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Average Speed - Olga Aguila-Buhain

Title: Average Speed

Principle(s) Investigated:    
Students will recognize that properties such as reference point, direction, velocity and acceleration are used to describe motion. 
Students will learn that average speed can be calculated by diving total distance by total time. Also, that graphs are used to represent motion. 

Students need to be able to interpret that distance versus time provides the slope of the line and that the slope is also the speed.  

Students will be able to make the connection between different slopes and how that relates to differences in speed. l distance by total time.  Also, that graphs are used to represent motion. 



Standards : Physical Science - Motion

8.1.a. Students know position is defined in relation to some choice of a standard reference point and a set of reference directions.

8.1.b. Students know that average speed is the total distance traveled divided by the total time elapsed and that the speed of an object along the path traveled can vary.

8.1.c. Students know how to solve problems involving distance, time, and average speed.

8.1.f. Students know how to interpret graphs of position versus time and graphs of speed versus time for motion in a single direction.

Materials:

Taking Flight Activity Worksheet

Clipboard (1 per pair of students)

Stopwatch / Timer (1 per pair of students)

Outdoor setting with an area of known distance (Quad is 25 Meters per side)

Procedure:

1.       Go to outside quad

2.       Get into pairs

3.       Students make sure to have 2 worksheets, 1 clipboard, 1 stopwatch, pen or pencil

4.       One person will keep track of time; the other will walk at medium pace and hold the clipboard with worksheet his/her worksheet.

*Medium pace corresponds to flying in a plane.

5.       When the student walking reaches the 25 meter mark (first corner of quad), the student with the stopwatch will call out the time.  (DO NOT stop the count on the stopwatch).

6.       The student that is walking will record this time on his/her worksheet

7.       This will be repeated at the four corners.

8.       Student will have recorded the time it took to get to each corner (25 meters, 50 meters, 75 meters, 100 meters).

9.       The same student will now walk at a fast pace. Steps 4-8 will be repeated.

*Fast pace will correspond to flying in a Jet.

10.   The students will switch roles and the second student will now have the opportunity to get their data, walking at medium pace and fast pace.

11.   The second students will have at the end of his/her turn two sets of data.

Medium walking pace times for 25 meters, 50 meters, 75 meters, 100 meters

Fast walking pace times for 25 meters, 50 meters, 75 meters, 100 meters

12.   When everyone has completed their data collection, we will return to class to graph and analyze data.



Student Prior Knowledge:

Students need to know that an object is moving when its distance from another object is changing.

Students need to know that measuring Motion requires being able to locate the object by using Reference Point, Distance (Units of measurements, Blocks, Meters, ect.).  Direction (Up, Down, Left, Right, North, South, East, West).

Students need to know how to graph speed versus time and that Average Speed is calculated by dividing Total Distance by Total Time.

Students need to be able to interpret that distance versus time provides the slope of the line and that the slope is also the speed.  

Students will be able to make the connection between different slopes and how that relates to differences in speed.



Explanation:

Students will identify themselves as the object in motion.  They will choose the designated corner of the quad as the Reference point.  From this Reference Point they will measure how long it takes them to get to each 25 meter marker (corner).  The students will have 3 sets of data.  One set of data will be provided which will be called “The Old Bird”, a slow plane.  The other two sets of data will be obtained through their measurements.  By graphing the three sets of data they will get three lines with different slopes.  Each slope corresponds to the speed the Old Bird, the plane and the Jet are flying.  Form these graph students will be able to make the connection that a steep slope corresponds to a fast speed and a less steep slope corresponds to a slower speed.

Questions & Answers: 

1.      Provide three examples of everyday life when you would want to know the Average Speed?  

A track and Filedd race, an Olympic event,  a runner runnign a Marathon

2.      How is slope connected to the Speed of the Old Bird, the plane and the Jet?

The Slope of the line equals Speed

3.      Have you encountered Motion in other subjects like History, Biology or Math?

History - Migration, Biology- Movement in an out of a cell



Applications to Everyday Life: 

Motion is everywhere.  Motion can be used for a simple task like finding your way around the Mall.  Next time you are at the Mall, look for the Directory.  The Directory will have a mark showing “You are Here”, this is your reference point.  From the reference point you can see how you need to move in order to get to your desired destination.

Motion in the form of Speed is an important concept for young drivers to understand.  As a driver you will encounter issues such as driving within the speed limit, deciding if gas mileage is a factor to consider when purchasing a car or driving at certain speeds saves fuel.

 

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Olga Aguila,
Dec 14, 2011, 8:40 PM
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