Problem Solving (8D, 7 Steps
Method, 5W2H) Work Instruction
Problem Solving instructs how to solve difficult problems using
formal, documented techniques. This ensures that thorough analysis is
applied & enables others to review the thought process (allowing
them to join in if the problem persists/escalates). If angles are
missing, the reviewers can more easily see that a key factor was not
considered. If the problem was difficult or severe, do a post-mortem
& lessons-learned as well to ensure appropriate measures are taken
to prevent similar problems from occurring in the future.
Use the 8D
Method Problem Solving Worksheet.
Team Approach. Establish a small group of people with the knowledge,
time, authority and skill to solve the problem and implement corrective
actions. The group must select a team leader.
the Problem. Describe the problem in measurable terms. Specify the
internal or external customer problem by describing it in specific
terms. Be sure to cover 5W2H.
- Implement and Verify Short-Term Corrective Actions.
Define and implement those intermediate actions that will protect the
customer from the problem until permanent corrective action is
implemented. Verify with data the effectiveness of these actions.
- Define end Verify Root Causes. Identify all potential causes
which could explain why the problem occurred. Test each potential cause
against the problem description and data. Identify alternative
corrective actions to eliminate root cause.
- Verify Corrective Actions.
Confirm that the selected corrective actions will resolve the problem
for the customer and will not cause undesirable side effects. Define
other actions, if necessary, based on potential severity of problem.
- Implement Permanent Corrective Actions. Define and implement
the permanent corrective actions needed. Choose on-going controls to
insure the root cause is eliminated. Once in production, monitor the
long-term effects and implement additional controls as necessary.
- Prevent Recurrence. Modify specifications, update training,
review work flow, improve practices and procedures to prevent recurrence
of this and all similar problems.
- Congratulate Your
Team. Recognize the collective efforts of your team. Publicize your
achievement. Share your knowledge and learning.
- Select the relatively
narrow-focused theme for the problem solving.
and analyze data. Be sure to cover 5W2H.
- Plan and Implement a solution.
- Standardize the solution.
on process and next problem.
- As precisely as possible state the problem. Define
- Many factors (materials, equipment, process,
people, and environment) can affect processes and create problems.
Consider all major categories of potential contributors.
probable reasons for the occurrence of the problem (action, inaction,
presence, absence, state of being, on-going process).
data, which may be in the form of control charts, Pareto charts, etc.
This data should then be analyzed objectively to determine likely
contributors to the problem.
- Identify and communicate
the causes for action to be taken. Determine what level action should
be taken to prevent future occurrences, e.g. does it involve management
policy or procedure, communication, or a change at the work level.
- Defining the criteria for successful action establishes the
expected outcome for all concerned to agree upon.
many solutions exist for a problem, defining them and listing the merits
of all enables the best solution to be chosen.
problems with high impact or risk, parallel approaches may be required.
Those solutions requiring significant resources should be discussed
- Proper planning and execution are
required to determine the efficacy of a proposed solution.
monitoring of the process is needed to determine if the root cause was
identified and rectified.
- 5W2H = Who, What, Where, When, Why, How, & How Many
= 8 Disciplines
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