Home‎ > ‎



[1]     Abdousalam, A.G., 2010. Effect of heavy metals on soil        microbial processes and population. Egyptian Academic Journal of Biological Sciences, 2(2), 9-14. Retrieved from    http://microbiology.eajbs.eg.net/pdf/vol2.n2/2.pdf

[2]    Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada (AANDC). 2004. Muskoxen. Retrieved April 10, 2013, from http://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/

[3]    Ahmad, K., Gupta, R.D., Sharholy, M. & Vaishya, R.C. (2007). Municipal solid waste characteristics and management in Allahabad, India. Waste Management, 27, 490-496. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2006.03.00

[4]    Annepu, R.K. Sustainable solid waste management in India (Master’s thesis). Retrieved from http://www.seas.columbia.edu/earth/wtert/tpublication.html

[5]    Arora, S., Bhardwaj, R., Katnoria, J.K., & Nagpal, A. (2010). Evaluation of genotoxic potential of industrial waste contaminated soil extracts of Amritsar, India. Journal of Environmental Biology, 32(3), 363-367. Retrieved from http://www.jeb.co.in/

[6]    Awasthi, M.K., Bundela, P.S., Gautam, S.P., Pandey, A.K., & Sarsaiya, S. (2010). Municipal soil waste management in Indian cities: A review. International Journal of Environmental Sciences 1(4), 591-606. Retrieved from http://www.indiaenvironmentportal.org.in

[7]    Bradl, H.B. (2004). Adsorption of heavy metal ions on soil and soil constituents. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 277(1), 1-18. doi: 

[8]    Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). (2013). The world factbook: India. Retrieved April 2, 2013, from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/in.html10.1016/j.jcis.2004.04.005

[9]    Central Pollution Control Board. 2008. Industry specific standards. Retrieved April 10, 2013, from http://cpcb.nic.in/Industry_Specific_Standards.php

[10]    Dube, A., Zbytniewski, R., Kowalkowski, T., Cukrowska, E., & Buszewski, B. (2001). Adsorption and migration of heavy metals in soil. Journal of Environmental studies 10(1), 1-10. Retrieved from http://www.pjoes.com/pdf/10.1/1-10.pdf

[11]    Environmental Protection Act 1986 (India). Retrieved from http://envfor.nic.in/legis/env/env1.html

[12]    Environment Protection Agency (EPA). (2009). Waste guidelines: Waste definitions. Retrieved from http://www.epa.sa.gov.au/

[13]    Galea, B. (2010). Waste regulation in India: An overview (Working Paper Series). Retrieved from Centre for Public Policy Research website http://www.cppr.in/

[14]    Gangwar, K.K. (2009). Chromium uptake efficiency of Spinaea olaracae. Journal of Applied Science. Environmental Management 13(4), 71-72. Retrieved from http://www.bioonline.org.br/pdf?ja0906/

[15]    Government of India, Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF). (2009). State of Environment Report, India 2009. Retrieved from Government of India, Ministry of Environment & Forests website http  ://m oef.nic.in/soer/2009  /SoE%20Report_2009.pdf

[16]    The Hazardous Wastes Rules 2008 (India). Retrieved from

[17]    Indian Exports and Business Trade Zone. (2011). Indian agro products. Retrieved April 9, 2013, from http://www.india-exports.com/

[18]    Ismail, F., Anjum, M.R., Mamon, A.N., & Kazi, T.G. (2011). Trace metal content of vegetables and fruits of Hyderabad retail market. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 10(4), 365-372.

[19]    Keeney, D., & Larson, W. (2000). Asia-Pacific: A case for improving soil quality. Chemical Innovation, 30(9), 48-51. Retrieved from             

[20]     Khajuria, A., Yamamoto, Y., & Morioka, T. (2010).
Estimation of municipal solid waste generation and landfill area in Asian developing countries. Journal of Environmental Biology 31(5), 649-654.  http://www.jeb.co.in/journal_issues/201009_sep10/paper_16.pdf

[21]    Kohli,  J.S., & Singh, A. (2012). Effect of pollution on comman man in India: A legal perspective. Advances in Life Science and Technology 4, 35-41. Retrieved from www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/ALST/article/view/13 72/1295

[22]    Lazaro, F, S. (2009, September 15). As it grows, India faces problems feeding itself [Video File]. Retrieved from http://pulitzercenter.org/video/newshour-indias-growing-problem-food-productions

[23]    Lokhande, R.S., Singare, P.U., & Pimple, D.S. (2011). Toxicity study of heavy   metals pollutants in waste water effluent samples collected from Taloja Industrial Estate of Mumbai, India. Resources and Environment 1(1), 13-19. doi: 10.5923/j.re.20110101.02

[24]    Malik, A., Mohammad, A.Z., & Shamim, A. (2009). Genotoxic and mutagenic potential of agricultural soil irrigated with tannery effluents at Jajmau (Kanpur) India. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 57(3), 463-476. doi: 10.1007/s00244-009-9284-0

[25]    Marietta College. 2002. Bioaccumulation and biomagnification. Retrieved April 10, 2013, from http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/102/2bioma95.html

[26]    Medscape Reference. 2011. Heavy metal toxicity. Retrieved April 12, 2013, from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/814960-overview

[27]    Municipal Solid Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules 1999 (India). Retrieved from http://envfor.nic.in/legis/hsm/mswmhr.html

[28]    Pandey, R., Pandey. J., & Shubhashish, K. (2012). Dietary intake of pollutant aerosols via vegetables influenced by atmospheric deposition and  wastewater irrigation. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 76, 200-208. doi: 10.1016/jecoenv.2011.10.004

[29]    Pappu, A., Saxena, M. & Asolekar, S.R. (2007). Solid wastes generation in India and their recycling potential in building materials. Building and Environment 42(6), 2311-2320. Retrieved from http://dspace.library.iitb.ac.in/jspui/

[30]    Parth, V., Murthy, N.N., & Saxena, P.R. (2011).  Assesment of heavy metal contamination in soil around hazardous waste disposal sites in Hyderabad city (India): natural and anthropogenic implications. E3 Journal of Environmental Research and Management 2(2), 27-34. Retrieved from http://www.e3journals.org/JERM














[31]    Physicians for Social Responsibility (PSR). 2009. Heavy metals. Retrieved April 12, 2013, from http://www.psr.org/environment-and-health/confronting-toxics/heavy-metals/

[32]    Rahman, S.H., Khanam, D., Tanveer, M.A., Mohammad, S.I., Mohammad, A.A., & Mohammad, A.A. (2012). Assessement of heavy metal contamination of agricultural soil around Dhaka Export Processing Zoe (DEPZ), Bangladesh: Implication of seasonal variation indices. Applied Sciences, 2, 584-601. doi: 10.3390/app2030584

[33]    Rajaram, T., & Das, A. (2008). Water pollution by industrial effluents in India: Discharge scenarios and case for participatory ecosystem specific local regulation. Futures, 40, 58-69. doi: 10.1016/j.futures.2007.06.002

[34]    Ramesh, S. (2013, February 7). Untreated, toxic effluents still discharged into Kalingarayan canal. The Hindu. Retrieved from http://www.thehindu.com/

[35]    Roossinck, M.J., 2010. Beneficial microbes for agriculture. Retrieved April 9, 2013, from http://www.noble.org/ag/research/microbes/

[36]    Shanker, A.K., Cervantes, C., Herminia, L.T., & Avudainayagam, S. (2005). Chromium toxicity in plants. Environmental International 31, 739-753. doi: .1016/j.envint.2005.02.003

[37]    Singare, P.U., Lokhande, R.S., & Pathak, P.P. (2010). Soil pollution along Kalwa Bridge at Thane Creek of Maharashtra, India. Journal of Environmental Protection, 1, 121-128. doi: 10.4236/jep.2010.12016

[38]    Singare, P.U. (2012). Quantification study of non-biodegradable solid waste materials accumulated in the mangroves of Mahim Creek, Mumbai.  Marine Science 2(1), 1-5. doi:10.5923/j.ms.20120201.01

[39]    Singh, R., Gautam, N., Mishra, A., & Gupta, R. (2011). Heavy metals and living systems: An overview. Indian Journal of Pharmacology 43(3), 246-253. doi: 10.4103/0253-7613.81505

[40]    Times News Network (2011, February 13). Agri experts worry over soil quality, degradation. Times of India. Retrieved from http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/

[41]    Times News Network. (2012, December 20). Solid waste management in Varanasi cries for attention. Times of India. Retrieved from http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/

[42]    Times News Network. (2013, February 25). Garbage disposal remains major issue. Times of India. Retrieved from http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/

[43]    Tiwari, K.K., Singh, N.K., Patel, M.D., Tiwari, M.R.,  & Rai, U.N. (2011). Metal contamination of soil and translocation in vegetables growing under industrial wastewater irrigated field of Vadodara, Gujarat, India. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 74(6), 1670-1677. doi:             10.1016/jecoenv.2011.04.029

[44]    Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India. (2000). Solid Waste Management Manual. Retrieved fromhttp://www.urbanindia.nic.in/publicinfo/swm/swm_manual.htm

[45]    Van Der Heijden, M.G., Bardgett, R.D., & Straalan, N.M. (2008). The unseen majority: Soil microbes as drivers of plant diversity and productivity in terrestrial ecosystems. Ecology Letters 11, 296-310. doi: 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2007.01139.x

[46]    The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act 1974 (India). Retrieved from http://www.moef.nic.in/legis/water/wat1.html

[47]    World Bank. (2012). India. Retrieved March 15, 2013, from http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/india

[48]    World Health Organisation (WHO). 2013. Food security. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/trade/glossary/story028/en/

[49]    World Health Organisation (WHO). 2013. Arsenic in drinking water. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/arsenic/en/

[50]    Wuana, R.A., & Okieimen, F.E. (2011). Heavy metals in contaminated soils: A review of sources, chemistry and best available strategies for remediation. International Scholarly Research Network 20(11). doi: 10.5402/2011/402647

[51]    Pulitzer Centre. (2009). India kills her goddess. Retrieved April 13, 2013, from http://pulitzercenter.org/blog/untold-stories/india-kills-

[52]     Dashmishra, M. 2011. Political economy of development and environmental degradation in India. New Dehli Concept Publishing 

[53]     United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Natural Resources Conservation Service. (2000). Soil quality – Urban technical note no. 3 heavy metal soil contamination. Retrieved from http://soils.usda.gov/sqi/management/files/sq_utn_3.pdf

 [54]     Bruemmer, G.W., Gerth, J., & Herms U. (1986). Heavy metals, mobility and availability in soils. Journal of Z. Pflanzenernaehr Bodenk 149382-398. Retrieved from http://funnel.sfsu.edu/

[55]     Thomson Reuters Foundation. (2013). Seventy percent of rural families are hungry in India's Bihar. Retrieved April 13, 2013, from http://www.trust.org/alertnet/blogs/alertnet-news-blog/seventy-percent-of-rural-families-are-hungry-in-indias-bihar/

[56]    Mohammad Anwar Hossain, Pukclai Piyatida, Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva, and Masayuki Fujita, “Molecular Mechanism of Heavy Metal Toxicity and Tolerance in Plants: Central Role of Glutathione in Detoxification of Reactive Oxygen Species and Methylglyoxal and in Heavy Metal Chelation,” Journal of Botany, vol. 2012, Article ID 872875, 37 pages, 2012. doi:10.1155/2012/872875

[57]    C. Tiruppathi (2012) Heavy Metal Toxicity (Internet) Accessed 15/04/2013 Available from: http://www.uic.edu/classes/pcol/pcol331/dentalpharmhandouts2006/lecture41.pdf

[58]    Abdul R. MEMON, DiÛdem AKTOPRAKLIGÜL, Aylin …ZDEMÜR, Anastassiia VERTIIT BÜTAK (2000) Heavy Metal Accumulation and Detoxification Mechanisms in Plants (Internet) Accessed 15/04/2013. Available from: http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/botany/issues/bot-01-25-3/bot-25-3-1-9912-3.pdf

[59]    Bieby Voijant Tangahu, Siti Rozaimah Sheikh Abdullah, Hassan Basri, Mushrifah Idris, Nurina Anuar, and Muhammad Mukhlisin, “A Review on Heavy Metals (As, Pb, and Hg) Uptake by Plants through Phytoremediation,” International Journal of Chemical Engineering, vol. 2011, Article ID 939161, 31 pages, 2011. doi:10.1155/2011/939161

[60]    Wang, Q. R., Cui, Y. S., Liu, X. M., Dong, Y. T., & Christie, P. (2003). Soil contamination and plant uptake of heavy metals at polluted sites in China. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, 38(5), 823-838.

[61]    Popa, M., & Jitaru, M. (2005). Study on Heavy Metal Accumulation Level of Soils from Zlatna Region. Chem. Bull, 50, 127-129.

[62]    Heavy Metal Soil Contamination (2000) (Internet) Accessed 15/04/2013. Available from: http://soils.usda.gov/sqi/management/files/sq_utn_3.pdf

Image Citations

Adrian Page Media. (2009). Keratosis of the feet. [Image]. Retrieved April 14, 2013, from http://www.apagemedia.com/gallery/category/54

Alegriphotos. (2010). Red soil texture [Image]. Retrieved April 5, 2013, from http://www.4freetextures.com/images/Red-soil764.jpg

Association for Community Research and Action. (2010). Waste India. [Image]. Retrieved April 14, 2013, from http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_SrmQvh4yOpQ/S9McKXMU9AI/AAAAAAAAAFw/OsduuVahYIY/s1600/Waste_India.jpg

BioEnergy Consult. (2012). Bangalore Garbage. [Image]. Retrieved April 14, 2013, from http://i1.wp.com/www.bioenergyconsult.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/Bangalore-garbage.jpg

BioCop. (2009). Heavy metals in food chain. [Image]. Retrieved April 13, from http://www.workshop.wp9.biocop2009.uniroma2.it/Abstra2.jpg

Bindslev, N. (2008). Adsoprtion. [Image]. Retrieved April 16, 2013, from http://journals.sfu.ca/coactionbks/index.php/Bindslev/article/viewFile/3/16/268

Clear Impression Documentation Services. (2010). Discarded God. [Image]. Retrieved April 9, 2013, from http://clearimpression.files.wordpress.com/2010/10/discarded-god-comp.jpg

Digital Photography Now. (2008). Gazipur Landfill, Dehli. [Image]. Retrieved April 8, 2013, from http://dpnow.com/images/Gazipur%20Landfill%2C%20Delhi.jpg

Deccan Herald. (2010). India's exports: composition and destination. [Image]. Retrieved April 15, 2013, from http://www.deccanherald.com/images/editor_images1/2011/10/13/EXPORT.jpg

Freedman, S. (n.d.). India - Dehli's water wars. [Image]. Retrieved April 15, 2013, from http://stuartfreedman.photoshelter.com/img/pixel.gif

Global Envision. (2009). Organic tea leaves in Darjeeling, India. [Image]. Retrieved April 19, from http://www.globalenvision.org/files/india-200710-tcook0086_4.jpg

Government of India. (2011). Total population (in millions) by residence, India, 1901-2011. [Image]. Retrieved April 11, 2013 from http://censusindia.gov.in

Gray, I. (2013). Tide of ignorance. [Image]. Retrieved April 10, 2013 from http://www.tropical-rainforest-animals.com/image-files/pollution-india.jpg

Idaho Department of Water Resources(n.d.). Arsenic sources. [Image]. Retrieved April 11, 2013, from http://www.idwr.idaho.gov/WaterInformation/GWQuality/FactSheets/Arsenic/images/ArsenicSources.gif

Intercont. (2005). Political/industrial map (India). [Image]. Retrieved April 10, 2013, from http://www.intercont.in/IndiaInfo.php

IRRI Images. (2004). Rice Plants (IRRI) [Image]. Retrieved April 5, 2013, from

Mutiny. (2012). Indian Farmer Udham Singh examines crops. [Image]. Retrieved April 10, 2013, from http://www.mutiny.in/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/Screen-shot-2010-03-29-at-2.45.32-PM.png

National Geographic. (2011). Population 7 billion. [Image]. Retrieved April 10, 2013, from http://s.ngm.com/2011/01/7-billion/img/Population-Seven-Billion-picture:-India%20Crowded-Streets.jpg

The Nature Education Knowledge Project. (2011). Meta toxicity of rice. [Image]. Retrieved April 14, 2013, from http://www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/phytoremediation-17359669

The Permaculture Research Institute of Australia. (2008). Biomagnification. [Image]. Retrieved April 10, 2013, from http://www.permaculturenews.org/images/biomagnification.gif

Sagasiki Environmental Developments. (2009). About heavy metals. [Image]. Retrieved April 10, 2013, from http://www.sagasiki-kankyo.co.jp/en/jukinzoku/what/img/img_what.jpg

Schutter, O.D., & Vanloqueren, G. (2011). Women work on small farm in Orissa, India [Image]. Retrieved April 5, 2013, from http://www.thesolutionsjournal.com/sites/default/files/Fea_UN%20Food_Figure3.jpg

Science Photo Library. (n.d). Spirochaete bacterium in compost. [Image]. Retrieved April 11, 2013, from http://www.sciencephoto.com/media/11490/view

TIME. (2007). The world's most polluted places. [Image]. Retrieved April 15, 2013, from http://www.time.com/time/specials/2007/article/0,28804,1661031_1661028,00.html

University of the Incarnate World (UIW). 2013. Phytoremediation. [Image]. Retrieved April 11, 2013, from http://www.uiw.edu/chemistry/images/Phytoremediation.JPG

Wikimedia Commons. (2006). Head anatomy lateral view. [Image]. Retrieved April 13, 2013, from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Head_anatomy_lateral_view.svg

Wikimedia Commons. (2008). Major crop areas of India. [Image]. Retrieved April 13, 2013, from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Major_crop_areas_India.png