Sects & Sectarianism

The origins of Buddhist Schools


Sects & Sectarianism



1. The 'Unity Edicts'

2. The Saints of Vedisa 

3. The Dipavamsa

4. Monster or Saint?

5. The Three Sins & the Five Theses 

6. More on the Vibhajjavadins

7. Vibhajjavada vs. Sarvastivada?

8. Dharmagupta: the Greek Missions

9. The Mulasarvastivadins of Mathura



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Dhamma or Vinaya?

Asoka and the First Schism

Dharmaguptakas and the Stupa

The First Mahasanghikas  

A Higher Criticism of Archaeology

Names & Dates at Vedisa

Who is Kunti?

Mahasanghika - the Earliest Vinaya?

Sekhiya Rules Reconsidered 

Sanghabheda vs. Nikayabheda

Sasaki and Schism

Bhikkhunis & Sectarianism (A summary of S&S presented at the Congress on Buddhist Women's Role in the Sangha)


The Sangha of bhikkhus and bhikkhunis has been made unified.

As long as my children and grandchildren shall live, and as long as the sun and the moon shall shine, any bhikkhu or bhikkhuni who divides the Sangha shall be made to wear white clothes and dwell outside the monasteries.

What it is my wish?

That the unity of the Sangha should last a long time.

King Aśoka, Minor Pillar Edict, Sāñchī