Formula Writing and Chemical Naming via Double
Principle(s) Investigated: List all principles that apply to this activity.
1. Chemical reactions
2. Double Replacement Reaction (one of the five types of chemical reactions: synthesis, combustion, decomposition, single replacement, double replacement)
3. Evidence of chemical reactions (gas, odor, color, precipitation, heat exchange)
4· Writing and balancing chemical formula
5· Naming ionic compounds
of molecular mass
Standards: Paste in the appropriate California content standards.
1. Atomic and Molecular Structure
a. Students know how to relate the position of
an element in the periodic table to its atomic number and atomic mass.
b. Students know how to use the periodic table
to identify metals, semimetals, nonmetals, and halogens.
c. Students know how to use the periodic table
to identify 1a, 2a, transition metals, ionization energy, electronegativities,
and sizes of ions atoms.
d. Students know how to use the periodic table to determine the number of electrons available for bonding.
2. Chemical Bonds
a. Students know atoms combine to form molecules via covalent, ionic, or metallic bonds.
c. Students know salt crystals, such as NaCl, are repeating patterns of (+) & (-) ions held together by electrostatic attraction.3. Conservation of Matter and Stoichiometry
a. Students know how to describe chemical reactions by writing balanced equations
c. Students know how to calculate the masses of reactants and products in a chemical reaction.
Materials: Include a list of materials and sources from which they may be obtained.
1. Holder tray with wells or beakers (for holding pipettes)
2. Eight 2-mL plastic pipettes (for each group of four)
3. One 250-mL beaker for waste disposal
4. Work sheet covered with a clear plastic sheet (for the 16 reactions)
5. Procedure hand-out
6. Anion solutions:
#1: Sodium Chloride, 10%, 100 mL7. Cation solutions:
#2: Sodium oxalate, 10%, 100 mL
#3: Sodium carbonate, 10%, 100mL
#4: Sodium Hydroxide, 5%, 100 mL·
#A: Silver nitrate, 2%, 100 mL
#B: Cobalt (II) sulfate, 5%, 100 mL
#C: Potassium ferricyanide, 5%, 100 mL
#D: Copper (II) sulfate, 5%, 100 mL
Procedure: Give a detailed explanation of the procedure and include diagrams if possible.
Part 1: Experimental: Double Replacement Reactions
Students will perform a series of 16 reactions on a plastic covered work sheet as seen below.
1. Pipette about 1 mL of each solution. Separate the anions and the cations in two separate holders.
Be careful not to mix up the order of the pipettes.
2. Add two drops of each of the anion solutions on the work sheet (above). Hint: It’s best to add in series.For example, add the Cl- solution to boxes 1, 5, 9, &13.
3. Add two drops of each of the cation solutions on top of the anions.
4. Observe and record for sign of reactions (or none thereof) as color change and/or precipitation.
5. Discard any residual from the pipettes to the waste-labeled beaker.
6. Return pipettes to holder.
Part 2: Analysis of data – Writing and naming chemical formulas
1. Identify the cation and the anion that react together, and the precipitated product
2. Write the balanced chemical formula of the product (precipitate)
3. Calculate the molecular mass of the product
4. Figure out the formal name of the product
An example is provided below: AgNO3 + NaCl --> AgCl + NaNO3
Part 1: Experimental: Double Replacement Reactions:
1. Teacher: will explain the procedure and demonstrate a representative
reaction (AgNO3 + NaCl --> AgCl + NaNO3) in box #1 using an
overhead projector and a plastic-covered work sheet as shown above. In this reaction AgCl separates as a white precipitate and the name of the product is Silver Chloride.
Explanation: The ions that will be reacted together to form a precipitate will come from the dissociation of different compounds in an aqueous solution. For example:
Solution #1: NaCl(s) --> Na+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
Solution #A: AgNO3(s) --> Ag+(aq) + NO3-(aq
Reaction: AgNO3 + NaCl --> AgCl + NaNO3
Soln 1 + Soln A --> White precipitate of AgCl
2. Students: will perform a series of 16 reactions on a plastic-covered sheet and record their observation on a data sheet.
Students will analyze data, then write the formula of the
products, and name them accordingly. To be able to analyze the data, the students were taught with the background information below.
Background: A chemical formula is a combination of symbols and numerical subscripts that represents the composition of a compound. The symbols indicate which elements are present and the numerical subscripts indicate the relative proportion of each element in the compound. These proportions can be predicted using the oxidation number or charges of the elements. When the atoms acquire a charge they are called ions.
It is important that all scientists use the same system for writing chemical formulas. This helps to ensure clear and consistent transmission of information. Therefore, the following rules should be used for writing chemical formulas:
1. In neutral compounds the sum of the charges of the elements (ions) must equal zero. One positive (+) will neutralize one negative (-) charge.
2. Elements (ions) with positive charges are written first.
3. When the relative proportions of the polyatomic ion in a ternary compound is greater than one, the symbol for that ion must be enclosed in parenthesis and then followed by a numeral subscript indicating its relative proportion, as in the ternary compound of aluminum sulfate whose formula would be Al2(SO4)3.
Questions & Answers: Give three
thought-provoking questions and provide detailed answers.
Q1. What is a chemical formula?
A1: An expression revealing the number of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound.
Q2. What information does a subscript in a chemical formula provide?
A2: The subscript indicates the number of the preceding atoms present in the chemical symbol
Q3. When is parenthesis to be used in writing a chemical formula?
A3: Parenthesis is used when a subscript is required in the case of a polyatomic ion.
Q4. When is a roman numeral to be used in the name of a compound?
A4: A roman numeral is used in naming transition metal salts to indicate its oxidation state (charge). There are three exceptions: Ag+, Zn2+, and Sc3+, however. The roman numeral is not applicable because these three metals have each only one oxidation state (Ag+, Zn2+, and Sc3+).
appears as if all transition metals have a roman numerals in their name (Copper
(I) Chloride for CuCl). But why is the Silver Chloride (AgCl) does not a roman
A5: As explained in A4, Ag, though listed as one of the transition metal, has only one oxidation number. The ion is listed as Ag+.
Q6. What is the meaning of “transition” in transition metals?
A6: To indicate multiple (transient) oxidation states of the metals.
Applications to Everyday Life: Explain (don't just list) three instances where this principle can be used to explain other phenomenon.
1. Rust is actually Iron (III) Oxide or Fe2O3.
2. The tough stain found in bathroom floor or sink is actually Iron (III) Carbonate (box #11). Heavy metals react with carbonic acid in water to give trace of carbonates, which precipitate and build up with time.
3. The black taint on silverware is actually Silver Oxide or Ag2O. In one of the above reactions (box #4), the initial product was silver hydroxide (white), which decomposes instantaneously to black silver oxide.
Photographs: Include a photograph of you or students performing the experiment/demonstration, and a close-up, easy to interpret photograph of the activity --these can be included later.
Videos: Include links to videos posted on the web that relate to your activity. These can be videos you have made or ones others have made.