extra stuff


----------------------------------------------------
-- 3.1 Metatables and metamethods.
----------------------------------------------------

-- A table can have a metatable that gives the table
-- operator-overloadish behavior. Later we'll see
-- how metatables support js-prototypey behavior.

f1 = {a = 1, b = 2}  -- Represents the fraction a/b.
f2 = {a = 2, b = 3}

-- This would fail:
-- s = f1 + f2

metafraction = {}
function metafraction.__add(f1, f2)
  sum = {}
  sum.b = f1.b * f2.b
  sum.a = f1.a * f2.b + f2.a * f1.b
  return sum
end

setmetatable(f1, metafraction)
setmetatable(f2, metafraction)

s = f1 + f2  -- call __add(f1, f2) on f1's metatable

-- f1, f2 have no key for their metatable, unlike
-- prototypes in js, so you must retrieve it as in
-- getmetatable(f1). The metatable is a normal table
-- with keys that Lua knows about, like __add.

-- But the next line fails since s has no metatable:
-- t = s + s
-- Class-like patterns given below would fix this.

-- An __index on a metatable overloads dot lookups:
defaultFavs = {animal = 'gru', food = 'donuts'}
myFavs = {food = 'pizza'}
setmetatable(myFavs, {__index = defaultFavs})
eatenBy = myFavs.animal  -- works! thanks, metatable

-- Direct table lookups that fail will retry using
-- the metatable's __index value, and this recurses.

-- An __index value can also be a function(tbl, key)
-- for more customized lookups.

-- Values of __index,add, .. are called metamethods.
-- Full list. Here a is a table with the metamethod.

-- __add(a, b)                     for a + b
-- __sub(a, b)                     for a - b
-- __mul(a, b)                     for a * b
-- __div(a, b)                     for a / b
-- __mod(a, b)                     for a % b
-- __pow(a, b)                     for a ^ b
-- __unm(a)                        for -a
-- __concat(a, b)                  for a .. b
-- __len(a)                        for #a
-- __eq(a, b)                      for a == b
-- __lt(a, b)                      for a < b
-- __le(a, b)                      for a <= b
-- __index(a, b)  <fn or a table>  for a.b
-- __newindex(a, b, c)             for a.b = c
-- __call(a, ...)                  for a(...)




----------------------------------------------------
-- 3.2 Class-like tables and inheritance.
----------------------------------------------------

-- Classes aren't built in; there are different ways
-- to make them using tables and metatables.

-- Explanation for this example is below it.

Dog = {}                                   -- 1.

function Dog:new()                         -- 2.
  newObj = {sound = 'woof'}                -- 3.
  self.__index = self                      -- 4.
  return setmetatable(newObj, self)        -- 5.
end

function Dog:makeSound()                   -- 6.
  print('I say ' .. self.sound)
end

mrDog = Dog:new()                          -- 7.
mrDog:makeSound()  -- 'I say woof'         -- 8.

-- 1. Dog acts like a class; it's really a table.
-- 2. function tablename:fn(...) is the same as
--    function tablename.fn(self, ...)
--    The : just adds a first arg called self.
--    Read 7 & 8 below for how self gets its value.
-- 3. newObj will be an instance of class Dog.
-- 4. self = the class being instantiated. Often
--    self = Dog, but inheritance can change it.
--    newObj gets self's functions when we set both
--    newObj's metatable and self's __index to self.
-- 5. Reminder: setmetatable returns its first arg.
-- 6. The : works as in 2, but this time we expect
--    self to be an instance instead of a class.
-- 7. Same as Dog.new(Dog), so self = Dog in new().
-- 8. Same as mrDog.makeSound(mrDog); self = mrDog.

----------------------------------------------------

-- Inheritance example:

LoudDog = Dog:new()                           -- 1.

function LoudDog:makeSound()
  s = self.sound .. ' '                       -- 2.
  print(s .. s .. s)
end

seymour = LoudDog:new()                       -- 3.
seymour:makeSound()  -- 'woof woof woof'      -- 4.

-- 1. LoudDog gets Dog's methods and variables.
-- 2. self has a 'sound' key from new(), see 3.
-- 3. Same as LoudDog.new(LoudDog), and converted to
--    Dog.new(LoudDog) as LoudDog has no 'new' key,
--    but does have __index = Dog on its metatable.
--    Result: seymour's metatable is LoudDog, and
--    LoudDog.__index = LoudDog. So seymour.key will
--    = seymour.key, LoudDog.key, Dog.key, whichever
--    table is the first with the given key.
-- 4. The 'makeSound' key is found in LoudDog; this
--    is the same as LoudDog.makeSound(seymour).

-- If needed, a subclass's new() is like the base's:
function LoudDog:new()
  newObj = {}
  -- set up newObj
  self.__index = self
  return setmetatable(newObj, self)
end







----------------------------------------------------
-- 4. Modules.
----------------------------------------------------


--[[ I'm commenting out this section so the rest of
--   this script remains runnable.
-- Suppose the file mod.lua looks like this:
local M = {}

local function sayMyName()
  print('Hrunkner')
end

function M.sayHello()
  print('Why hello there')
  sayMyName()
end

return M

-- Another file can use mod.lua's functionality:
local mod = require('mod')  -- Run the file mod.lua.

-- require is the standard way to include modules.
-- require acts like:     (if not cached; see below)
local mod = (function ()
  <contents of mod.lua>
end)()
-- It's like mod.lua is a function body, so that
-- locals inside mod.lua are invisible outside it.

-- This works because mod here = M in mod.lua:
mod.sayHello()  -- Says hello to Hrunkner.

-- This is wrong; sayMyName only exists in mod.lua:
mod.sayMyName()  -- error

-- require's return values are cached so a file is
-- run at most once, even when require'd many times.

-- Suppose mod2.lua contains "print('Hi!')".
local a = require('mod2')  -- Prints Hi!
local b = require('mod2')  -- Doesn't print; a=b.

-- dofile is like require without caching:
dofile('mod2.lua')  --> Hi!
dofile('mod2.lua')  --> Hi! (runs it again)

-- loadfile loads a lua file but doesn't run it yet.
f = loadfile('mod2.lua')  -- Call f() to run it.

-- loadstring is loadfile for strings.
g = loadstring('print(343)')  -- Returns a function.
g()  -- Prints out 343; nothing printed before now.

--]]





Difference between . and : in Lua

The colon is for implementing methods that pass self as the first parameter. So x:bar(3,4)should be the same as x.bar(x,3,4).



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