References v/s Bibliography

References usually come at the end of a text (essay or research report) and should contain only those works cited within the text. So, use the term 'References' to cover works cited, and 'Additional Bibliography' to refer to works read as general background.

A Bibliography is any list of references at the end of a text, whether cited or not. It includes texts you made use of, not only texts you referred to in your paper, but your own additional background reading, and any other articles you think the reader might need as background reading.

References/Bibliography (tips)

  • Author have to enlist and number all bibliographical references in 9-point Times, single-spaced, at the end of paper. When referenced in the text, enclose the citation number in square brackets, for example [1]. Where appropriate, include the name(s) of editors of referenced books. The template will number citations consecutively within brackets [1]. The sentence punctuation follows the bracket [2]. Refer simply to the reference number, as in [3]-do not use "Ref. [3]" or "reference [3]" except at the beginning of a sentence: "Reference [3] was the first . . ." Number footnotes separately in superscripts. Place the actual footnote at the bottom of the column in which it was cited.
  • Do not put footnotes in the reference list. Use letters for table footnotes. Unless there are six authors or more give all authors' names; do not use "et al.".
  • Papers that have not been published, even if they have been submitted for publication, should be cited as "unpublished" [4].
  • Papers that have been accepted for publication should be cited as "in press" [5].
  • Capitalize only the first word in a paper title, except for proper nouns and element symbols. For papers published in translation journals, please give the English citation first, followed by the original foreign-language citation [6].


[1] G. Eason, B. Noble, and I. N. Sneddon, "On certain integrals of Lipschitz-Hankel type involving products of Bessel functions," Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, vol. A247, pp. 529-551, April 1955.

[2] J. Clerk Maxwell, A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, 3rd ed., vol. 2. Oxford: Clarendon, 1892, pp.68-73.

[3] I. S. Jacobs and C. P. Bean, "Fine particles, thin films and exchange anisotropy," in Magnetism, vol. III, G. T. Rado and H. Suhl, Eds. New York: Academic, 1963, pp. 271-350.

[4] K. Elissa, "Title of paper if known," unpublished.

[5] R. Nicole, "Title of paper with only first word capitalized," J. Name Stand. Abbrev., in press.

[6] Y. Yorozu, M. Hirano, K. Oka, and Y. Tagawa, "Electron spectroscopy studies on magneto-optical media and plastic substrate interface," IEEE Transl. J. Magn. Japan, vol. 2, pp. 740-741, August 1987 [Digests 9th Annual Conf. Magnetics Japan, p. 301-305, 1982.

[7] M. Young, The Technical Writer's Handbook. Mill Valley, CA: University Science, 1989.

[8] Electronic Publication: Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs):

[9] D. Kornack and P. Rakic, "Cell Proliferation without Neurogenesis in Adult Primate Neocortex," Science, vol. 294, Dec. 2001, pp. 2127-2130, doi:10.1126/science.1065467. (Article in a journal)

[10] H. Goto, Y. Hasegawa, and M. Tanaka, "Efficient Scheduling Focusing on the Duality of MPL Representatives," Proc. IEEE Symp. Computational Intelligence in Scheduling (SCIS 07), IEEE Press, Dec. 2007, pp. 57-64, doi:10.1109/SCIS.2007.357670. (Article in a conference proceedings)