سرائیکستان کیا ہے


Saraikistan

Saraikistan (Saraiki, Punjabi, Urdu: سراییکستان) is a term used by few Saraikis to denote the southern region of the Punjab province of Pakistan, inhabited by Saraiki-speaking people while majority of the people in this region recognize their region and society with the term waseb. Many people contest the status of Saraiki as a separate language.[1]. Though, it has overwhelming influence of Punjabi and Sindhi; Seraiki can be called a separate language of Indo-Aryan Family.[2] When compared to its sister languages: Sindhi and Punjabi, Saraiki is far smaller and much behind in literature and in many other ways.[3].Historically speaking, Saraiki, before Independence, never created a sense of separate Saraiki identity particularly in Southern Punjab.[4].Customs and traditions practised by the people of Southern Punjab have largely been similar to those of Punjabis and Sindhis.[5].However, national recognition of Saraiki as a separate language, giving it an official status, a Saraiki province, a Saraiki regiment in Army, establishment of Saraiki radio and television are among primary demands of Saraiki movement.[6]

In 2002, the Saraiki nationalists claimed that there are over 30 million Saraiki speakers in Pakistan, mostly in southern Punjab, and also in the adjacent parts of Sindh and Balochistan provinces, mainly based in the former princely state of Bahawalpur (princely state).

Beginning in the 1960s, Saraiki nationalists have sought to gain language rights and lessen,what the nationalists propagated as, "Punjabi control over the natural resources of 'Saraiki' lands". This has led to a proposed separate province Saraikistan, a region being drawn up by activists in the 1970.The 1977 coup by General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq of Pakistan, a centralist ruler, caused the movement to go underground. After his death in 1988 allowed the Saraiki movement to re-emerge openly with the goals to have a Saraiki nationality recognised, to have official documents printed in Saraiki, a Saraiki regiment in the Pakistan Army, employment quotas and more Saraiki language radio and television.


Demands


  • The Saraiki Nationalist have a demand a separate Saraikistan Province from the southern parts of the Punjab Province.
  • The Saraiki Nationalist have a demand of more budget allocation to the southern parts of the Punjab Province till the above demand is accepted.
  • A demand of Saraiki being accepted as a separate language rather than a dialect,and its use in official documents for southern Punjab along side Urdu.

Though Saraiki has been accepted as a separate language in Pakistan,it is not used for official purposes.Only two languages are used for nationwide official purposes in Pakistan;Urdu and English.


Political Parties and Groups


There are some political parties and groups which are working for Separate Saraiki Province in Pakistan

  • Pakistan Saraiki Party :Its head office is at Multan. Thaj Muhamaad Khan Langah is its president and Aslam Rasoolpuri is its secretary geneal
  • Saraikistan qaumi council head office multan pro shoukat mughal and zahoor ahmad dhareja
  • Saraiki Quomi Movement, famously known as SQM was founded by Bibi Shahida Naz, Karachi. 1988

Saraki qaumi Movement , Malik Abdul Majeed Karwani Awan (multan)

  • Saraikistan Qaumi Movement :Its head office is at Dera Ghazi Khan. Hameed Asghar Shaheen (president).
  • Saraiki National Party : Its head office is at Rahim Yar Khan.Abdul Majeed Kanjo (President).
  • Saraikistan Qaumi Ithad :Its head office is at Mithankot.Khawaja Ghulam Farid Sani (president).
  • Saraiki Soba Movement, a registered party with Election Commission of Pakistan (Registration notification number F-2(5)2002-CORD (1) dated 21 August 2002). Its head office is located in Multan. The current President is Malik Mumtaz Hussain Jai (Advocate Supreme Court Pakistan)

Saraiki people


The Saraiki people (Saraiki: سرائيکی Perso-Arabic, ਸਰਾਇਕੀ Gurmukhi) or Multani people (ملتانی Perso-Arabic, मुल्तानी Devanagari, ਮੁਲਤਾਨੀ Gurmukhi)are an ethnic group from the central and south-eastern areas of Pakistan, especially the former princely state of Bahawalpur and the districts of Multan, Lodhran, Vehari, Khanewal, Rahim Yar Khan, Rajanpur, Dera Ghazi Khan, Muzaffargarh, Layyah, Bhakkar, Mianwali, Dera Ismail Khan, Bahawalnagar, Sukkur, Larkana, Dadu, Sehwan, Sanghar, Nawabshah, Hyderabad, Sindh, Mirpurkhas, Dera Bugti, Jafarabad, Nasirabad and Sibi. A significant number of Saraikis also reside in India, with most concentrated in Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Maharashtra and Gujarat.[1] The Saraikis speak the Saraiki language. While the majority of Saraikis follow Islam, a few also follow Christianity, Zorastrianism, Hinduism and Sikhism. Saraiki people were earlier known as Sauvira.[3]


Saraiki language


Saraiki (Persian script: سرائیکی or سراییکی), transliterated as Sirāikī and sometimes spelled Seraiki and Saraiki, is a standardized written language of Pakistan belonging to the Indo-Aryan (Indic) languages. It is the language being spoken in the heart of Pakistan. Saraiki is based on a group of vernacular, historically unwritten dialects spoken by over 14 million people across the southern more half of Punjab Province, the adjacent border region of Sindh Province, and the northwest of Punjab Province, southern districts of Dera Ismail Khan and Tank of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province as well as by nearly 70,000 emigrants and their descendants in India.[1][not in citation given] The development of the standard written language, a process which began after the founding of Pakistan in 1947, has been driven by a regionalist political movement.[2][3] It is to be considered that this is the movement for a separate ethnic identity only and Saraikis are considered as Pakistani nationalists due to their geographic position within Pakistan. The national census of Pakistan has tabulated the prevalence of Saraiki speakers since 1981.[4]:46 Saraiki is the fourth most widely spoken language in Pakistan, behind Punjabi, Pashto, and Sindhi; and within Punjab Province it is one of the two major languages.

The standard English language spelling of the name (at least de facto) is "Saraiki". However, into the new millennium, "Saraiki", "Seraiki", and "Siraiki" have all been used in academia and among promoters of Sairaiki ethnic consciousness. The language name (in whichever of these spellings) was adopted in the 1960s by regional social and political leaders.An organization namely "Saraiki Academy" was founded in Multan on 6 April 1962, under the President ship of Mir Hassaan-ul-Haidri who was replaced by Makhdoom Sajjad Hussain Qureshi, which gave the name of universal application to the language.[3]


History


Historically, the speakers of dialects now recognized as belonging to Saraiki did not hold the belief that they constituted a cohesive language community or a distinct ethnicity. This consciousness developed among local elites in the years after the founding of Pakistan in 1947 in response to the social and political upheaval caused by the mass immigration of Urdu speaking refugee Muslims from India. Traditionally, the dialects were designated by any of a number of areal or demographic names (see table below), e.g. "Multani" for the dialect spoken around Multan, which has been the largest city in the "Saraiki" speaking area for centuries. The name "Saraiki" (or variant spellings) was formally adopted in the 1960s by regional social and political leaders who undertook to promote Saraiki ethnic consciousness and to develop the vernaculars into a standardized written language.[2][3] The word "Sarāiki" originated from the word سوویرا "Sauvira",[5] a state name in old India . By adding adjectival suffix "-ki" to the word "Sauvirā" it became "Sauvirāki". The consonant 'v' with its neighboring vowels was dropped for simplification and hence the name became "Sarāiki". Although George Abraham Grierson reported that "Sirāiki" (that was the spelling he used) is from a Sindhi word sirō, meaning 'of the north, northern', Shackle[3]:388 asserts that this etymology is unverified.

The standard Roman script spelling of the Saraiki language name (at least de facto) is "Saraiki"; this is the spelling used in universities of Pakistan (the Islamia University of Bahawalpur, department of Saraiki established in 1989,[6] Bahauddin Zakariya University, in Multan, department of Saraiki established in 2006,[7] and Allama Iqbal Open University, in Islamabad, department of Pakistani languages established in 1998),[8] and by the district governments of Bahawalpur[9] and Multan,[10] as well as by the federal institutions of the Government of Pakistan like Population Census Organization[11] and Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation.[12] Two of the native scripts, Gurmukhi and Devanagari, use the 'a' spelling (or rather, its native equivalent), which indicates that the vowel of the first syllable is a short /a/. In the Gurmukhi and Devanagari spellings given above, this is manifested by the lack of any vowel diacritic. As is standard for native Indo-Aryan orthographies, the absence of any diacritic over a consonant indicates that a short /a/ is spoken after that consonant.


Classification within Indo-Aryan


Saraiki, Sindhi and Punjabi are all members of the Indo-Aryan subdivision of the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. Although Punjabi and Saraiki are mutually intelligible, they differ in consonant inventory and in the structure of the verb.

In 1919, Grierson maintained that the dialects of what is now the southwest of Punjab Province in Pakistan constitute a dialect cluster, which he designated "Southern Lahnda" within a putative "Lahnda language". Subsequent Indo-Aryanist linguists have confirmed the reality of this dialect cluster, even while rejecting the name "Southern Lahnda" along with the entity "Lahnda" itself.[13][14] However, outside of Indo-Aryanist circles, the concept of "Lahnda" is still found in compilations of the world's languages (e.g., Ethnologue).

There is a tendency for some discussions of the Saraiki dialects and their emerging standard literary language to incorrectly include dialects or languages spoken farther north, in particular Hindko and modern Panjistani. This error is due to confusing Saraiki (Grierson's "Southern Lahnda") with Grierson's larger category of Lahnda, within which Grierson included dialects spoken north of the Salt Range, now called Hindko and modern Panjistani (Potwari, Mirpuri) as stated by Mohammd Afzal of London UK. While the more northern dialects are considerably similar to Saraiki in linguistic structure, starting with Grierson they have been recognised as definitely distinct from the dialect cluster spoken south of the Salt Range.

Problems in nomenclature

The historical inventory of names for the dialects now called Saraiki is a confusion of overlapping or conflicting ethnic, local, and regional designations. "Hindki" and "Hindko" -- which means merely "of India" -- refer to various Saraiki and even non-Saraiki dialects in Punjab Province and farther north within the country similar language now called modern Panjistani( ascertained by Mohammed Afzal of London, UK), due to the fact they were applied by arrivals from Afghanistan or Persia. One historical name for Saraiki, Jaṭki, means "of the Jaṭṭs", a northern South Asian ethnic group; but Jaṭṭs speak the Indo-Aryan dialect of whatever region they live in. Only a small minority of Saraiki speakers are Jaṭṭs, and not all Saraiki speaking Jaṭṭs necessarily speak the same dialect of Saraiki. Conversely, several Saraiki dialects have multiple names corresponding to different locales or demographic groups. When consulting sources before 2000, it is important to know that Pakistani administrative boundaries have been altered frequently. Provinces in Pakistan are divided into districts, and sources on "Saraiki" often describe the territory of a dialect or dialect group according to the districts. Since the founding of Pakistan in 1947, several of these districts have been subdivided, some multiple times. Until 2001, the territorial structure of Pakistan included a layer of divisions between a province and it's districts. The name dialect name "Ḍerawali" is used to refer to the local dialects of both Dera Ghazi Khan and Dera Ismail Khan, but "Ḍerawali" in the former is the Multani dialect and "Ḍerawali" in the latter is the Thaḷi dialect.[15][16]

Tabulation of dialects

Shackle 1976 has proposed a tentative classification of Saraiki dialects into six "varieties", wherein variety is defined as a group of dialects. (Shackle's scheme really involves just five "varieties", since he himself observes that Shahpuri, spoken in Sargodha District and parts of neighboring districts, is in truth not a kind of Saraiki, but instead a dialect of Punjabi with Saraiki features.) The precise geographical distribution of these dialect groups is unknown. The six are dubbed "Central" (i.e., Multani); "Southern" (i.e., Bahawalpuri, spoken primarily in Rahim Yar Khan district and in Bahawalpur district south of the city of Bahawalpur); Sindhi (spoken in Sindh province by emigrants); "Northern" (Thaḷi); Jhang; and Shahpuri.

Rachnavi (Urdu: رچناوی) or Jhangochi (جھنگوچی) dialect[17] is spoken in Pakistani Punjab. Rachnavi or Jhangochi is the oldest and most idiosyncratic dialect of the Saraiki. It is spoken throughout a widespread area, starting from Khanewal and Jhang at both ends of Ravi and Chenab to Gujranwala district. It then runs down to Bahawalnagar and Chishtian areas, on the banks of river Sutlej. This entire area has almost the same traditions, customs and culture. The Jhangochi dialect of Punjabi has several aspects that set it apart from other Punjabi variants. This area has a great culture and heritage, especially literary heritage, as it is credited with the creation of the famous epic romance stories of Heer Ranjha and Mirza Sahiba. It is spoken in the Bar areas of Punjab, i.e., areas whose names are often suffixed with 'Bar', for example Sandal Bar, Kirana Bar, Neeli Bar, Ganji Bar and also from Khanewal to Jhang includes Faisalabad and Chiniot.

A list of names in use at one or another time during the 20th century for Saraiki dialects and dialect groups is compiled in the table below.[15][16] The dialect names are spelled in the standard Anglicized spelling. 'C' and 'ch' both resemble English 'ch'; 'c' represents an unaspirated sound, 'ch' an aspirated. A macron over a vowel indicates a long vowel.

Dialect group Subdialect Where spoken Alternate names Notes
Saraiki Saraiki Multan, Lodhran, Vehari, Bahawalpur, Muzaffargaṛh, Rahim Yar Khan Districts Bahāwalpurī/Riyāsatī, both names in use in Bahawalpur District. According to Masica, the two names Bahāwalpurī and Riyāsatī are locally specific names for the Mūltānī dialect group, possibly specific dialects within the group. According to Shackle, they instead denote a distinct dialect group. Also according to Shackle, the Bahawalpur District of Punjab Province (i.e., within its 1976 boundaries) is split between Multani in the north and Bahawalpuri in the south, with the dialect of Bahawalpur city being of blend of these two.
Ḍerāwālī[18] Dera Ismail Khan District, Dera Ghazi Khan District, Rajanpur District, Derawal Nagar (Delhi)
According to Masica, this use of the name Ḍerāwāl is to be distinguished from its use as an alternate name for a different dialect group (see following row).
Thaḷī Saraiki Jhang, Sargodha, Layyah, Muzaffargarh, Mianwali Districts (Punjab Province); Bannu Districts (Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa) Thaḷochṛi in Jhang District; Jaṭkī; Hindkō, Hindkī, Ḍerāwāl west of the Indus River, the last referring to the vicinity of Dera Ismail Khan Named after the Thaḷ, a region bordered by the Indus River to the west and the Jhelum and Chenab Rivers to the east.
Sindhī Saraiki
northern part of Sindh Province
Sirāikī dialect which has some features of the Sindhī language. Sindhi Saraiki is widely spoken in Kashmore, Jacobabad, Shikarpur, Tando Muhammad Khan, Tando Allahyar, Sobho Khan Mastoi, Kamal Khan Mastoi, Thatta, Sujawal, Dadu and Ghotki. Initerier sindh 40% of papulation speak sidhi Saraiki.
Jhangvī Saraiki (Rachnavi) Local Saraiki Jhang, Faisalabad, Gujrat, Gujranwala Districts Cināwaṛī, Cinhāwaṛī (from the name of an area on the right bank of the Chenab River) Jhangī may actually be closer to the Punjabi language. Gujrat District is not to be confused with Gujarat State in India.
Jāng(a)lī , Rachnavi Jangal Bar tract of Faisalabad District and all regions encompassing the former Montgomery District
Dialect of Jhangochi spoken by the pastoral tribes of the mentioned areas, such as the Kharals, Wattus, Johiyas, who used to rear cattle and sheep in the jungles, before irrigation of the region.
Kacchṛī Kacchṛī is named for alluvial desert plain of Kacchī, SW of Jhang town

Niswānī North Jhang District
Subdialect or local name of Jhangī as spoken by a tribe, the Niswānā, as of 1919.

Features

Saraiki and Sindhi both have somewhat similar consonant inventories.[19] This inventory includes phonemically distinctive implosive consonants, which makes Sindhi and Saraiki unusual among the Indo-European languages (and not just among the Indo-Aryan languages).

Phonology

Vowels

Saraiki has three short vowels, seven long vowels and six nasal vowels.

Consonants


Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Stops and
affricates
Voiceless p pʰ
t̪ t̪ʰ t tʰ
t͡ʃ t͡ʃʰ k kʰ ʔ
Voiced b bʱ
d̪ d̪ʱ d dʱ
d͡ʒ d͡ʒʱ ɡ ɡʱ
Implosives ɓ

ɗ
ʄ ɠ
Nasals m mʱ

n nʱ ɳ ɲ ŋ
Fricatives Voiceless
f
s
ʃ x h
Voiced
v
z
ʒ ɣ
Trills


r rʱ



Flaps



ɽ ɽʱ


Laterals


l lʱ



Semivowel




j

Writing system

There are three writing systems for Saraiki, though very few Saraiki speakers—even those literate in other languages — are able to read or write their own language in any writing system. The most common Saraiki writing system today is the Persian script, which has also been adapted for use on computers. Saraiki has a 42-letter alphabet including 37 of the Urdu alphabet and five letters unique to Saraiki. The Saraiki keyboard can also be used for other languages such as Punjabi & Kashmiri. The Devanagari and Gurmukhi scripts, written from left to right, were used by Hindus. Though not used in present-day Pakistan, there are still emigrant speakers in India who know the Devanagari or Gurmukhi scripts for Saraiki.[20][21] Traders or bookkeepers wrote in a script known as Langdi, although use of this script has been significantly reduced in recent times. The transliteration from and to Persian and Devanagari scripts for Saraiki language can be made online.[22]

In the process of creating a distinct Saraiki written language, activists have paid attention to creating a standard script and orthographic norms. Orthographic and linguistic standardization of Saraiki seems more connected with the politics of identity. Although Saraiki shares four implosive sounds with Sindhi, care was taken so that the Saraiki script and the representation of these symbols should be different from that of Sindhi so that the Sindhis should not lay any claims over Saraiki literature as theirs.[citation needed]

Geographic distribution and number of speakers

Saraiki is a language of great antiquity in Pakistan. It served as "Lingua Franca" among the people living around i.e. the Bloch and Sindhis, the Pashtoons and Punjabis etc. for centuries. It also remained the language of commerce and trade until recent times. Today over forty million people of South Punjab and Dera Ismail Khan region of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa province speak Saraiki as their first language. It is widely spoken and understood as a second language in other areas of Punjab, Northern and Western Sindh down to the suburbs of Karachi, and in Kachhi plain of Baluchistan. The vernacular dialects on which Saraiki is based are native to what is now the southwestern half of Punjab Province in Pakistan, south of the Salt Range of mountains. It is also spoken in India and Afghanistan.

The first national census of Pakistan to gather data on the prevalence of Saraiki was the census of 1981.[citation needed] In that year, the percentage of respondents nationwide reporting Saraiki as their mother tongue was 9.83. In the census of 1998, it was 10.53 out of a national population of 132 million, for a figure of 13.9 million Saraiki speakers resident in Pakistan. Also according to the 1998 census, 12.8 million of those, or 92%, lived in the Province of Punjab.[23]

Punjab

Saraiki is home to the districts of, but not limited to, Mianwali, Bhakkar, Khushab, Layyah, Muzaffar Garh, Dera Ghazi Khan, Rajanpur, Multan, Vehari, Lodhran, Mailsi, Khanewal, Sahiwal, Bahwalpur, Bahawalnagar, Rahimyar Khan, Sadiqabad. Thal and Cholistan deserts also are homes of Saraiki language. These areas are called as Saraiki Waseb according to Saraiki literature. More than Saraiki Waseb, there are native speaskers of Saraiki language in the districts of Mandi Bahuddin, Chakwal, Hafizabad, Faisalabad, Okara, Toba Teksingh and Lahore.

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

In Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Saraiki is native language in the districts of Dera Ismail Khan and Tank.

[Sindh

In Sindh Saraiki is widely spoken in Kashmore, Jacobabad, Shikarpur, Tando Muhammad Khan, Tando Allahyar, Sobho Khan Mastoi, Kamal Khan Mastoi, Thatta, Sujawal, Dadu and Ghotki.

Balochistan

Saraiki is widely spoken in Naseerabad Division of Balochistan. It is also the second language of many in the Sulaiman Mountains including Loralai, Musa Khel and Barkhan adjoining Dera Ghazi Khan and Rajanpur districts of Punjab.

Saraiki in the World

Saraiki is also spoken by a tiny, recent diaspora in Punjab, India. According to the Indian census of 2001, Saraiki is spoken in urban areas throughout northwest and north central India by a total of about 70,000 people, the descendants of emigrants from western Punjab after the partition of India in 1947. Out of these total speakers of the language, 56,096 persons report their dialect as Mūltānī and by 11,873 individuals report their dialect as Bahāwalpurī.[1] Other dialects of Saraiki that are spoken by Indian Saraikis include Derawali[24] Jafri, Saraiki Hindki, Jhangi, Thali, and Jatki.[25] Saraiki is spoken in Sirsa, Fatehabad, Hisar, Bhiwani, Panipat districts of Haryana, some area of Delhi and Ganganagar district,Hanumangarh and Bikaner districts of Rajasthan. It is spoken at low scale in Utrakhand and U.P. Romani and Saraiki share some words and similar grammatical systems. The cause of the Romani diaspora is unknown. However, the most probable conclusion is that the Romanies were part of the military in Northern India. When there were repeated raids by Mahmud of Ghazni and these soldiers were defeated, they were moved west with their families into the Byzantine Empire. This occurred between AD 1000 and 1030.

Multani, In Afghanistan, Kandahari, a dialect of Multani Saraiki is a mother tongue of Afghan Hindus.[26]

Many Saraiki migrants are in Middle East, Europe and America with smaller communities in Australia, South East Asia and China. Saraiki is second largest language in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia with more than 2.5M. In UK Saraiki is spoken by 400 thousads.

Literature

Main article: Saraiki literature
Tomb of Sufi poet Khwaja Ghulam Farid

Khawaja Ghulam Farid (1845–1901), his famous collection is Deewan-e-Farid, Sultan Bahu and Sachal Sar Mast (1739–1829) are the most celebrated Sufi poets in Saraiki and their poems known as Kafi are still famous.

The beloved's intense glances call for blood
The dark hair wildly flows The Kohl of the eyes is fiercely black
And slays the lovers with no excuse
My appearance in ruins, I sit and wait
While the beloved has settled in Malheer I feel the sting of the cruel dart
My heart the, abode of pain and grief A life of tears, I have led Farid
-one of Khwaja Ghulam Farid's poems (translated)

Shakir Shujabadi (Kalam-e-Shakir, Khuda Janey, Shakir Diyan Ghazlan, Peelay Patr, Munafqan Tu Khuda Bachaway, Shakir De Dohray are his famous books) is very well recognized modern poet.

Music and Arts

Saraiki folk singer late Pathanay Khan

Many modern Pakistan Singers like Hadiqa Kiyani and Ali Zafar have also sung Saraiki folk songs.

Related languages


Saraiki culture

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Saraiki Culture)
A fruit vendor in a fruit market in the heart of Multan

Saraiki Culture is the culture of the Saraiki speaking people residing in Pakistan and outside Pakistan. The region where Saraiki is spoken in Pakistan is part of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization and has been centre of culture and trade in Indian Sub-continent. It has been centre of Islamic mysticism after 712 C.E.

Contents


Sufism

Mausoleum of Shah Rukn-e-Alam
Main article: Multan#Culture

There is a saying in Persian that Multan is the 'City of Saints, Sufis and Beggars' (Gard, Garma wa Goristan). It is one of the main cities in the Southern Punjab province of Pakistan. The city has been a focal point for many religions, in particular becoming a central abode for Sufism, the mystical side of Islam. The city has attracted Sufi saints from far places of the globe. Today, Multan is known as the 'City of Sufis'. Shaikh Amin bin Abdul Rehman, who has introduced the Idrisiyya sufi order in Pakistan, lives at 381-A, Shah Rukn-e-Alam Colony, New Multan, where a four-storey mosque adjacent to his residence is visited by people from all over the country.

Architecture

Darbar Mahal in Bahawalpur

Multan is one of the oldest cities in South Asia, with many tombs, shrines, temples, cathedrals and mausoleums, as well as a historical fort. Today Multan is a combination of old and the new Pakistan culture. There is a big hustle bustle in the old city and comfort of a five star hotel and fine dining in the new. The old city has a various bazaars selling mystical artifacts, perfumes to arts and crafts. There are also elaborately decorated shrines of the Sufi saints, tombs of various travellers and important people within the old city of Multan.

The prime attractions of Multan are its mausoleums of Sufi saints. The Mausoleum of Sheikh Baha-ud-Din Zakariya, as well as the Mausoleum of Shah Rukn-e-Alam are the prime attractions of the city. Their lofty domes of are visible, from miles and dominate the skyline of Multan. Another popular shrine is the Mausoleum of Shams-ud-Din, commonly known as Shah Shamsuddin Sabzwari is located about half a mile to the east of the Multan Fort, on the high bank of the old bed of the Ravi River.

Another famous and beautiful mausoleum of a warrior sufi saint and poet Hazrat Hafiz Muhammad Jamal Multani (1747-1811 AD) is situated near Aam Khas garden outside Daulat Gate, Multan.

There are many beautiful buildings, castles and palaces in Bahawalpur, Dera Ghazi Khan and Mankera.

Saraiki Cuisine

Sohanjrraan tree

Flowers of Sohanjrraan or Sohanjna (Moringa oleifera) is one of the most famous vegetable dish in South Punjab.

Traditional Saraiki Sports

Geeti Danna or Gilli-danda (Urdu: گلی ڈنڈا) is one of the famous traditional sports especially in boys in rural areas along with other sports like Baandar Killa, Pitho Garam, Staapu and Kabaddi.

Saraiki Literature

Main article: Saraiki literature
Tomb of Sufi poet Khwaja Ghulam Farid

Saraiki is famous for its Sufi poetry. Khawaja Ghulam Farid (1845-1901), his famous collection is Deewan-e-Farid, and Sachal Sar Mast (1739–1829) are the most celebrated Sufi poets in Saraiki and their poems known as Kafi are still famous.

The beloved's intense glances call for blood
The dark hair wildly flows The Kohl of the eyes is fiercely black
And slays the lovers with no excuse
My appearance in ruins, I sit and wait
While the beloved has settled in Malheer I feel the sting of the cruel dart
My heart the, abode of pain and grief A life of tears, I have led Farid
-one of Khwaja Ghulam Farid's poems (translated)

Shakir Shujabadi (Kalam-e-Shakir, Khuda Janey, Shakir Diyan Ghazlan, Peelay Patr, Munafqan Tu Khuda Bachaway, Shakir De Dohray are his famous books) is very well recognized modern poet.

Saraiki folklore

Saraiki areas in the south are equally rich in folklore.

Art and Music

Saraiki folk singer latePathay Khan

Saraiki folk music revolves around the desert's beauty and following are the famous Saraiki singers who perform folk and Sufi music.

Many modern Pakistan Singers like Hadiqa Kiyani and Ali Zafar have also sung Saraiki folk songs.


Comments