南撣邦軍 Shan State Army ---South




南撣邦軍(SSA-S)革命基地 ---老泰良




Flash 觀看南撣邦軍總部老泰亮 


On Patrol with the Shan State Army By Michael Black and Roland Fields

On Patrol with the Shan State Army   

By Michael Black and Roland Fields/Loi Taileng, Southeastern Shan State
July 2006

Morale is high among Yawd Serk’s ill-paid soldiers: “We are the strongest opposition force to the regime”


             It was a scene straight out of Francis Ford Coppola’s Apocalypse Now.  To a background score of psychedelic electric guitar cords piercing the night, soldiers in Burmese army fatigues berated and appeared to beat a helpless monk while bemused spectators looked on. It looked sickeningly authentic but was as theatrical as Coppola’s movie—one of several staged events commemorating Shan Resistance Day at the Shan State Army-South’s fortified headquarters on the ridge of Loi Taileng, in eastern Burma.


The Burmese soldiers were Shan rebels, enacting scenes of Burma Army brutality. “Everyone can relate to this show,” said an SSA-S official.


This year’s Shan Resistance Day was the 48th annual commemoration of the start of Shan armed resistance to Burmese government rule. On May 21, 1958, a group of 39 Shan, frustrated by 10 years of inconclusive negotiations between their leaders and the Rangoon regime, took up arms against government forces at Mong Kyawt in southeastern Shan State, opposite the Chiang Dao region of northern Thailand. They became known as the Noom Suk Harn, or “brave young warriors.”


The group eventually grew into a strong fighting force, the Shan State Army. Its political wing is the Restoration Council of Shan State, consisting of 300 members, drawn from the military and civilian life. A central committee of 21 elected members meets twice a year. A complaints and suggestions box in the center of the Loi Taileng camp yields much material for discussion.


It’s a democratic kind establishment—“Even the Colonel is not immune from criticism,” said the SSA-S official. “The Colonel” is Yawd Serk, charismatic leader of the SSA-S force. He rose to prominence after the surrender of drug lord Khun Sa and the dissolution of his Mong Tai Army in 1996. Yawd Serk and his men, a more effective fighting force than the MTA, took over much of Khun Sa’s arsenal. “Only the oldest and broken weaponry was relinquished to Rangoon, Yawd Serk kept the best armaments,” said a former Khun Sa aide.


The SSA-S maintains that Khun Sa had to buy the loyalty of his MTA men, while Yawd Serk commands total respect through the force of his personality and his commitment to the Shan cause. There isn’t enough money in the SSA-S coffers to pay his men their lowly wage of 200 baht (US $5) a month regularly or to improve their meager rations and equipment, but still morale is high. “One hundred of our men are worth more than 300-400 MTA soldiers,” boasted an SSA-S member. A former associate of Khun Sa said the MTA leader was a better businessman than a military leader.


SSA-S soldiers sign on for five years, but two thirds of them are said to remain in the army when their enlistment expires. The overall strength of the army was reinforced in May 2005 by the addition of 1,000-2,000 former soldiers of the Shan State National Army, who joined ranks with the SSA-S under the leadership of Jai Yi, the present SSA-S second-in-command. “We are the strongest opposition force to the regime, the SPDC’s fiercest opponents,” says Yawd Serk.


He is particularly proud of the SSA-S training program, which he says concentrates on all-round instruction, including intellectual studies and ethics. The importance of unity and camaraderie is stressed.


A reporter on patrol with these SSA-S soldiers gets a rare insight into how this training converts into battleground experience. With United Wa State Army positions clearly visible only a couple of hundred meters away in the valley below, SSA-S soldiers brandishing AK 47s and RPG launchers were reconnoitering enemy positions under a dark sky.


At an SSA-S forward position battered by the UWSA and Burma Army in a fierce battle in April 2005, the ground was still littered with exploded mortar shells. A commanding officer who led the SSA-S defense of the outpost recalled with undisguised emotion the intensity and brutality of the battle, during which UWSA troops clawed up the steep slopes, engaging SSA-S forces with RPG’s at 10 meters range and AK fire at 5 meters. “This hill still smells of blood to me,” he said.


Ultimately, Yawd Serk’s men successfully prevented the UWSA and Burma Army troops from overrunning the Shan position, which could have served as a staging point for further offensives on Loi Taileng. Yawd Serk claims the assault by the UWSA’s 171st division was led by the notorious drug trafficker Wei Hsueh-kang in retaliation for the destruction by SSA-S forces of his drug factories. “I get blamed for drugs because I wage war on those who really are in the business,” he says, insisting that he and his SSA-S have no part in drug production or trafficking.


On the contrary, Yawd Serk claims to be a force in the war on drugs, which he describes as “a silent killer.” Drugs, he says, “pose as great a threat as the ravages of war to Shan people.” He pleads for a “grassroots solution” to the drug problem. “I want to get rid of drugs but I cannot do it alone. If you really want to eradicate drugs you must come to the Shan people. A grassroots solution is the only way.”


The battle-hardened colonel offered his full co-operation with international organizations in the fight to eliminate drug production and trafficking. “We would like to join the rest of the international community in the eradication of drugs,” he said. “Bring the UN, we have guides, we’ll give you access. Come work with us. We are willing to testify.”


Yawd Serk believes the US’s Drug Enforcement Administration support of Burmese government anti-drugs initiatives to be counterproductive. “The generals are in bed with the biggest drug lords. So, supporting the SPDC in their war on drugs goes to further hurt the people.”


On the political front, Yawd Serk wants the international community to “understand the depth, complexity and significance of the plight of ethnic groups within Burma” and to “press the generals to grant autonomy to the ethnics.” Not only the Karen are suffering under brutal Burma Army repression, he points out—“The situation is similar in Shan State.  People are suffering and dying every day in our areas as well.”


Loi Taileng, at least, is a sanctuary of sorts. The comradeship, camaraderie and high morale are palpable. It’s clear that, 48 years after the appearance of Shan resistance to the regime, Yawd Serk and his Shan State Army-South are there to stay.






戶籍:猛崖縣(Mong Yai),猛農市、猛農省。(撣邦南部)。


1976526日,當時年齡17歲報名參 加由昆古少校領導的S.U.R.A第三軍區
S.U.R.A 軍隊由昭光真領導。


1979年隨從昭光真主席到“笆萊”建立軍事基地, 同時在這裏接受政治管理科目方面的培訓。

 1980年在邦邁聳接受第二次特種兵訓練和政治管理方面的培訓, 政治方面的教官是趙光真主席和昭墾篩,而軍事方面的教官是昭猛孔。 軍政學校畢業後任職為副連長。



1983616日。昭光真主席基於六大方針的政策之下, 號召撣邦內的各民族軍團尋求團結力量。


(Sao Mung Fa)
(Sao Aung Leng)昭熬亮來交涉、 討論。S.U.R.A方派使昭耀世為代表去交涉,討論的主旨是如何才能合併。
1984年昭長邁帶領S.S.A軍團到達邦邁聳 並共同組建政治黨
T.R.C ( Tai Revolution Council )
和建立軍隊命 名為 T.R.A(Tai Revolution Army).

 1985年由坤沙領導的 S.R.A 軍團來合併,並從新改政治黨名為
S.S.R.C ( Shan State Restoration Council )
從新命軍隊名為 M.T.A
( Mung Tai Army ) 立法機關部命名為 (S.S.U.P.C)。

1986年負責戰略方面的任務,在撣邦中部和南部 活動直到1987年。
1990年負責猛卓(Mung Jawd )地區和泰-撣邊境戰略任務。

1995年在前陣線領導戰士作戰,同時昭崗耀在199576日, 帶領他領導的部隊全部脫離M.T.A.。此事發生之後 ,坤沙下令招昭耀世回總部(賀猛)囚禁,可是昭耀世拒絕返回總部, 以重事纏身為藉口,所以才辛免這次禍害。

 19951217日。坤祥將要離開總部 賀猛去和緬軍談判之前, 坤祥下令殺掉他的12位傣族護衛兵,就因為這些衛兵知道他們 (坤祥、坤沙、)的重要秘密太多,所以才殺人滅口。
19951218M.T.A的老幹部也在“邦設桃”舉行會議, 決議交納出一半的武器以換取能組建為緬軍的防衛兵條件。

會場上昭耀世堅持抗議,他忠告如果這樣決議的話, 我們會再次上緬軍的詭計,我們的複國大業就會同歸於盡。 他感到十分悲哀即在會場上流了淚,昭耀世對天發誓不管怎麼樣 也不會同坤沙屈膝投降緬軍。

 19951227日。昭耀世帶領800位不屈服戰士渡過沙爾溫江到達撣邦中部。 繼承執行昭光真主席的民族團結主義方針,號召撣邦各軍團、 尋找團結力量和從新組建軍力,即從新編改政治方針,主要如下:

1.          民族團結。

2.          1947年“邦隆協議”。

3.          發揚民主主義。

4.          改善人民生活水準。

5.          抵抗毒品。

6.          和平。

1996913日,S.U.R.A 軍團和 S.S.N.A 軍團回應,在議會上昭祥驕聲明說:
S.S.A ( Shan State Army )

如今緬軍政府利用毒品問題來作為政治手段,冤枉撣邦愛國的人民是販毒集團, 緬軍還利用毒品問題來矇騙世界各國,以消滅毒品為藉口而爭取各國的援助,利用各國損贈的錢財來購買軍火武器,肆無忌憚地殘殺、 強壓緬甸聯邦的少數民族及邦族。

眾所周知毒品是每個人類的禍根,也是必須急急解決的首要任務, 假如照耀世軍隊和緬軍政府攜手消滅毒品的話,也未必能遠離毒品的臭名,另外, 緬軍也不能接受S.S.A 軍隊。


根據“抵抗毒品”政策。在199835日,S.S.A 軍隊發出一份“嚴厲禁毒”佈告,
S.S.A 控制的地區嚴厲禁止製造、販賣、吸飲等等命令。
S.S.A 軍隊也會堅持不寢不休的嚴打下去;


1999112日。在“萊丘”區,搜查和 燒滅製造海洛因工廠。





S.S.A軍隊有明確的消毒政策,會堅定不移的繼續嚴打、燒滅毒品下去, 直到理想目標實現。 


※編按:南撣邦軍為恢復撣邦委員會(RCSS)組織下的軍事團體 。