakama and received training under Ankoh Itosu, Kenwa Mabuni and Choki Motobu. Nakama was vice-president of Chibana's Okinawa Shorinryu Karatedo Association and died a Hanshi 10-Dan in 1982. Beside the 13 Chibana katas, Nakama also taught his versions of wansu, seisan and gojushiho.

NAKAMURA SHIGERU: (1892-1969) The originator of Okinawan Kenpo Karatedo. In l913 Nakamura began his karate training at the First Middle School, called Iichu, in Shuri. The dojo instructors at the club were Chomo Hanashiro and Kentsu Yabu. Once a week, Kanryo Higaonna, taught some members privately, including Nakamura. Following his graduation, Nakamura studied with yet another noted karate master, Shinkichi Kuniyoshi, a Peichin (Knight) of the Ryukyuan King, Sho. Nakamura returned to his home town of Nago City to teach his interpretation of karate, calling it Okinawa Kenpo Karate-jutsu.

NAKAMURA TAKETO: (born 01/02/1934) the son of Shigeru Nakamura and presently ranked an 8-Dan kyoshi in Okinawan kenpo. Upon the death of his father, Taketo became the headmaster of the Okinawa Kenpo Karatedo Federation. He works as a mechanic and runs the honbu dojo in Nago, Okinawa.

NAKASONE GENWA SEIYU: (1893-1983) the last pure Tomari-te expert and student of Kotatsu Iha (1873-1928). Iha was a senior practitioner under Kosaku Matsumora (1829-1898). Nakasone taught naihanchin 1-2-3, chinto, rohai, patsai, kusanku, wanshu, wankan and rinkan. He was nicknamed "Kaka" Nakasone. In the Okinawan dialect, "Kaka" refers to one who stammered. He was a furniture maker by profession and although he had a difficult time talking, he was considered a genius by his peers and an equal to Choshin Chibana and Chojun Miyagi. He and his friend, Kenwa Mabuni, co-authored one book, Kobo Kempo Karatedo Nyumon.

NAKAZATO AKIRA/CHIBANA AKIRA: (born 07/31/1942) grandson of Choshin Chibana and no relation to the other mentioned Nakazato's. Since Chibana did not have a male heir, he adopted Nakazato and promoted him to Kyoshi 7-Dan in 1965. When adopted, Nakazato's name was officially registered as Chibana Akira. When Chibana died in 1969, Nakazato felt that he did not have the rank or experience to assume the leadership of Chibana's organization, the Okinawa Shorinryu Karatedo Association. In March of 1969 he turned over the Association seals (hanko) to Chibana's senior student, Miyahira Katsuya. At the same time, Chibana Akira changed back to his original name, Nakazato Akira.

NAKAZATO JOEN: (born 04/13/1922) the originator of Okinawa Shorinji-ryu and senior living student of Kyan Chotoku. Presently, he is the president of the All Okinawa Karatedo Association and headmaster of his own association, the All Okinawa Shorinji-ryu Karatedo Association. Nakazato (no relation to the other mentioned Nakazato's) instructs at his Chinen, Okinawa, dojo and is a retired school teacher. He teaches only the katas that were passed on by Kyan and stresses power in kata and makiwara training. See shorinji-ryu.

NAKAZATO SHUGORO: (born 08/14/1920) the president of the Okinawa Karatedo Shorinryu Shorinkan Association. Began training under Seiichi Iju (Shuri-te) in July of 1935 while attending school in Osaka, Japan. He entered the Chibana dojo in June of 1946 and became an assistant instructor in 1949. Was awarded the rank of Shihan by Chibana on January 10, 1954. He opened the Shorinkan Karate Dojo on May 6, 1955 in the Aja section of Naha. He was promoted to Kyoshi 8-Dan by the Okinawa Karatedo Association in 1960 and to Hanshi 9-Dan by Chibana in 1967. Presently ranked as a Hanshi 10-Dan by his Association. He was the 5th individual to be promoted to Hanshi 9-Dan by Chibana Sensei and the youngest at the age 46.

NANAME: angular; at the angle; diagonal.

NAMI ASHI: wave foot.

NAN DESU KA?: What is it?

NANA KOROBI YA OKI: A bushi maxim meaning "if you fall down seven times, get up eight times." One of the favorite sayings of Chojun Miyagi.

NANI?: What?

NAORE!: Return to your original position.

NAOSHITE!: A command to correct your position.

NAOTTE!: A command to be at ease or relax.

NARANDE!: A command to line up.

NEKO ASHI DACHI: the cat foot stance.

NIDAN GERI: two time kick; double jump kick.

NIF WE DE BIRU: (h) ‘Thank you’ in the Okinawan dialect.

NIGIRI GAME: turtle jar(s); gripping jars. Initially, one uses empty jars for training. After spending some time doing nigiri game training, gradually make them heavier by putting sand in the jars. Add more sand as your physical strength improves. After building up some gripping power, used the jars with a straight mouth. After acquiring more gripping power, oil the mouths of the jars to make them slippery. To build up your gripping power, practice gripping tennis balls or small, smooth stones.

NIHON/NIPPON: Japan.

NIHONGO: the Japanese language. Present-day Japanese is based on five vowels (a, i, u, e, o) and one additional sound, n. Words are made up of syllables that are always open, and they never end in a consonant, which is why the Japanese have a difficult time pronouncing English.
It should also be remembered that in Japanese there is no difference between singular and plural. You can have one dojo and several dojo but never several dojos. {But, to make it easier on students, I will use the plural from time to time -ed}

NIHONJIN: a Japanese person.

NIN: to endure or "to persevere unto heaven."

NIPPON KARATE KYOKAI: the Japan Karate Association. A style of karate based on the teachings of Ankoh Itosu and Ankoh Azato founded by Gichin Funakoshi.

NIPPON KOBUDO SHINKOKAI: The Organization for the Preservation of the Japanese Traditional Martial Ways; this organization have held annual demonstrations since 1935 in Tokyo of the traditional martial arts and Ways.

NIPPON-TO: a Japanese sword.

NITEN-RYU BOJUTSU: a style of weaponry founded by Kanken Toyama (1888-1966). See Kanken Toyama.

NITTEN SOJI: daily cleaning. The daily care and cleaning of the dojo by the students. This is a privilege and not a requirement.

NOREN: a curtain hanging over the entrance of a business establishment. It usually has three panels.

NOSHI: the small symbol on the upper corner of a shugi bukuro (a money envelope) that represents a wrapped slice of awabi (abalone). This type of dried fish was a traditional gift, so the symbol is used to conceal the fact that the envelope contains money (a vulgar item to the Okinawa bushi). If a proper envelope is not available, the hiragana for "noshi" is written on a plain, white envelope.

NUKITE: spear hand.

NUNCHAKU: a wooden flail consisting of two lengths of wood joined by a cord. Because weapons were banned through part of their history, many inhabitants of the Ryukyuan Islands defended themselves with everyday items.

NUNCHAKU-JUTSU: The art of the flail developed from an instrument used to beat grain from the stalks into baskets. Most modern practitioners of the art use two hardwood sticks of about one shaku in length tied with rope, horsehair or chain. The wooden flail develops the grip, wrist and the deltoids.

NUNCHAKU-JUTSU (NON-STANDARD): Most Japanese karate students are very familiar with the standard nunchaku. However, very few are familiar with the san-setsu-kon nunchaku (three piece nunchaku) or the yon-setsu-kon nunchaku (four piece nunchaku). These two types of nunchaku have long seen use in Okinawa.

NUNTE: The Okinawan people living close to the ocean were able to convert several tools used in fishing to kobudo weapons. The first of these is the nunte-bo. The nunte-bo was used as a fish-gaffing tool with the metal point of the nunte-bo being called the nunte. It is used in pairs like the sai. In Japan this weapon is called the manji-sai, but in Okinawa it is referred to as the nunte. The name of a famous kata with the nunte-bo is nukite-bo or "spear-bo."

NUYAGA?: (h) What is it?

========== O ==========

O: great; big; large.

O GENKI DESU: the polite form of "I am healthy/well."

O GENKI DESU KA?: the polite form of "Are you healthy?"

O-CHA: Japanese green tea.

O-DORI: a dance. The most popular Okinawan dances resemble karate techniques and movements. They include the Ogamite (praying hand), Konerite (twisting hand), and Osute (pushing hand) Odori.

OBAN/OBON: the second most important festival for Okinawans. It occurs on the 15th and 16th days of the seventh lunar month. Okinawans believe that the souls of the dead return to their earthly homes during the Oban festival to see how the descendants are getting along. Oban is a colorful holiday devoted to family reunions and recreation so that the departed may see unity and joy.

OBI: the belt. A sash or belt used to tie a Japanese clothing. In the martial arts it may indicate stages in one's attainment of the art. Other terms used with obi are: shiro obi: a white belt, this refers to a beginner. Iro obi: a color belt, this refers to a more experienced student. Micari obi: a green belt. Cha obi: a brown belt. Kuro obi: a black belt. Aka kuro obi: a red and black belt. Aka-shiro obi: a red and white belt. Aka obi: a solid red belt. The belt system was devised by Jigoro Kano; it is a tradition that the belt is never to be washed lest the knowledge is washed out.

OBI MUSUBI: the knot on a belt.

ODO SEIKICHI: (07/26/1927 – 03/24/2002) Okinawa Kenpo Karatedo and Kobudo headmaster. Resided in Agena, Okinawa, and was ranked a 10-Dan. He was a former student of Nakamura Shigeru. Odo ran the Shudokan school of Okinawan Kenpo which also served as the headquarters for the Okinawa Kenpo Karatedo League. Odo was also a former student of Matayoshi Shinko and had incorporated the Matayoshi school of kobudo in his method of Okinawan kenpo. Upon his death in 2002, his son, Odo Susumu, assumed the leadership of the Shudokan and of the association.

OHAYO GOZAIMASU: Good morning (before 10 a.m.). This is a polite form of hayai, so it should be used for the first arrivals only. Do not use for someone who arrives later than the majority.

OI-ZUKI: a lunge punch.

OJIGI: bowing; the traditional way of greeting people and saying farewell, as well as showing respect. Generally speaking, the lower the bow and the longer it is held, the stronger its implications. The higher the rank of the person receiving the bow, the lower the bow tends to be. When the bow is in the form of an apology, then the trunk of the body may be bowed as low as a 90 degree angle. The best way to learn how to bow is by watching how the Okinawans do it in different situations.

OKINAWA: "rope in the offing;" or "big island;" the main island of the Ryukyuan Chain. Okinawa is approximately 45 square miles with a length on about 67 miles and a width varying between 3 and 14 miles. The prefecture of Okinawa is made up of 60 islands, in four major groups, and is 685 kilometers south of Kyushu. Naha is the largest city, the capital, and the political, economic, and cultural center of the prefecture. Its population is rapidly approaching half a million. The second largest city in Okinawa is Okinawa City (formerly Koza City), located in the central part of the island, 24 kilometers northeast of Naha. The U.S.'s Kadena Air Base is located there, which is where most of the American GIs go for shopping and recreation.

OKINAWA KARATEDO KYOKAI: The Okinawa Karatedo Association founded in May of 1956. The organization consisted of the four major systems of Okinawan karatedo centered around the cities of Naha and Shuri. The four styles were: shorinryu headed by Choshin Chibana; gojuryu headed by Seiko Higa; Uechi-ryu headed by Kanei Uechi; and Matsubayashi-ryu headed by Shoshin Nagamine. The first president of the Association was Choshin Chibana. The present president is Joen Nakazato, Shorinji-ryu Hanshi 10-Dan.

OKINAWA KARATEDO SHORINRYU SHORINKAN KYOKAI: An association formed in 1978 by a former student of Choshin Chibana, Shugoro Nakazato, Shorinryu Hanshi 10-Dan. The association has 16 dojos in Okinawa and Japan and affiliate dojos in the U.S., Europe and Africa.

OKINAWA KENPO KARATEDO: A style of karate founded by Shigeru Nakamura (1892-1969). Presently, the system teaches the following kata: naihanchin 1-2-3, pinan 1-2-3-4-5, wansu, ananku, seisan, gojushiho sho and dai, niseishi, patsai, chinto, kusanku and sanchin. This style is commonly referred as a shorinryu based art.

OKINAWA SHORINRYU KARATEDO KYOKAI: An organization formed by Choshin Chibana in 1961 and is presently headed by his senior student, Katsuya Miyahira, Shorinryu Hanshi 10-Dan.

OKINAWA SHORINRYU KARATEDO KYUDOKAN SHINKOKAI: The Shorinryu Kyudokan Promotion Society headed by Yuchoku Higa, Shorinryu Hanshi 10-Dan and a senior student of Choshin Chibana.

OKINAWA-TE: the hand of Okinawa; the original name for karate.

OKUDEN: hidden teachings. In the classical martial arts the teachings were layered. The outer layer was sometimes called the Shoden, the middle was called chuden and the secret inner teachings were called the okuden. Okuden are secret techniques or principals of an Art that are passed down to the most senior students. Many times they turn out to be quite ordinary things or may be some esoteric poem or saying which is supposed to contain some message or revelation, often attributed to some heavenly being. Others may be little tricks that make the techniques work simpler and more effectively but are held back so as to keep an edge over the students. {OKU - deep/advanced; DEN - traditions; the level where the GOKUI or HIDEN are explained -ed}.

OKUGI: hidden techniques.

OMEDETO GOZAIMASU!: Congratulations!

OMIYAGE: gifts. Giving gifts in Okinawa is a vital part of social and business obligations. It is always considered polite to initially bring a gift on the first meeting and then giving a "departure" gift on leaving.

OMOIYARI: A bushi maxim meaning "take time to really care about others."

OMOTE: the front.

ON: a favor.

ONAGA YOSHIMITSU: The senior most student of Higa Yuchoku and headmaster of his own Shinjinbukan dojo.

ONDOKU: the Japanese reading of a kanji character which is the Japanese version of the Chinese pronunciation of that character.

ONEGAI-SHIMASU!: I humbly request; please help me. This phrase is commonly spoken to one's training partner prior to ractice.

ONI: a goblin or demon.

ORIGAMI: the art of paper folding; a sword authentication paper.

OSAE: pressing.

OSAE UKE: pressing block.

OSAEKOMI: holding.

OSHI: to push; to stamp a seal.

OSHITE: ‘lets push’; a two person exerices used to develop blocking, kicking and punching skill.

OSHI SHINOBU OSU: A bushi maxim meaning "be patient with yourself and with others."

OSU!: Yes sir! (I understand and will comply); sir (I see that you have entered the room); sir (I have entered the dojo and am ready to train). Osu is a militant short version of ose. Osu was spoken by those of the samurai class as a form of greeting and is still used by the male members of families with a military or martial arts background. In the dojo, osu is often thought of as a contraction for a Japanese expression meaning "I understand and will have patience." For this reason, it's used by both the student and the teacher, each of them approaching patience from a different angle but with equal sincerity. Although osu is commonly heard in most strict dojo, it is a very coarse sounding word and shocking to many well-bred Japanese. On Okinawa, osu is often heard in the training halls where the instructor has either trained or lived in Japan.

OTOSHI: to drop.

OYA NO ON: a bushi maxim meaning "be thankful to your parents."

OYASUMI NASAI: good night (just before bedtime).

OYO BUNKAI: practical analysis of technique.

========== P ==========

PANGAINUN/PANGAINOON: the original name for Okinawa Uechi-ryu Karatedo. Uechi-ryu is one of the four major styles of the Okinawa Karatedo Association.

PECHIN: a former Okinawan rank equivalent to a Japanese samurai.

========== R ==========

RAKU AREIBA-KU ARI: A bushi maxim meaning, "If you have it easy now, you will have it hard later."

RANDORI KUMITE: In this type of sparring each person executes a series of single or combination attacking and counterattacking techniques. The order of execution of each technique is fixed and arranged in advance. The roles of each partner are then reversed and practiced in mirror image, to develop an all-round capability in the execution of each motion and technique.

RANKS/RANKINGS:
Mudansha (Ungraded) -- Under black belt ranks
10-kyu - jukyu - white belt
9-kyu - kukyu - white belt
8-kyu - hachikyu - white belt
7-kyu - nanakyu - white belt
6-kyu - rokkyu - white belt
5-kyu - gokyu - white belt
4-kyu - yonkyu - green belt
3-kyu - sankyu - green belt
2-kyu - nikyu - brown belt
1-kyu - ikkyu - brown belt

Yudansha (Graded) -- the black belt ranks
1-Dan - Shodan - black belt
2-Dan - Nidan - black belt
3-Dan - Sandan - black belt
4-Dan - Yondan - black belt
5-Dan - Godan - black belt
6-Dan - Rokudan - black belt, optional red/white
7-Dan - Nanadan - black belt, optional red/white
8-Dan - Hachidan - black belt, optional red/white
9-Dan - Kudan - black belt, optional red
10-Dan - Judan - black belt, optional red

REI: courtesy. Something that a karate student must always practice. This is the fifth moral and ethical value as taught in Okinawan karatedo.

REI!: bow; A command to "bow." Bowing may be done in a standing (tachirei) or in a sitting position (zarei), before and after class, to the instructor or to each other to express mutual respect, trust and appreciation. Generally speaking, rei is a ritual form of respect and gratitude used by practitioners of the Okinawan martial arts. It must also be remembered that the more serious the art, the more important is the ritual. Other expressions with REI are: SHOMEN NI REI: bow to the front; SENSEI NI REI: bow to the teacher; OTAGAI NI REI: bow to each other.

REIGI SAHO: the rules of etiquette that pertain to bowing. In general, the junior bows first, deepest and the longest.

REIHAI: a deep bow of respect.

REISHIKI: etiquette; training hall etiquette.

RENMEI: a federation; a union; an association.

RENSHI: a forging person; a trainer. Renshi are individuals specifically identified by their teacher as being a qualified instructor capable of opening up their own school/training hall.

RENSHU: forging lesson; to practice either new or already learned skills; shorinryu renshu refers to the physical training aspect. There are two basic kinds of renshu: tandoku renshu (solo practice) and sotai renshu (practice with a partner). See keiko.

RENTAN GOSHIN TODE-JUTSU: a book published by Gichin Funakoshi, the founder of Shotokan, in 1925.

RENZOKU: continuous.

RENZOKU ASHI WAZA: successive leg techniques; a favorite kicking technique used by the leg conditioned Okinawans on Americans.

RENZUKI: combination of successive punching.

RI, GI ITTAI!: Theory and technique are one!

RITSUREI: a standing bow.

ROKKISHU: six hand techniques; Chojun Miyagi developed the kata, Tensho, from the Chinese form of "rokkishu."

ROKUSHAKU-BO: (k) the six foot staff. See bo.

ROKUSHAKU-KAMA: (k) a kama (sickle) attached to a six foot staff.

ROMAJI: the system of writing Japanese words with the English alphabet.

RONBUN: essays.

RONIN: a wave person; a masterless samurai; the name implies someone who is washed about by the "seas of fate."

RYOKEN: both fists.

RYOTE: two hands; both hands.

RYOTE DORI: grabbing with two hands.

RYOWAN: both arms.

RYU: style or school. A suffix used to denote a school or style of a traditional art or discipline. This usage is not restricted to the martial arts. At the beginning of this century, Okinawan karate became more or less standardized in various schools. Presently, the Okinawa Karatedo Association recognizes the following styles and/or systems in what they term as the original and authentic karate of Okinawa.

a. Uechi-ryu b. Ryuei-ryu c. Kojo-ryu (also known as Kogusuku-ryu) d. Ishimine-ryu e. Gojuryu 1. All Okinawa Karatedo Gojuryu Association
2. International Karate and Kobudo League
3. Okinawa Gojuryu Karatedo Association
4. Itokazu-kei Gojuryu Karate Kobudo Kenkyu Association
5. Okinawa Gojuryu Karatedo Meibukai

f. Shorinryu
1. Matsubayashi-ryu
2. Chibana Shorinryu

a. Okinawa Shorinryu Karatedo Association
b. Okinawa Karatedo Shorinryu Shorinkan Association
c. Okinawa Shorinryu Karatedo Kyudokan Association

3. Matsumura Shorinryu

a. Matsumura Shorinryu Karatedo Association
b. Shorinryu Matsumura Seito Okinawa Kobudo Association

4. Okinawa Kenpo

a. Okinawa Kenpo Karatedo League
b. Okinawa Kenpo Karatedo Association

5. Kushin-ryu
6. Ryukyu Shorinryu
7. Chubu Shorinryu
8. Shorinji-ryu
9. Motobu-ryu
10. Isshin-ryu

g. Shito-ryu

1. Shito-ryu Kenpo
2. Shiroma-kei Shito-ryu

RYUEI-RYU: The present headmaster is Kenko Nakaima (born 12/23/1911), Hanshi 10-Dan, with the headquarters being located in Nago City, Okinawa. Ryuei-ryu comes from the teachings of Ryuryu-ko, the same teacher of Kanryo Higaonna. It should be noted that when Miyagi went to China for further training in Chinese boxing, he went with Norisato Nakaima, the grandfather of Kenko Nakaima. Ryuei-ryu teaches eleven kata including the following: sanchin, seisan, niseishi, sanseiryu, seiunchin, ohan, pachu, anan, paiku, heiku and paiho. It also teaches 14 different weapons (sai, kama, renquan, tendei, gekiquan, kon, bisento, yari, tonfa, suruchin, da-jo, nunchaku, tan-son and kusan) all with a definite Chinese flavor. As of 1990, Kenko Nakaima's senior student, Sakumoto Tsuguo, is the Chief Instructor for the Ryuei-ryu Karatedo Kobudo Hozon Kai.

RYU-HA KEIZU: the martial arts school genealogy. Simply stated, those worthy of being called a martial arts practitioner must know their own genealogy.

RYUKYU: Dynasty.

RYUKYU KEMPO TODE-JUTSU KUMITE: The Ryukyuan Boxing Chinese Hand Art Sparring Techniques; a book written by Choki Motobu and published in 1926.

RYUKYU KENPO TODE: the Ryukyu Boxing Chinese Hand; a book written by Gichin Funakoshi, the founder of Shotokan, in 1922.

RYUKYU KOBUDO KENKYUKAI: The Ryukyu Ancient Martial Arts Research Association. An Association of researchers/historians concerned with the martial arts of Okinawa. It was founded in 1970 at the University of the Ryukyus located in Shuri, Okinawa.

RYUKYU KOBU-JUTSU KENKYUKAI: The Ryukyu Ancient Martial Arts Technique Society founded for the promotion and preservation of Okinawan-style weaponry. This organization was founded by Moden Yabiku (1878-1941) in 1925. It was later renamed the Ryukyu Kobudo Shinkokai by Shinken Taira.

RYUKYU KOBUDO SHINKOKAI: The Ryukyu Ancient Martial Arts Preservation Society founded by Shinken Taira (1897-1970) in 1955. The present headmaster is Motokatsu Inoue in Japan and Eiko Akamine in Okinawa. This association deals mainly with weaponry and weapons training.

RYUSO: the founder or a style or system.

========== S ==========

SA!: Let's go!

SABAKI: body movement.

SAGIASHI DACHI: crane-foot stance; commonly referred to as ippon ashi dachi on Okinawa.

SAI: (k) In the Hogen dialect of Okinawan, the word sai means "hairpin(s)." The "hairpins" have always been considered fighting weapons and were never used as an agricultural implement. The Okinawan sai, weighing two to three pounds, can also be considered as an alternative to weight lifting and/or weight training. It is used to develop the grip, wrist, forearms and deltoids. It also helps in developing grabbing and blocking techniques.

SAI-JUTSU: The art of the sai; the most famous sai kata will include the following:

1. Tsuken Shitahaku-no-sai 6. Hantagawa-no-sai
2. Hamahiga-no-sai 7. Jigen-no-sai
3. Tawada-no-sai 8. Kojo-no-sai
4. Chatanyara-no-sai 9. Matsumura-no-sai
5. Yakaa-no-sai 10. Kuniyoshi-no-sai

SAITEN SHIAI: scoring points system. In this type of competition, contestants perform their favorite kata, one at a time. They are awarded points by a referee assisted by four judges. The lowest and highest marks are nullified - except in a tie decision - and the other points are added up to make the score. When there are three or less judges, all the points are added up.

SAKE: a rice wine. It is a common practice for women to place an honorific "O" in front of sake, i.e., O'sake. More polite men may do the same. In sake drinking etiquette, the individual who pours his own or allows his drinking companions to pour their own is considered unlettered or impolite. You fill the other person's cup, and they fill yours. Your cup should always be picked up and held in your hand when the other person is pouring. If someone offers you more sake and your cup is still full, etiquette requires you to at least take a sip from it and then hold it out for refilling (the same goes for beer drinking).

SAKUGAWA TODE: (1733-1815) is usually considered the founder of the Okinawan martial arts centered around the capital city of Shuri, Okinawa. Sakugawa passed on his favored staff fighting techniques in the bo kata, Sakugawa. There are numerous variations of this form.

SAMURAI: a Japanese warrior. The samurai developed a code based on Confucian and Zen Buddhist principles that came to be known as bushido (the way of the warrior). It should be noted that the Okinawans preferred the term bushi in referring to their warrior class.

SAN: the number three; a honorific suffix meaning Mr., Mrs, or Miss (for example, Estrada-san).

SANBON KUMITE: three step sparring (3 jodan, 3 chudan, 3 gedan).

SANCHIN: three battles; three conflicts. The three battles or conflicts involves the coordination of body, mind and spirit in the performance of a kata. This dynamic tension or isometric form is also a "common kata" familiar to gojuryu, Uechi-ryu and shorinryu practitioners. Initially, this kata was practiced, in one form or another, by all mainlined Okinawan styles until the turn of the 20th century. At that time, the kata was purged from the shorinryu styles because it was felt that it was "too strong of a kata" to be practiced by young practitioners who had not fully developed.

SANCHIN DACHI: the three conflicts stance (sometimes referred to as the "hour-glass" stance) involving the conflict of body, mind and spirit. This hour-glass stance is used in the performance of the Okinawan kata, sanchin.

SANCHIN SHIME: testing or assisting of the kata sanchin.

SANDAN KUMITE: three step or three level sparring (1 jodan, 1 chudan and 1 gedan).

SANKA SURU: to join; to participate.

SANKAKU TOBI: triangle leaping; a secret jumping technique used in pre-sparring Okinawa.

SANNIN OKONAEBA KANARAZU WAGA SHI ARI: A bushi maxim taken from the Analects of Confucius: "When I walk along with two others, they may serve me as my teachers. I will select their good qualities and follow them, their bad qualities and avoid them."

SATORI: Spiritual awakening or realization. This term is common in Zen Buddhism.

SATUNUSHI: A former Okinawan rank; equivalent to a page boy.

SAYONARA: Good-bye. Do not use when you are leaving a senior.

SEIKA TANDEN: A bushi maxim meaning "keep a strong center."

SEIKEN: fore fist.

SEIKEN CHOKU TSUKI: fore fist straight punch.

SEIRETSU: A command to "line up" in an orderly fashion. A class lines up before and after the instruction for "mokuso" and "rei."

SEIRI UNDO: supplementary exercises. These exercises can be completed after every training. They are intended to relax the body and mind and to steady the breathing and heartbeat. They help the body to return to a normal state and to recover gradually from the weariness of the training. Incomplete combustion of glucose remains in the muscles, slowing them down and giving a feeling of heaviness. These exercises are intended to burn lactic acid by stimulating the blood circulation and carrying more oxygen to the muscle groups. Thus, these exercises are to be done slowly with a particular emphasis on breathing. They are also followed by a period of meditation to relax the mind and gradually bring it back to its normal state.

SEIRYUTO: ox jaw hand.

SEITO: an orthodox style. The term for any student in a martial arts dojo (a place for studying the Way). The trainee is not considered a student for at least the first year, maybe longer, if the teacher has not made up their mind as to whether to accept the trainee or not.

SEIZA: correct sitting; calm sitting. The classic martial arts sitting posture as used in Okinawa. This is the formal Okinawan way of sitting on the floor with one's knees bent. Seiza literally means to sit correctly and requires that a person sit not rigidly but with his back straight and with an alert feeling.

SEIZA REISHIKI: seating etiquette. There is a specific place of honor in a Japanese-style room that determines the order of seating of guests. This seat of honor, called a kamiza, is the one in front of and nearest to the tokonoma, or beauty alcove. The chief guest sits with his or her back to the tokonoma, with the second ranking guest on his or her left, and the third ranking guest on the other side of the room, facing the first guest. The host sits at the lower end of the room, usually nearest the door. In any situation where two people are sitting side by side, the ranking person is on the left. The wife is always expected to sit on her husband's right.

SEMETE: (g) the attacker.

SEMPAI/SENPAI: previous companion; senior; one's senior in a training hall. It is used to refer to an individual of higher rank or of the same rank but who has longer tenure. The sempai-kohai (senior-junior) relationship is considered very important in Okinawan culture and is found in all areas of life. Okinawans, and Japanese, are always conscious of whether people they meet are above or below them in social status in regards to their seniority. {Generally, there is a senior sempai called a Dai Sempai in a training hall. This individual is the one who has been with the teacher the longest - regardless of their rank. When someone enters who has been with the teacher even longer, that person becomes the Dai Sempai. Generally speaking, anyone who is senior to you is referred to as sempai -ed}.

SEMPAI NI REI!: Bow to the senior student!

SEN: the number 1,000.

SENAHA SHIGETOSHI: (born 01/24/1941) Presently ranked a Hanshi 9-Dan and a senior student of Yagi Meitoku. Started his gojuryu training under Yagi Meitoku of the Meibukan in August of 1958. Received his 9th Dan Hanshi in June of 1987. Formed his own organization, the Ryusyokai around March of 1999. (Personal note: Senaha Dai Sensei is known for his potent awamori and his kindness and his power. An all around gentleman who has his doors open for all interested students wanting to learn. He has two excellent English speaking students presently studying gojuryu and ti – Jimmy East from Canada and Jon Hallberg from Michigan.)

SENSEI: teacher; instructor; professor. "Sen" means before and "sei" means life or "one who has experienced things in life before you have." In essence, a teacher (sensei) is a conduit through which knowledge is passed on from one to another. This is also a term of respect used in addressing one's teacher. This term can be used for any and all teachers of the martial arts. Broadly speaking, it may also apply to anyone who holds a position to guide or instruct another, such as a school teacher, doctor or a lawyer.

SENSEI NI REI!: bow to the teacher. A command given by the senior student to have all the students bow toward the teacher.

SEPPUKU: a ritual form of suicide. The abdomen was cut across and then up the right side, after which the man was beheaded by his second (called the kaishaku). The classical weapon for seppuku was a dagger (tanto) in a wooden scabbard and wrapped in white paper.

SETSU DO MOTSU: A bushi maxim meaning "be strong and know when to bend."

SHAKU: a length of 11.93".

SHAREIROKU: Payments received ledger. The book that contains all the payments made to the headmaster for lessons, seminars, special studies, etc. It also contains all the start and stop dates and rankings earned or given.

SHI: the number four; an alternate reading is death.

SHI-NO-KO-SHO: samurai, farmers, artisans, merchants; the four classes of society during the Edo period. Below these classes were the non-humans such as eta and ninja.

SHIAGE: the advanced level in the study of Okinawan karatedo. In the advanced level the student realizes that the result is worth their effort. The student enjoys karate for self satisfaction, and the long hours of vigorous training have now become a habit. The self esteemed karate student then begins showing other's how to effectively climb the ladder.

SHIAI: contest, match, competition.

SHIAI KUMITE: tournament contest; tournament fighting. In Okinawa "ippon shobu" (one point) matches are run for two minutes. The winner is decided by one judge and one referee who score the competitor's technique by awarding one point for a "clean" technique or two half points for a "close" technique.

The following are the terms used in shiai kumite:
a. Attacking Target (Target areas on a standing body):

1. JODAN (jyoo-dan) includes the face, neck, and head areas.
2. CHUDAN (chuu-dan) includes the chest, side chest, and back area but not the lower trunk.
3. GEDAN (ge-dan) is the lower trunk area.

Other target areas:
1. TOBU (too-bu) includes all of the head area except -

a. GANMEN (ga-n-me-n) which includes face area. Tobu replaces the term ganmen, which usually refers to the head area as well.

2. KEIBU (kei-bu) is the neck area.
3. KYOBU (kyoo-bu) is the chest area.
4. FUKUBU (fukubu) includes the diaphragm, abdomen, and side chest area.
5. HAIBU (hai-bu) means the back area.

b. Technique Terms:

1. TSUKI (tsu-ki) are punching techniques.
2. UCHI (u-chi) are striking techniques.
3. ATE (a-te) are smashing techniques of the elbow and knee.
4. KERI (ke-ri) are kicking techniques.

c. The terms (their meanings and the methods of signalling as used by the referee):

1. SHOBU IPPON (or sanbon) Hajime (shoo-bu ip-pon or san-bon ha-ji-me) shobu means "match." Ippon means "one point" (sanbon means "three points"). Hajime means "start." Start one point match or start three point match.
2. TSUZUKETE (tsu-zu-ke-te) means "continue" and is used when the match has been stopped without the proclamation of the referee.
3. TSUZUKETE HAJIME (tsu-zu-ke-te ha-ji-me) is used when the contestants are sent back to the starting point after the match has once started.
4. YAME (ya-me) means "stop" at the instant of proclamation by the referee.
5. JYOGAI NAKAE (jyoo-gai na-kae) jyogai indicates "contestants out of the match area" and nakae means "enter the match area."
6. MOTONOICHI (mo-to-no-ichi) means "return to original position." Moto means "original." Ichi means "position."
7. JIKAN (ji-kan) means "time." The time-keeper should stop the clock until the referee says to continue.
8. ATOCHIBARAKU (a-to-shi-ba-ra-ku) means "thirty seconds to end of match."
9. YAME, SOREMADE (ya-me, so-re-ma-de) means "end of match." Yame means "stop." Soremade means "end."
10. ENCHO (en-choo) means "continue the match into overtime."

Methods of signalling used by the referee.
1. WAZA-ARI (wa-za-a-ri) means "half-point". Waza means technique. Ari means "half."
2. IPPON (ip-pon) means "full point."
3. AIUCHI (ai-uchi) means "simultaneous attack," both sides receive no point.
4. HANSOKU (han-so-ku) means "disqualified" or match lost.
5. HANSOKU CHUI (han-so-ku chuu-i) means "foul warning." Two warnings result in disqualification.

Decision terms:
1. HANTEI (han-tei) means "decision."
2. AKA (or SHIRO) NO KACHI (a-ka or shir-ro no ka-chi) means "winner." Aka means red; Shiro means white. Contestants wear flags to signify red or white.
3. HIKIWAKE (hi-ki-wa-ke) means "draw."
4. SHIRO (or AKA) HANSOKU, AKA (or SHIRO) NO KACHI (shi-ro or aka han-so-ku and/or shi-ro no ka-chi) means "white(or red) disqualified" "red (or white) winner."
5. SHIRO (or AKA) NO KIKEN NIYORI AKA (or SHIRO) NO KACHI (shi-ro or aka no ki-ken ni-yo-ri a-ka or shi-ro no ka-chi) Kiken means "default," niyori means "according to," "white or red defaults," red or white is winner."
6. FUKUSHIN SHUGO (fu-ku-shin shuu-goo) means "corner judges come together for decision." Fukushin means "corner judge." Shugo means "meet."

SHIBU: a branch.

SHIBU-CHO: the branch director. In the Okinawan context this refers to the head of a dojo belonging to a specific organization.

SHIDOIN: an assistant instructor. One of the three levels of instructors as designated by the Okinawa Karatedo Association in 1967. The levels are Fuku Shidoin (Junior Instructor); Shidoin (Assistant Instructor); and Shihan (Senior or Master Instructor). This level is reserved for 5-Dan and 6-Dan holders.

SHIHAN: master or senior instructor; an individual "licensed" as an instructor by the Shihan-kai (Instructor's Association). This is the third level of instructorship as authorized by the Okinawa Karatedo Association in 1967. This level is reserved for 5-Dan (if running a dojo) and above.

SHIHAN DAI: an assistant master instructor.

SHIHOWARI: breaking in four directions.

SHIKAKU: the optimum angle; the "blind side."

SHIKO DACHI: four corner stance; the Okinawan horse stance.

SHIMABUKU(RO) EIZO: (born 1925) the late headmaster of Okinawa shorinryu (written as shobayashi-ryu) karatedo that was headquartered at the Rendokan Dojo located in Kin, Okinawa. Shimabukuro was a short time student of Chotoku Kyan, Chojun Miyagi and Shugoro Nakazato. The late founder of Seito Okinawa Karatedo Shudokan, Kanken Toyama, authorized Shimabukuro promotion to 10-Dan in 1959. Toyama also appointed Shimbukuro as General Manager of the All Japan Karatedo Association, Okinawa District.

SHIMABUKU(RO) KIICHIRO: (born 02/15/1938) the son of Tatsuo Shimabukuro and present headmaster of Isshin-ryu. Shimabukuro is presently ranked a 10-Dan under his own Isshin-ryu World Karatedo Association. The honbu dojo is located in Gushikawa City, Okinawa.

SHIMABUKU(RO) TATSUO: (09/19/1908 to 05/30/1975) the late headmaster and founder of Okinawa Isshin-ryu and former short time student of Chotoku Kyan, Chojun Miyagi and Shinken Taira. Shimabukuro is considered an innovator by his students and mixed the styles of Chotoku Kyan and Chojun Miyagi together and formed Isshin-ryu. Shimabukuro also vacillated between using a regular cork-screw punch or a vertical punch. The vertical punch won out and his style is presently known for its vertical punching techniques. His three senior students were Kenji Kaneshiro, Eiko Kaneshi (who coined the term Isshin-ryu) and Genyu Shigema.

SHIMABUKURO ZENRYO: (1904-1969) an outstanding student of Chotoku Kyan from 1928 until 1944, Shimabukuro opened his own dojo, the Seibukan, in 1947. He was a member of the All Japan Karatedo Federation and taught karate with his friend, Shigeru Nakamura, the headmaster of Okinawa Kenpo. The Seibukan, a shorinryu style dojo, is presently run by his son, Zenpo Shimabukuro, who is ranked a Hanshi 10-Dan.

SHIMANCHU: (h) People who come from the same village. In Okinawa, it also means the Okinawan people.

SHIMAJIRI: (h) The southern district of Okinawa.

SHIME: to choke.

SHIMOZA: the lower seat in the training hall; opposite of the kamiza; where the students sit.

SHINAI: a split bamboo training sword.

SHINJO KYOHIDE: (11/03/1951) A formidable fighter and 9 times Okinawa Kumite Champion. Presently ranked a 9th Dan.

SHINJO MASANOBU: (1938-1993) a Gojuryu Hanshi 9-Dan and former student of the late Higa Seiko.

SHINJUTSU: acupuncture.

SHINKEN: a live blade; a real sword.

SHINKEN: (s) "to be on the edge of a live sword." The belief that serious training is needed to help bring the reality of budo-type training.

SHINKEN KEIKO: (s) "training the spirit to be on the edge of a live sword." A favorite saying of of the late Choshin Chibana (1885-1969) referring to the fact that shorinryu budo training must be taught and practiced with all care and great seriousness.

SHINKEN SHOBU: a mortal confrontation; a fight to the death. This expression refers to a fight with swords (live blades) but in karatedo it means a fight to the knock-out or death.

SHINKO KATA: a kata required for promotion.

SHINKOKAI: an organization for the preservation of an art.

SHINKOKYU: deep breathing.

SHINPAN: a referee.

SHINSA: an examination for rank; rank testing.

SHINTO: gods way; the native religion of Japan. It is primarily an awareness of nature.

SHINZATO JINAN: (1901-1945) the most senior student of Chojun Miyagi who died during the American invasion of Okinawa. Shinzato was considered the most outstanding performer of gojuryu even though he only knew four kata. His favorite kata was seisan and he died at Kin Village on March 31, 1945.

SHIRO/HAKU: white.

SHIRO OBI: white belt.

SHISHI: lion dogs; the traditional guardians of Okinawan homes or buildings. The lion dogs, one with its mouth open and one with its mouth closed, are often referred to as Ah and Om gojuryu training circles.

SHISHU ANKOH: (h) an alternate reading for Shuri-te master, Ankoh Itosu (1830-1915). The name, Itosu, is the Japanese pronunciation of the Okinawan name, Shishu.

SHISO: an originator of a style or system.

SHITO-RYU: a style of karate founded by Kenwa Mabuni (1893-1957). Mabuni studied the styles of Ankoh Itosu (Shuri-te) and Kanryo Higaonna (Naha-te) before moving to mainland Japan in 1929. It is interesting to note that although the methods originated in Okinawa, the style was formulated in Japan. The name comes from the alternate reading of the first character in the Okinawan dialect (Hogen): Itosu (SHIshu) and Higaonna (TOOna). It should also be noted that Mabuni taught the largest number of empty hand kata of any Okinawan. They include the following: naihanchi 1-2-3, pinan 1-2-3-4-5, patsai sho and dai, kusanku sho and dai, jiin, jion, jutte, chinte, chinto, gojushiho, sochin, niseishi, unsu, kururunfa, saifa, sanchin, sanseiru, seipai, seisan, shisochin, suparinpei, rohai, wankan, wansu, aoyagi, and his own personal kata, juroku. Presently, the shito-ryu style is being taught at Untenbaru Motobu, Okinawa, by Kanyei Uechi (born 02/03/1904). He is the president of the Kenwa Mabuni Shito-ryu Karatedo Association.

SHITSUREI SHIMASHITA: Excuse me (for something I have done).

SHITSUREI SHIMASU: Excuse me for something I am doing or about to do; Thank you for being invited into someone's home; good-bye when departing from someone who is senior to you.

SHIZENTAI: a natural stance or posture.

SHIZENTAI DACHI: a natural walking stance.

SHIZOKU: Pre-1879 Okinawan upper class family titles. On Okinawa there were nine specific ranks: Anji, Uekata, Pechin, Satunushi-Pechin, Chikudun-Pechin, Satunushi, Waka-Satunushi, Chikudun and Chikudun-Zashiki.

SHO: small.

SHO FAMILY: the ruling family of Okinawa. The social hierarchy may be summarized as the royalty (the Sho family); second, the privileged classes (shizoku); and, third, the common men (heimin). Next in the hereditary ranks of the shizoku were the anji (lords) followed by the uekata or oyakata nobilities. Below the nobles stood a gentry class divided by a system of titles into three grades (each with a junior and senior rating). These were the pechin, satonushi and chikudun who were descendants of the king's soldiers and retainers. Within these three ranks a man might rise or fall according to his ability and deserts.

SHO ZENKUTSU DACHI: a small front leaning stance; commonly used as the front leaning stance in Okinawan weaponry.

SHOBAYASHI-RYU/SHORINRYU: (s) a style developed by Eizo Shimabukuro (1925-1994) based on the teachings of Chotoku Kyan (10 kata) and Chojun Miyagi (2 kata). The shobayashi-ryu kata taught are seisan, wansu, ananku, sanchin, naihanchin 1-2-3, seiunchin, chinto, patsai, gojushiho and kusanku. Shimabukuro taught out of his main dojo, the Rendokan located in Kin, Okinawa. During the height of the Vietnam War, Shimabukuro had five active training halls. His son, Eiko Shimabukuro (kyoshi 7-Dan), presently runs his late father's dojo and his own located at Kadena, Okinawa.

SHOBU: an official contest or match.

SHOBU IPPON (SANBON), HAJIME!: A sparring command indicating that the sparring match is for one point. Shobu means "match" while ippon means "one point" (sanbon means "three points). Hajime means "start." Start one point match or start a three point match.

SHOCHU: a potent rice wine that is distilled from the dregs of sake, the national drink. It is the fourth most consumed alcoholic beverage in Okinawa following beer, sake and various whiskeys and brandies.

SHOCHU GEIKO: summer training camp.

SHODAI: The founder of a style/system. He may be the originator of a system or he may have modified the techniques and principals of application of an already established ryu.

SHODEN: the lower level techniques. Also used to mean a person who has completed the lower levels of the system. This is not to be confused with kihon waza which are very basic things such as proper standing, punching, blocking, kicking and the like, which have to be learned before applying actual techniques. Traditionally, students in a dojo were referred to as Shoden-ka, Chuden-ka, or Okuden-ka (or lower-level man, middle-level man, or upper-level man).

SHODO: calligraphy; the Way of the Brush.

SHOJI: a sliding paper covered door.

SHOKAI: letter of introduction.

SHOKAIJO: introductions. Making proper introductions are very important to the Okinawans. Okinawa is a society based on groupings that are exclusive and not open to the casual entry by outsiders. It is therefore vital to an Okinawan that they know as much as possible about anyone they meet as quickly as possible because they do not automatically accept people at face value. An introduction from someone they know helps span this otherwise formidable barrier. Those Okinawans who do not normally deal with Americans are usually very wary of strangers who come to them without credentials or without an introduction from a mutual friend or martial art contact.

SHOKEN: (u) a small fist.

SHOMEN: the front of the training hall. A shomen is usually the front wall of a dojo where a shrine is placed. One may find a Shinto shrine or simply a photograph of the founder of the school to whom the class bows to express respect.

SHOMEN GERI: (g) a kick to the front.

SHOMEN NI REI: bow to the front. This is the first command the teacher gives when bowing to the front of the dojo.

SHORINRYU/KOBAYASHI-RYU: (s) the Chibana style of shorinryu is translated to mean the "small forest style." Choshin Chibana coined the term, small forest style, in 1933 and registered the name with the Dai Nippon Butokukai at the same time his friend, Chojun Miyagi, registered the name of gojuryu. Chibana often said that those individuals that did not know Okinawan karate would call his style kobayashi-ryu instead of shorinryu. He directed this statement to the Japanese pronunciation of the characters for shorinryu - spoken as kobayashi-ryu by the uninitiated. The kata that Chibana taught included kihon 1-2-3, naihanchin 1-2-3, pinan 1-2-3-4-5, patsai sho and dai, kusanku sho and dai and chinto. He did not teach gojushiho. It should be noted that prior to 1965 he also taught the kata seisan and jion at his Dai-Ichi Dojo located in Shuri, Okinawa.

SHORINRYU GOKOKU-AN-KARATE-JUTSU: the original name of shorinryu as coined by Sokon "Bushi" Matsumura circa 1858.

SHORINRYU KARATEDO DAI-ICHI DOJO: The name of Choshin Chibana's dojo located in Shuri, Okinawa. Chibana originally named the dojo Dai-Ichi Dojo in 1946 when he began to publicly teach his method of Shuri-te, which he called Shorinryu (the small forest style).

SHORINRYU KARATEDO KUSHINKAN: A Chibana shorinryu sub-style founded by the late Kensei Kinjo in 1937. Kinjo was one of five individuals promoted to Hanshi 9-Dan by Chibana (in 1967). It should be noted that Kinjo was also a student of Chojun Miyagi and he was one of the first to teach Chibana style shorinryu and Miyagi style gojuryu in the same dojo.

SHORINRYU KARATEDO KYUDOKAN: A Chibana shorinryu sub-style founded by Yuchoku Higa in 1955. Higa had originally been a student of Jinan Shinzato (Chojun Miyagi's senior student) and an instructor of gojuryu. When Shinzato died in 1945 he became a student of Chojun Miyagi. When Miyagi died in 1953, Higa became a student of Choshin Chibana. In 1965 Higa was the first person to be promoted to Hanshi 9-Dan by Choshin Chibana. He presently teaches Chibana style shorinryu but is also considered an expert in gojuryu by his peers. His senior student is Tankichi Nagamine who is ranked a Hanshi 9-Dan.

SHORINRYU KARATEDO SHIDOKAN: A Chibana shorinryu sub-style founded by Katsuya Miyahira in 1951. Miyahira started training under Chibana in 1933 and is recognized as Chibana's senior student. He was promoted to Hanshi 9-Dan by Chibana in 1967. When Chibana died in 1969, Miyahira became his successor and president of Chibana's Okinawa Shorinryu Karatedo Association.

SHORINRYU KARATEDO SHORINKAN: A Chibana shorinryu sub-style founded by Shugoro Nakazato in 1955. Nakazato began training under Chibana in 1946 and received his Hanshi 9-Dan at age 46 in 1967. Nakazato was also a student of Masami Chinen of yamane-ryu bo-jutsu. When Chibana died in 1969, Miyahira became president and Nakama and Nakazato became vice-presidents of the Okinawa Shorinryu Karatedo Association. Nakazato resigned in 1973 to supervise his own growing Shorinkan Association.

SHORINRYU KARATEDO SHUBOKAN: A Chibana shorinryu sub-style founded by the late Chozo Nakama in 1935. Nakama had been a student of Ankoh Itosu, Kenwa Mabuni, Choki Motobu and Choshin Chibana. He joined the Chibana dojo with his class-mate Ankichi Arakaki in 1928. He was promoted to Hanshi 9-Dan by Chibana in 1967 and was his oldest student.

SHORINJI-RYU: a style of Okinawan karate founded by Joen Nakazato (born April 13, 1922) based on the teachings of Chotoku Kyan. The shorinji-ryu kata taught are ananku, seisan, naihanchi, wansu, patsai, gojushiho, chinto and kusanku. Nakazato is presently a Shorinji-ryu Hanshi 10-Dan and president of the All Okinawa Karatedo Association. He is considered to be Chotoku Kyan's most senior student.

SHOSHIN O WASUREZU: A bushi maxim meaning "In your training do not forget the spirit and humility of a beginner."

SHOSHINSHA: a beginner. Those who have applied for entry into a training hall and are on trial. In ancient Japan they were allowed to sleep on the mat or floor of the training hall. They were not allowed to take part in any instruction, but had may duties around and in the training hall. When the teacher was convinced of the beginner's sincerity he might then allow them the right to train.

SHOTEI: palm heel.

SHOTOKAN: a training hall founded by Gichin Funakoshi (1868-1957) in Tokyo; the JKA style of karate. Initially, Funakoshi, an Okinawan student of Yasutsune Azato and Yasutsune Itosu, brought with him fifteen kata from Okinawa to Japan and formulated the Shotokan style. The kata included pinan 1-2-3-4-5, passai dai, kusanku dai, wansu, chinto, naihanchin 1-2-3, jion, jutte and seisan.

SHU-HA-RI: The Okinawan budo maxim of "shu-ha-ri" has always been stressed and it is important to try and pass on this concept to all students. Some manage to catch on faster than others and some have even faked it. The following is a very general idea of what this concept means:

SHU - indicates that a beginner must correctly copy all karate techniques from his or her instructor.

HA - means that after a number of years of training, when the student has attained a high degree of skill, he or she is allowed to develop new techniques provided that they are improvements. This applies to all movements with the exception of the basic techniques and kata.

RI - is the highest form. It means that after an even longer period of training than for HA, the student must be able to perform all forms of karate automatically not stopping to think about the movements.

SHUBAKU: a favorite Chinese kicking game practiced on Okinawa. It involves two opponent's hopping around on one leg and trying to "kick" or push their opponent off balanced. You are not allowed the use of your hands and the object is either to push your opponent down or cause them to lose their balance.

SHUBUKAN: "a house where you study the martial way." The honbu dojo of the Uechi-ryu karatedo located in Futenma, Okinawa. The present headmaster is Kanmei Uechi, son of Kanei Uechi. See Uechi.

SHUDOKAN: "a house where you study the way." A dojo name used by Kanken Toyama (1888-1966), Seikichi Odo (the present headmaster of Okinawan Kenpo) and Ernest Estrada (Chibana shorinryu kyoshi).

SHUGYO: austere training.

SHURI: the ancient capital of Okinawa.

SHURI-TE: the branch of Okinawan karate founded by Tode Sakugawa.

SHUTO: knife hand.

SHUTO BARAI: knife hand sweep.

SHUTO UCHI: knife hand strike.

SHUTO UKE: knife hand block.

SO DESU: That's right.

SO DESU KA?: Is that right.

SO DESU, NE?: That's right, isn't it?

SOJI: the cleaning of the dojo floor. This is a "tradition" in the dojo where the students help clean the dojo floor by hand mopping it after the last class. This ritual brings the dojo together and provides a quick and efficient way to clean the training area.

SOKE: head family or house; the hereditary headmaster of a ryu. In Okinawa this refers to an individual that is the blood successor of a martial arts tradition. An example of this is when Kanei Uechi, the headmaster of Uechi-ryu, died on February 24, 1991, his son became the Soke of Uechi-ryu.

SOKEN HOHAN: (1889 - 1982) Soken began his study of Matsumura Shorinryu under his uncle, Nabe Matsumura, in 1902. Nabe Matsumura, the grandson of Sokon Matsumura, taught the following kata: hakutsuru, naihanchi 1 and 2, pinan 1 and 2, gojushiho, kusanku, chinto, seisan and rohai jo, chu and ge. Soken was an expert kobudo practitioner and was known for his staff techniques (bo-jutsu) and for his flying kama (furi-kama). Soken disliked the Japanese for what they did to Okinawa and refused to speak Japanese. He normally conversed in the Okinawan dialect of Hogen. Soken imigrated to Argentina and lived there for 25 years working as a photographer. He spoke excellent Spanish.

SOKKO: top of the foot.

SOKO TSUKI: (g) an upper-cut punch.

SOKUCHO: (g) foot length.

SOKUMEN: laterally; to one's side.

SOKUTO: foot sword; foot edge.

SOKUTO GERI: kicking with the edge of the foot.

SOTO: the outside direction.

SOTO UCHI UKE: the outside forearm strike block.

SOTO UKE: the outside forearm block.

SUBURI: (k) slide swing; a sword exercise for developing basic techniques of motion and cutting.

SUBURITO: (k) a heavy bukuto designed for the suburi.

SUKI: an opening.

SUKOSHI: a few; a little bit.

SUKUI: scooping.

SUMIMASEN: Excuse me.

SUN DOME: a unit of measurement from the first joint to the second joint of the index finger.

SUNE: the shin.

SUNE GERI: a shin kick; a favorite Okinawan kicking technique.

SURI ASHI: sliding step; dragging step; shuffling step.

SURUCHIN-JUTSU: (k) The suruchin is a weapon made from a length of rope, usually about 6-10 feet in length, with a metal weight at each end. The weights are whirled in various patterns and struck against the enemy and then retrieved for further action. This difficult weapon is also favored by older masters and is considered a dying art form.

SUWARE!: Sit!

SUWARI: seated.

========== T ==========

TABI: a split toed sock for wear with the zori.

TACHI: a stance; an attitude of the body below the waist.

TACHI SAN NE!: a karatedo maxim meaning "to learn to stand properly takes three years!"

TACHI WAZA: standing technique(s).

TACHIKWA SARINDO/SUGURARINDO: (h) I am going to give you a beating!

TAIKAI: a tournament; a demonstration.

TAIRA SHINKEN: (1898-1970) Born in Maja, Nakazato village, Kume Island, Okinawa Province. His actual surname was Maezato of which he named a kobudo kata after, Maezato-no-tekko. He met Gichin Funakoshi, an Okinawan and a student of Ankoh Itosu, who was living and working in Tokyo in 1922. At the time, Funakoshi had a small shorinryu dojo at Suidobashi Koishiawa, Tokyo. Taira became a live-in disciple of Funakoshi and spent 18 years studying with him. Taira synthesized nearly 500 formal kata of history's most revered weapons warriors so he could hand them down to his followers. His most senior students included Eiko Akamine (Okinawa) and the late Motokatsu Inoue (Japan).

TAISABAKI: body motion especially of an evasive nature.

TAISAI: celebration commemorating the death of a headmaster or founder. The important anniversaries are the 1st, 3rd, 13th, 23rd and the 33rd. Usually, demonstrations are held during those anniversaries.

TAISHO: the period from 1912 to 1926.

TAISO: exercises; special exercises for a specific martial art.

TAKAMINE CHOBOKU: (born 03/24/1908) Seko Higa's most senior student and president of Higa's International Karate and Kobudo Federation. Presently ranked as a Hanshi 9-Dan, Takamine began training under Higa in 1927. Upon Higa's death in 1966, he was appointed president of the Association by Higa's son, Seikichi Higa.

TAKE ORI: bamboo break; breaking the opponent's finger(s).

TAKUSAN: a lot.

TAMASHII: spirit; a nationalistic spirt.

TAMASHIWARI: a test of strength by breaking boards, bricks or other objects.

TAN: a barbell; the barbell strengthens the muscles of the upper arms, the forearms and the lower limbs. It is also used to strengthen the wrists, hips and neck.

TANBO: (k) a short stick measuring about 24 inches.

TANDEN: the abdomen.

TANDOKU RENSHU: individual exercises.

TANMEI: A polite suffix; used with Okinawan surnames to denote a "respected old man."

TANREN: spiritual forging.

TANREN-UCHI: (s) an Okinawan training method where a tire is cut in half and tied to a post. The practitioner then uses the "tire makiwara" to strengthen the various punching and kicking techniques. It is also use by kobudo practitioners to test their power.

TANREN GEIKO: intensive training to develop the spirit.

TANTO: a dagger with a blade of less than one foot in length.

TANTO DORI: taking a knife away from an opponent.

TATAMI: The floors of traditionally styled Japanese rooms are covered with thick, rectangular staw mats called tatami. These mats measure approximately two inches thick, three feet in width, and six feet in length. This is the standard unit of measure in speaking of a Japanese room (a four mat room; a six mat room, etc.). The word tatami comes from tatamu, meaning "to fold," and the original tatami were floor cushions that were folded when not in use.

TATE!: Stand up!

TATE: vertical.

TATE ZUKI: vertical punch used in bogu fighting.

TE/TI: hand; the Okinawan martial art of fighting; pronounced "tay" in Japanese and "tea" in the Okinawan dialect of Hogen.

TE WAZA: hand techniques.

TEACHING METHODS: There are numerous methods of teaching the Okinawan martial arts and most instructors follow more than one method. The following are five of these methods:
• Command style method: This is the most common method used in teaching karatedo. It usually means doing things "by the count." It is very helpful in teaching large groups of students and it is the most common method of teaching in Japan and has been adopted by most Okinawan styles.

• Task Teaching Method: You demonstrate the task to be done and then have the students do it.
• Reciprocal Teaching Method: You demonstrate the technique and then break up the students in small groups. While two students perform the technique the others critique it.

• Guided Discovery Method: The student is asked questions which causes him to search for the answers.
• Problem Solving Method: Only the goal is given. The method needed to achieve this goal is left to the student.

TECHO: (k) horse stirrups used like the tekko.

TEKKO: (k) a fist loaded weapon; an iron knuckle duster. Few Japanese have ever heard of the tekko or the "iron fist" but it is one of several "fist loaded" weapons indigenous to the Ryukyu Islands. Others include the techu, the teko (this resembles a tekko but it has numerous points) and the wooden chizenkun-bo. They are usually used one in each hand.

TEKUBI: the wrist.

TEMOCHI SHIKI MAKIWARA: a hanging striking post; the good points of this hanging makiwara is that you can kick it from many different angles, and it is also portable. Training with the hanging makiwara strengthens the power of the punch, kick and elbow strikes.

TENCHI GAMAE: any kamae featuring a high-low combination.

TENGU: a mythological demon.

TENNO: the Emperor of Japan. The Showa Emperor is Hirohito who ascended the throne in 1926. He is the 124th Emperor of Japan and his son, Akihito, is the 125th.

TENSHIN: body shifting techniques.

TENSHO: a letter of introduction to a dojo.

TENTO UCHI: (k) basic striking method used in weaponry; commonly called the head strike in Ryukyu
kobudo.

TESSEN-JUTSU: (k) A favorite weapon of royalty that was widely used in Okinawa was the war fan or fighting fan called the tessen. The fan was usually made of iron but the commoners often used wood or bamboo. This weapon was also widely used on the mainland and in China.

TETSU: iron.

TETSU AREI: a dumb bell.

TETSU-BO: (k) an iron staff.

TETSU GETA: iron clogs. Exercises with the iron clogs, which consist of walking and lifting the legs, strengthen the muscles of the legs, abdomen and back. These exercises also give power to your kicks.

TETTSUI: hammer fist.

TI: (h) hand. An alternative name for the Okinawan method of empty hand fighting.

TI CHI KIA: (h) ‘demonstrating the hand.’ A demonstration of techniques taken from kata; see bunkai.

TI CHIKUN: (h) ‘use the fist this way.’ To punch.

TIGUWAA/TIGUA: (h)(k) the ancient term for Okinawan weaponry.

TINBE/TIMBE/TINBEI: (k) one who uses the tohai (turtle shield) and hera (a wooden or metal knife).

TINBE-JUTSU: (k) The art of tinbe jutsu is an ancient weapon on Okinawa. The actual weapon consist of two instruments. The first one is called the tohai which is a small circular shield made of wood, leather, or a tortoise shell. The second instrument is call the hera which is a short dagger- like weapon that was also used to harvest rice. Used together, the tinbe constituted a primitive weapons system that is almost unknown outside of Okinawa.

TOBI: jump.

TODAI MOTO KURASHI: A bushi maxim meaning "at the foot of a lighthouse it is dark."

TODE: an old name for karate meaning "Chinese Hand(s)"

TOGUCHI SEIKICHI: (1917-1998) a senior student of Miyagi Chojun and president of Shoreikan branch of gojuryu. He studied with his first teacher, Higa Seko, for 33 years and with the head of gojuryu, Miyagi Chojun, for 25 years. In 1954, Toguchi opened his first dojo in Koza City, Okinawa and called it the Shoreikan (House of politeness and respect).

TOHAI: (k) a turtle shield.

TOKACHI: an Okinawan holiday and day of celebration for all those eighty-eight years of age. It falls on the eighth day of the eighth lunar month. This day is also called "beiju" in Japanese, or "rice longevity," since the kanji character for rice also appears in the kanji character for eighty-eight.

TOKONOMA: the alcove in a Japanese room. It will usually contain a kakimono and a flower arrangement.

TOKUSHU GEIKO: special training; a training clinic.

TOMA: a long interval; a long distance.

TOMARI-TE: a style of karate created by Kosaku Matsumora; a blend of Shuri-te and Naha-te.

TOMODACHI: a friend; a class mate.

TOMOE: comma shaped; circular.

TOMOE ZUKI: circular block and punch technique;

TONFA: (k) "handle;" a wooden handle use in conjunction with a mill stone. See tunqwaa.

TONOCHI: (h) a position similar to being a lord of a small fief; the hereditary chiefs of towns and villages and corresponded to a Japanese "shomyo."

TOON-RYU: (h) A style of karate founded by Jyuhatsu Kyoda in 1945. Kyoda had been a student of Kanryo Higaonna and peer of Chojun Miyagi. See Jyuhatsu Kyoda.

TOONNA KANRYO: (h) In Japanese, Toonna is pronounced as Higaonna. Thus Kanryo Toonna is the Okinawan name for Kanryo Higaonna, the founder of Naha-te. See Kanryo Higaonna.

TORAGUCHI: (g) "tiger mouth" or circle block. See mawashi uke.

TORII: a Shinto gate.

TOSHOKAI: a meeting to encourage discussion; an annual association meeting.

TOSSHIN-NO-HEIHO: a lunging strategy.

TOU: cane or bamboo bundle(s); a training device consisting of cane or narrow bamboo sticks that are tied at both ends with straw rope. The trainee thrust at the cane with nukite (spear hand). This exercise strengthens the tips of the fingers. You can also try to grasp a piece of cane or bamboo after thrusting and then try to pull it toward you.

TOYAMA KANKEN: (09/24/1888 – 11/24/1966) The Headmaster of Okinawa Seito Karatedo Shudokan was born of nobility in Shuri City, Okinawa. He began his training under Cho Itarashiki in 1897. In the same year, Toyama apprenticed himself to Ankoh Itosu. In 1907, to round-out his studies, he was accepted as a student of Kanryo Higaonna. In 1930 Toyama moved to Japan and on March 30, 1930, he opened his first karate training hall in Tokyo. He called his school the SHUDOKAN which is translated as "The Hall for the Study of the Way." Toyama taught two complete systems - Shuri-te and Naha-te. The Shuri-te kata included naihanchin 1-2-3, pinan 1-2-3-4-5, patsai dai, chinto, kusanku dai and gojushiho. The Naha-te kata included sanchin 1 and 2, tensho, saifa, seiunchin, seisan, seipai, sanseiru, kururunfa and petchurin.

TOZAN-RYU: A shorinryu system founded by Shinsuke Kaneshima (born 1896) in 1955. Kaneshima had been a student of Shinpan Gusukuma and Choki Motobu. There is only one dojo of Tozan-ryu and when Kaneshima dies, Kyuyu Kinjo, his senior student, will be the new headmaster.

TRAINING COMMANDS: The following are common training commands given in an Okinawan dojo:
• KIHON NO KEIKO (ki-hon no ke-i-ko) practice in basic techniques.
• YOI (yo-o-i) command to be mentally alert and ready for action.

• KAMAETE (kama-e-te) a command to move into a ready position (stance) for action either for defense or attack. While there can be any number of stances that would enable one to move into action, the best position would be that which would allow one to move with economy of energy and motion consistent with effectiveness. At the beginning, zenkutsu no kamae (ze-n-ku-tsu no ka-ma-e) forward stance ready position is stressed for strengthening of legs from which good karate techniques can be executed. Advanced students will be taught jiyu-no kamae (ji-yu-u no ka-ma-e) free ready stance for flexible motions.

• HAJIME (ha-ji-me) a command to commence the movement.
• KARUKU (ka-ru-ku) a command to move lightly but with correct motion.

• TSUYOKU (tsu-yo-ku) a command to execute strong techniques, which are based on speedy correct movements.
• MAWATTE (ma-wa-t-te) is a command to turn around.
• MAE NI (ma-e ni) a command to advance forward.
• USHIRO NI (u-shi-ro ni) a command to step backward. This command may be sono mama ushiro ni or "step backward."

• YAME (ya-me) a command to stop.
• MODOTTE (mo-do-t-te) a command to return to the starting ready position.
• NAOTTE (na-o-t-te) a command to relax from alert ready position.

• KUMITE NO KEIKO (ku-mi-te no ke-iko) practice in sparring.
• KUMITE literally means to engage one's hands (skills) with an opponent. There are two types of kumite training:
• KIHON KUMITE (ki-ho-n ku-mi-te) basic sparring training. There are three kinds of kihon kumite where attack techniques and target areas are predetermined.

• KIHON IPPON KUMITE: one attack one defense sparring training from the basic stance.
• SANBON KUMITE: three time continuous attacks and defense techniques training.
• JIYU IPPON KUMITE: one attack one defense training from free stance and distance.

• JIYU KUMITE free sparring. The distance timing and techniques to be used are left to the judgement of the two opponents except that they be effective for the purpose of maximum control.

• MUKAI ATTE (mu-ka-i a-t-te) a command for two practicing partners to face each other.
• OTAGAI NI REI (o-ta-ga-i ni re-i) a command to show respect to each other with a bow.
• MAAI (ma-a-i) a term which refers to effective distance between two opponents. It is a distance which is moving constantly relative to the positions of the opponents and the techniques one wishes to execute.

• KOGEKI (ko-o-ge-ki) to attack.
• UKE (u-ke) to block or ward off.
• KIME (ki-me) refers to psycho-physiological focusing of technique to achieve maximum effectiveness.

• KATA NO KEIKO (ka-ta no ke-i-ko) formal exercises.
• KATA (ka-ta) form. There are two major classifications of kata in training.
• GOODOO-GATA group from where a group of students perform a kata in unison.
• KOJIN-GATA an individual form, usually performed alone by advanced students.
• HAYAKU (ha-ya-ku) a command to move with speed.
• YOWAKU (yo-wa-ku) a command to release the strong tension from the movement or move lightly.
• YUKKURI (yu-k-ku-ri) a command to move more slowly.

• KIAI (ki-a-i) a command to let out a sound at the moment of kime to aid in the tensioning of body muscles and focusing of the mind for a more effective kime.

TSUBA: a sword guard.

TSUGI ASHI: succeeding or following steps. The back foot does not pass the front foot but instead is brought up quickly maintaining the relative position between the feet.

TSUGI KATA: a training method where a teacher directs the student or students to follow along while teaching a kata.

TSUKI/ZUKI: a punch or thrust.

TSUMASAKI: (s) the tip of the big toe.

TSUMASAKI GERI: (s) a toe tipped kick.

TSUNAHIKI: a gigantic Okinawan tug-of-war used to commemorate the harvest and falls on the 26th day of the six month of the lunar calendar. Two teams (east and west teams) tug on a huge rope five feet in diameter at its center, tapering to about three feet in diameter at its ends. The fun comes from the side betting.

TSUTSUMI KEN KAMAE: bundled fist posture; from the chinte kata where one fist is held inside the other hand.

TUITE: (h) literally, "grabbing hand(s)." A method of grappling favorite by the Okinawans centering around joint and nerve techniques. The art of tuite was first introduced to the U.S. by Seiyu Oyata, Ryukyu Kenpo 10-Dan.

TUIFA: (k) handle; the tuifa/tonfa/tunfa/tonqwaa was developed from the handle of a millstone that was used to grind grain into flour. As with the art of the kama, tuifa-jutsu training is rapidly declining in Okinawa. It is a difficult weapon to master and there are very few experts in its use. It should be noted that this weapon is called a tuifa in Okinawa and tunfa/tonfa in Japan.

TUNQWAA: (k)(h) Matayoshi Shinpo, Okinawa Kobudo Hanshi, claims that his father (Matayoshi Shinko) was the first one to introduce the tunqwaa/tuifa/tonfa as a weapon to Okinawa at the turn of the century. He indicated that the original name for the weapon was tunqwaa but it is more commonly known by its Japanese name of tonfa.

TUSHIBI YUWE: (h) Okinawan birthdays that are celebrated very elaborately-the 1st, 13th, 25th, 37th, 49th, 61st, 73rd and the 85th birthday.

========== U ==========

UCHI: inside; to strike.

UCHI DESHI: inside student; a live-in student. The student lives in the training hall and works for the teacher as an apprentice. By being an uchi deshi the student develops "shugyo" (self discipline through mental training). The student trains everyday and also helps to teach everyday. By staying in the training hall it helps to instill spirit in the art. It develops mental toughness. The student learns to train with injuries so as to develop that mental edge. The student lives a spartan existence and has no personal life. Only then does the student begin to live the "DO" of karatedo.

UCHI WAZA: striking techniques.

UCHIKOMI GEIKO: This is a basic offensive training against a passive partner. At first your opponent does not move and you execute the same technique several times; then moving on to a combination of techniques, using different angles and rhythms of attack, perfecting your stance, body motion, and the execution and precision of your techniques, without any rest until breathless. Then change the roles with your partner assuming the offensive.

UCHINA: (h) meaning "Okinawa" in the dialect of Okinawa.

UCHINANCHU: (h) ‘Okinawa People’ or the people from Okinawa.

UCHINAGUCHI: (h) ‘Okinawa Speak.’ The Okinawan dialect.

UCHINAN-NO-TE: meaning "Okinawan-hands" (another word for karate) in the Hogen dialect of Okinawa.

UDE: forearm.

UDE GAESHI/UDE MAWASHI: arm twist.

UDE GARAMI: arm wrap.

UDE TANDEN: arm conditioning; arm strengthening.

UDE TATE FUSE: a push up.

UDON: (h) an Okinawan lord of a large fief; this corresponded to the Japanese rank of "daimyo."

UECHI KAMEI: (born 05/10/1941) the third headmaster and grandson of the founder, Kanbun Uechi.

UECHI KANBUN: (05/05/1877 – 11/25/1948) the founder of Uechi-ryu Karate-jutsu.

UECHI KANEI: (06/26/1911 – 02/24/1991) the second headmaster and son of the founder.

UECHI-RYU KARATEDO SHUBUKAN: one of the four major styles of Okinawan karatedo and founded by Kanbun Uechi (1877-1948). The second headmaster was his son, Kanei Uechi (1911-1991). The present Shubukan headmaster is Kanei Sensei's son, Kamei Uechi, with headquarters in Futenma, Okinawa. Uechi-ryu teaches the following kata: sanchin, kanshiwa, kanshu, seichin, seisan, seiryu, kanchin and sanseiryu. The most knowledgeable practitioner in the United States is James Thompson, Kyoshi 8-Dan, who teaches at his Okinawan Karate Academy located in Kalamazoo, MI.

UEHARA SEIKICHI: (03/24/1904 – 04/03/2004) the founder of Motobu-ryu and senior student of Choyu Motobu.

UESHIBA MORIHEI: (12/14/1883 to 04/26/1969) the founder of aikido and a Daito-ryu student of Sokaku Takeda (1860-1943). See aikido.

UHUGUSHIKU KANAKUSHIKU: (1841-1920) was the founder of the Uhugushiku-ryu kobu-jutsu school of Okinawan weaponry. In 1912, at age 71, Uhugushiku planned to commit seppuku out of respect for his king, who had died and left Okinawa under Japanese control. Several Okinawan martial artists approached Uhugushiku and requested that he pass on his knowledge of kobu-jutsu before committing ritual suicide. Uhugushiku trained two chief disciples: Saburo Takashiki and Shosei Kina. When Uhugushiku finally committed seppuku on October 13, 1920, Kina inherited the style. Upon Kina's death in June of 1981, the style's leadership was passed on to Kaishu Isa who studied with both of Uhugushiku's senior disciples.

UKANSEN ODORI: the traditional royal Okinawan dances that bear a strong resemblance to karatedo.

UKE: to block; to receive. Blocking and receiving are two different concepts in Okinawan karate. One keeps something out while the other brings the technique in.

UKE KIME ICHIJO: "Blocking and attacking are one."

UKEMI: breakfall.

UKETE: (g) defender.

UKIMI SO CHI: (h) Good morning.

UN: luck. Okinawans have many lucky and unlucky signs, some of them going back to ancient times (and some very similar to Western superstitions). Three of my favorites are: if you are out in the open and bird droppings fall on you, it is a good omen; if you stare at someone over your rice bowl (while holding it close to your mouth and eating) you will get uglier as you get older; and, if your ear itches, you will soon hear some good news.

UNDO: exercises. Refers to exercises or movements done in calisthenics.

UNSOKU: footwork.

URA: the back; backward.

URAKEN: back fist.

URAKEN UCHI: back fist strike.

USHIRO: backward or backwards.

USHIRO GERI: a backward kick.

UWAGI: a jacket; the upper part of the uniform.

========== W ==========

WA: peace.

WABI: an aesthetic quality based on simplicity.

WAKA SENSEI: young sensei or young teacher; the son of the headmaster.

WAKARIMASEN: I don't understand.

WAKARIMASU: I understand.

WARAJI: straw sandals similar to zori but with additional laces to hold them to the feet.

WARIBASHI: a pair of split chopsticks similar in shape to the kogai. The chopsticks in a restaurant that have to be broken apart.

WASHIN: peaceful heart; this is a favorite word for calligraphy practice and is often used on gifts of calligraphy.

WAZA: technique.

========== Y ==========

YABIKU MODEN: (1882-1941) Okinawan weapons expert and Shuri-te student of Itosu Ankoh. In 1911 Yabiku founded the Ryukyu Kobujutsu Kenkyukai so as to spread the traditional martial art weapons of Okinawa. He had received extensive training in yamane-ryu bojutsu under Sanda Chinen and Ryukyu weaponry under Pechin Tawada and Kanagusuku Uhugushiku. His most famous student was Taira Shinken of Ryukyu kobudo.

YABU KENTSU: (1863-1937) the senior-most student of Itosu Ankoh and one of the early Okinawan Shuri-te karate masters. Yabu, a retired Lieutenant of the Japanese Army, introduced his art to the U.S. and Hawaii in 1927. While on a personal business trip to the U.S., Yabu demonstrated and taught Okinawan karate at the American Okinawan Club in Los Angeles. On his return to Okinawa, Yabu was persuaded by a large group of Okinawan citizens to stop in Hawaii for a short while for the purpose of teaching karate. Yabu consented to do so, and taught karate in the private homes of a number of Okinawans. According to Nakazato Shugoro (Chibana-ha Shorinryu), Yabu was known for his rendition of the kata, useishi. Presently, Nakazato’s Shorinryu Shorinkan Dojo is the only school that still teaches this form under the name of (Yabu) Gojushiho.

YAGI MEITOKU: (03/12/1912 – 02/07/2003) a senior student of Miyagi Chojun, the founder of gojuryu. Ranked a Hanshi 10-Dan by the Zen Okinawa Karatedo Renmei and the headmaster of the Meibukan school of Gojuryu in Naha, Okinawa. His Okinawan senior students include the following: Shinjo Masanobu (1938-1994); Kanei Katsuyoshi (1941-1994); Senaha Shigetoshi (born 01-24-1941); and Yagi Meitatsu (born 07-07-1944). The Meibukan Dojo is presently be run by his oldest son, Yagi Meitatsu, Hanshi 10-Dan.

YAGUI: (h) ‘spirit yell.’ See kiai.

YAKUSOKU: "promised" or pre-arranged.

YAKUSOKU KATA: pre-arranged formal exercises.

YAKUSOKU KUMITE: pre-arranged sparring techniques. It consists of a sequence of techniques and motions practiced by two opponents in a completely predetermined way.

YAKUSOKU KUMITE UNDO: a series of five exercises developed by Shugoro Nakazato for his American students in 1973. In 1985 he added two more and is presently developing more. These exercises were developed for foreigners and are very rarely practiced in Okinawa.

YAMANE-RYU/YAMANI-RYU: an Okinawan weapons style specializing in Okinawan bo-jutsu as taught by Masaru Chinen (1898-1976). Chinen named the style after his father, Sanda Chinen (who was known by the Okinawan name of Tanmei Yamane), a famous Okinawan bo-jutsu expert. The Yamane-ryu ceased to exist when Chinen died in 1976 but two of his students still carry on with the system: Shugoro Nakazato of Chibana-ha Shorinryu and Seitoku Higa of the Bugeikan-ryu.

YAMATUNCHU: (h) the Okinawan term used in referring to Japanese from the mainland.

YAME: stop.

YANAGUCHI: (h) Speaking badly of someone.

YARA CHIRIKATA: better known as Chatan Yara (1816-1898), a Shuri-te stylist known for his sai and bo weaponry. His legacy, Chatan Yara-no-sai and Chatan Yara-no-kon are still very popular not only on Okinawa but also mainland Japan.

YASUME!: Rest!

YOI: ready.

YOKO: side.

YOKO GERI: side kick.

YOKO MEN UCHI: a strike to the side of the head.

YOSH/YOROSH/YOROSHIKU/YOROSHIIE: yosh or yorosh is an abrupt version of saying, "okay" or "right." This is commonly used by a senior speaking to a junior or by social equals. Yoroshiku and Yoroshiie are the polite version of yosh.

YU: heroism; bravery. This means taking a risk or "to go for it." This deals with helping those less fortunate than yourself in your everyday life. This is the sixth moral and ethical value as taught in Okinawan karatedo.

YUCHI: (h) the number four.

YUBISAKI GERI: (u) toe tip kick. A kick using the big toe as its striking point. A kick favored by the Uechi-ryu and Shorinryu stylist.

YUDANSHA: graded; a holder of the black belt.

YUDANSHA NI REI!: Bow to the black belt(s).

YUDANSHAKAI: a black belt association.

YUGI: games. The three most popular indoor adult games are go, shogi and mahjong.

YUKATA: a cotton kimono commonly indigo in color worn after a bath. Men's yukata will usually have a geometrical pattern while a women's yukata tend toward flowered designs.

YUKKURI: slowly.

YUKKURI ASHI: a slow step.

YUKUIMISORE: (h) Take a rest; Relax.

========== Z ==========

ZANSHIN: lingering spirit; an aspect of mental conditioning; an alert and ready manner which is maintained after the completion of a technique.

ZAREI: sitting bow. The following is the formal "zarei" kneeling bow) as practiced in Okinawa and is used when a more formal salutation is appropriate:
The left and then the right knees are lowered to the floor with the toes of both feet gripping the floor surface. The feet are then extended and flattened as the seat is lowered onto the heels.
Be careful to avoid folding or overlapping the feet or toes. From this seiza kneeling posture, lean forward and place the right palm in front of the right knee and then place the left palm in from of the left knee.

With your back and neck straight, lower your face toward the triangle formed by your outstretched hands for about three heartbeats and then immediately return to the upright position.

Bring your left hand back to your left thigh and then your right hand back to your right thigh.

To rise, lift your seat and grip the floor with the toes of both fee. Bring your right foot into position on the floor and then straighten your left knee to rise.

The entire bowing procedure should be a series of smooth and flowing actions, each one leading into the next. Avoid abrupt or jerking motions.

ZASHIKI: seated etiquette. The proper ways to sit, bow and move while in seiza.

ZAZEN: sitting meditation. This should be done at the beginning and at the end of each training session. One usually sits in a seiza (formal sitting position) or the lotus position. Zazen becomes a moment of stilling the mind, ridding it of needless thoughts, leaving the social ego behind because these will distract, distort and slow reflexive consciousness. A good sensei wants a student to be in a supple, instinctively quick no-mined mode when instruction begins. The physical body and technique will only be as fast and as focused as the mind is able to react. Just as a relaxed muscle is quicker and more responsive than a tensed one, so too is a relaxed consciousness quicker and responsive to sensory stimuli.

ZEN: a sect of Buddhism that advocates seated meditation as a means of attaining satori. It was founded in China by Daruma in 557 A.D. and brought to Japan in 1191 by Eisai Myoan.

ZEN NIPPON KARATEDO RENMEI: the All Japan Karatedo Association. Originally founded in Tokyo, Japan, by the Okinawan karate expert, Kanken Toyama, in 1935. In 1957 Toyama was asked to unite and systemize Okinawan karatedo. He tried but fail to persuade the suspicious fellow Okinawan karate experts to unite under one banner. In 1959 he appointed the only Okinawan willing to follow him, Eizo Shimabukuro, as his official representative in the hopes that others would follow.

ZEN OKINAWA KARATEDO RENMEI: The All Okinawa Karatedo Association/Federation; formally known as the Okinawa Karatedo Association, was founded in 1956 with Choshin Chibana elected as its first president. The original association included only the "main Naha groups" of gojuryu, shorinryu (Chibana-style), shorinryu (matsubayashi-style) and Uechi-ryu.

ZENKUTSU DACHI: a forward leaning stance.

ZENPO DAI SHARIN: a forward cartwheel.

ZINKASA: (k) an older name for the tinbe. See tinbe.

ZOKKO: continue.

ZORI: sandals.

ZUBON: the trousers/pants.

ZUKI/TSUKI: punch.

APPENDIX 1
==========
Okinawan Karate Kata

The following is a list taken from the Zen Nippon Karatedo Renmei (the All Japan Karatedo Association). It is from the chapter, "The True Kata of Okinawan Karatedo:" (Many thanks to Hanaue Toshio Sensei of Toyama-ryu (SHUDOKAN) for this information.)

Orthodox Okinawan karate is wide and varied. The ancient masters of yesterday devised by instinct, training and experience of actual combat a number of techniques and movements into what we today call the Okinawa karatedo ORTHODOX KATA (Okinawa karatedo seito kata). From these ancient fighting experts, techniques and kata have been passed on to the present generation that began during the turn of this century.

This generation of experts passed on to us all of the following kata that we call the ORTHODOX KATA. I must also state that many of the early teachers knew only one, two and sometimes three kata. Their idea of training was based on quality and not quantify. It is good to learn all of the kata that one's teacher is able to teach but it is also good to exam one or two kata deeply. It is also good to look at other systems but one must have a strong foundation of one before one starts to examine others.

The following kata have been passed on to us from those masters that emerged in this century. These are the real kata of Okinawa and are the one's that hold secrets which can only be taught by an expert status instructor.

It must also be understood that there are numerous variations to the following kata based on the understanding of the one's who taught them or passed them on. So, another important point that I must make is to examine not only the instructor's credentials but also their sincerity to see if they are following the real path or one that they have made up.

The true/recognized orthodox kata of Okinawan karatedo are as follows:

Shuri-te kata:
=========
naihanchi kata 1-2-3 (basic forms)
pinan kata 1-2-3-4-5 (basic forms)
patsai sho and patsai dai (advanced forms)
kusanku sho and kusanku dai (advanced forms)
chinto and chinte (advanced forms)
useishi (presently called gojushi-ho)

Naha-te kata:
==========
sanchin and tensho (basic forms)
gekisai ichi and gekisai dai (basic forms)
saifa
seiunchin (spoken as seienchin in Japan)
shisochin
seisan, seipai and sanseiru
kururunfa
petchurin (presently spoken as suparinpei in Japanese)

Tomari-te kata:
===========
seisan (basic form)
jiin, jion and jitte (jutte)
wankan, wanshu and wantou
rohai 1-2-3

RECOGNIZED OKINAWAN KARATEDO KATA
====================================
On August 4, 1973, the All Japan Karatedo Association under the direction of the Federation of All Japan Karatedo Organizations organized a special group called the Technical Council to set up guidelines for recognition of traditional and authentic Okinawan karatedo kata as needed for future promotional examinations. With the input of various headmasters and the All Okinawa Karatedo Association, the following Okinawan karatedo kata were designated as traditional and authentic:

1. pinan 1-2-3-4-5                             19. sochin
2. naihanchi kata 1-2-3                    20. kensei sho and dai
3. kusanku sho and dai                    21. kunshu
4. patsai sho and dai                         22. kukan
5. ananku                                         23. shinsei
6. niseishi (nijushi ho)                      24. shuri seisan
7. useishi (gojushi ho)                       25. naha seisan
8. rohai 1-2-3                                     26. sanchin
9. jiin                                                 27. tensho
10. jion                                             28. gekisai ichi and gekisai ni
11. jitte (jutte)                                 29. saifa
12. chinto                                         30. seiunchin (seienchin)
13. chinte                                          31. shisochin
14. chinsho                                         32. seiru
15. wankan                                         33. seipai
16. wanshu                                         34. sanseiru
17. wantou                                         35. kururunfa
18. unshu                                            36. suparinpei (pitchurin)

Kata translations:

kihon kata: "basic form"
fukyugata: "basic form"
shihokaze: "stepping to the four winds"
naihanchi/naihanchin: "staying and fighting"
shodan, nidan, sandan first, second and third
pinan: "peaceful mind"
seisan/sesan: "thirteen"

Naha seisan
Shuri seisan
Tomari seisan

patsai/passai/bassai: "to breach a fortress"
sho, dai: small, large

Matsumura patsai
Tomari or Oiadomari patsai
koryu patsai

kusanku/kushanku:Chinese attache's name
sho, dai: small, large

Chatanyara kusanku
Shiho kusanku
Uehara kusanku
Kuniyoshi kusanku
Machibata kusanku

chinto: "fighting to the east"
Matsumura chinto
Itosu chinto

wansu/wanshu: Chinese attache's name
wankan/o-kan: "the king's crown"
wanto: "the fighting king"
rohai: "vision of a white heron"
sho, chu, dai: small, middle and large
jion: "the temple sound"
jitte: "temple hand"

jiin: "the temple ground"

chinte: "the winning hand"

gojushiho/useishi: "the fifty-four steps"
sho, dai: small, large

ananku/ananko: "light from the south"

Unshu: "Hand in the clouds"
Aragaki Unshu: Aragaki's hand in the clouds

sochin: "the grand prize"

niseishi/nijushiho: "the twenty-four steps"

seiru: "sixteen"

aoyagi: "the green willow"

nipaipo: "twenty-eight steps"

papuren: "eight steps at a time"

hakucho: "one hundred birds"

sanchin: "the three conflicts/battles"

gekisai dai-ichi: "to destroy or demolish # 1"

gekisai dai-ni: "to destroy or demolish # 2"

saifa: "to tear or rip"

shisochin: "four peaceful facings"

seisan/sesan: "thirteen"

seipai/sepai: "eighteen"

sanseiru/sanseru: "thirty-six"

seiunchin/seenchin: "marching far quietly"

kururunfa: "forever stops, peacefulness, rip"

suparinpei/petchurin: "one hundred and eight"

tensho: "revolving hands"

BIBLIOGRAPHY
=============
Although I have hundreds of books on the martial arts, the following books have contributed the most concerning the Okinawan Martial Arts Dictionary. In English:
Bishop, Mark, OKINAWAN KARATE, England, A & C Black 1989
Corcoran and Farkas, MARTIAL ARTS TRADITIONS, HISTORY, PEOPLE, New York, Gallery Books 1983
Estrada, Ernest J., HISTORY AND TRADITIONS OF OKINAWAN KARATEDO, OKA Publishing 1984, 1987 and 1992
Estrada, Ernest J., OKINAWAN KARATEDO PERSONALITIES (PART I), OKA Publishing 1984 and 1992
Estrada, Ernest J., OKINAWAN KARATEDO PERSONALITIES (PART II), OKA Publishing 1985 and 1991
Estrada, Ernest J., THE OKINAWAN KARATEDO INTERVIEWS (PART I), OKA Publishing 1985 and 1991
Estrada, Ernest J., THE OKINAWAN KARATEDO INTERVIEWS (PART II), OKA Publishing 1986 and 1991
Estrada, Ernest J., RYUKYU CLASSICAL MARTIAL ARTS, OKA Publishing 1986 and 1992
Estrada, Ernest J., OKINAWAN KARATEDO: A GUIDE, OKA Publishing 1987 and 1994
Estrada, Ernest J., SHORINRYU KARATEDO: PRACTICES AND RANKING PROCEDURES, OKA Publishing 1994
Funakoshi, Gichin, KARATEDO KYOHAN, Vermont, Charles E. Tuttle Company 1979
Higaonna, Morio, TRADITIONAL KARATEDO VOL 1, 2, 3 & 4, Tokyo, Japan, Minator Research 1985, 1986, 1989 and 1989
Mattson, George, UECHIRYU KARATE DO, Newton, Mass., 1974
McCarthy, Patrick, THE BUBISHI, International Ryukyu Research Society 1994
Nagamine, Shoshin, THE ESSENCE OF OKINAWAN KARATEDO, Vermont, Charles E. Tuttle Company 1976
Nakaya, Takao, KARATEDO HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY, Texas, JSS Publishing Company 1986
Okazaki, Teruyuki, THE TEXTBOOK OF MODERN KARATE, New York, Harper & Row Publishers 1984
Riley, Robin, THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN KARATE, New Jersey, Semper Fi Co., Inc. 1970
Sakagami, Ryusho, KARATEDO TAIKAN (PINAN), Tokyo, Japan, Kyusei Inc, Tokyo 1974

IN JAPANESE:
===========
Hokama, Tetsuhiro, KARATEDO NO AYUMI, IKO, Naha, Okinawa, 1984
Inoue, Motokatsu, RYUKYU KOBUDO VOL 1, 2 AND 3, Tokyo, Japan, Buren Shuppan 1972
Mabuni, Kenwa, KARATEDO NYUMON, Tokyo, 1938
Miyazato, Eiichi, OKINAWA-KEN GOJURYU KARATEDO, Okinawa 1978
Murakami, Katsumi, KARATEDO TO RYUKYU KOBUDO, Tokyo, Japan, Seibido Shuppan 1973
Nagamine, Shoshin, OKINAWA NO KARATEDO, Tokyo, Shinjin Butsuoraisha 1975
Taira, Shinken, RYUKYU KOBUDO TAIKEN, Tokyo 1964
Toyama, Kanken, KARATEDO, Tokyo, 1957
Toyama, Kanken, KARATEDO NYUMON, Tokyo 1963
Toyama, Kanken, KARATEDO TAIHOKEN, Seibido Shuppan 1966

Uechi, Kanei, OKINAWA KARATEDO SONO REIKISHI TO GIHON, Futenma, Okinawa, Uechi-ryu Karatedo Kyokai 1977DO, Tokyo, 1957
Toyama, Kanken, KARATEDO NYUMON, Tokyo 1963
Toyama, Kanken, KARATEDO TAIHOKEN, Seibido Shuppan 1966
Uechi, Kanei, OKINAWA KARATEDO SONO REIKISHI TO GIHON, Futenma, Okinawa, Uechi-ryu Karatedo Kyokai 1977

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