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Jnana and Karma

                                                                     Jnana and Karma

 

(I) Ideal गृहस्थी मुमुक्षु (gṛhasthī mumukṣu) - primarily associated with कर्मयोग (karmayoga); performs secular सांसारीक-कर्म (sāṁsārīka-karma) with निष्काम-भाव (niṣkāma-bhāva)

(II) Ideal सन्न्यासी मुमुक्षु (sannyāsī mumukṣu) - primarily associated with कर्मसन्न्यास/विविदिषासन्न्यास/आश्रमसन्न्यास/साधनरुपसन्न्यास (karmasannyāsa/ vividiṣāsannyāsa/ āśramasannyāsa/sādhanarupasannyāsa) for ज्ञानाभ्यास (jñānābhyāsa) i.e. practice of श्रवण-मनन-निदिध्यासन (śravaṇa-manana-nididhyāsana); formally renounces secular सांसारीक-कर्म (sāṁsārīka-karma)

 

  Ø Both of the above lead to सर्वकर्मसन्न्यास/फलरुपसन्न्यास (Sarvakarmasannyāsa/phalarupasannyāsa) i.e. आत्मज्ञानप्राप्ती (ātmajñānaprāptī), which being a ‘non-dual & अकर्मपद (akarmapada)’ state, is devoid of कर्ता-कर्म-क्रिया (kartā-karma-kriyā) duality and transcends karmayoga and karmasannyāsa (duality modes of mind consisting of separation of kartā-karma-kriyā)

  

Above conclusion can be derived from the fact below:

 कर्म (karma) – may it be बाह्य-कर्म (bāhya-karma) or आन्तरीक-कर्म (āntarīka-karma) like उपासना (upāsanā) or सकाम-कर्म (sakāma-karma) or निष्काम-कर्म (niṣkāma-karma) – is कर्तृतन्त्र (kartṛtantra

i.e. whatever शास्त्र (śāstra) says is to be performed; only then in future, जन्यफल (janyaphala) will be received. (I) and (II) mentioned above are associated with karma by the consciousness of ‘I am the kartā of kriyā’ and ‘I am the renouncer of kriyā’ respectively.

 आत्मज्ञान (ātmajñāna) i.e. Self-Knowledge is वस्तुतन्त्र (vastutantra) and there is no future जन्यफल (janyaphala) in it, rather the ‘phala’ is immediate (Self is नित्य nitya and devoid of karma & karmaphala). The only requirement for jñāna is शुद्ध प्रमाण (śuddha pramāṇa) i.e. pure instrument (mind/buddhi). Thus jñāni transcends both (I) and (II).       

  

 Also above analysis is related to following aspect about वृत्तिव्याप्ती (vṛttivyāptī) and फलव्याप्ती (phalavyāptī) in any jñāna:

 (A) व्यवहारज्ञान (vyavahārajñāna) follows two steps:

1) अज्ञान-निवृत्ति (ajñāna-nivṛtti) of external object by बुद्धि-वृत्ति/बुद्धि-व्याप्ती (buddhi-vṛtti/buddhi-vyāptī)

2) बुद्धिस्थ चिदाभास (buddhistha cidābhāsa) then illumines the object; this is फलव्याप्ती (phalavyāptī)

           

(B) आत्मज्ञान (ātmajñāna):

1) अज्ञान-निवृत्ति (ajñāna-nivṛtti) about Self by बुद्धि-वृत्ति/बुद्धि-व्याप्ती (buddhi-vṛtti/buddhi-vyāptī) in समाधि (samādhi); buddhi becoming तदाकार/ब्रह्माकार (tadākāra/brahmākāra); hence quotations in śruti like दृश्यते त्वग्रया बुद्ध्या… (dṛśyate tvagrayā buddhyā…) etc.

2) बुद्धिस्थ चिदाभास (buddhistha cidābhāsa) is Not Required to illumine Self as Self is स्वतःसिद्ध/स्वयंप्रकाश (svataḥsiddha/svayamprakāśa); thus No फलव्याप्ती (phalavyāptī); example: moon light trying to illumine Sun! Hence quotations in śruti like अवाङ्गमनसागोचर… (avāṅgamanasāgocara…) etc.

                       

        In ātmajñāna,     ज्ञाता (jñātā) is अन्तःकरणावच्छिन्न चैतन्य (antaḥkaraṇāvacchinna caitanya)

ज्ञेय (jñeya) is निर्विशेष ब्रह्मचैतन्य (nirviśeṣa brahmacaitanya)

ज्ञान (jñāna) is वृत्त्यावच्छिन्न चैतन्य (vṛttyāvacchinna caitanya)

And all the above three become One! B1 mentioned above takes place and B2 is natural, obvious, spontaneous, simultaneous, साक्षात् अनुभुति (sākṣāt anubhuti) i.e. experience devoid of इदंतया (idantayā) of phenomenon but as pure अहंतया (ahantayā).

 

  Brahman i.e. our स्वरुप (svarupa) is भेदरहित/उपाधिरहित (bhedarahita/upādhirahita) while vṛtti is upādhi and कल्पित (kalpita) entity!   upādhi is that which is superimposed on Brahman and Brahman appears to be 'divided'(duality) because of it; but Brahman really never gets  ‘divided’ (non-duality remains intact).

     

         @ आवरण (āvaraṇa): निद्रा (nidrā) i.e. a covering of thought wave (vṛtti)

              स्वप्न (svapna): nidrā + manifold subject-object thought waves (many vṛttis)

              जाग्रत् (jāgrat): nidrā + grossified manifold subject-object thought waves (many vṛttis)


समाधि (samādhi): आवरण-भंग (āvaraṇa-bhaṅga) i.e. all thought-waves subsided and 

buddhi becomes निर्विशेष (nirviśeṣa); nidrā-vṛtti is also removed by tadākāra/brahmākāra-vṛtti.

(actually buddhi-vṛtti becoming tadākāra is just the way of putting it in words – 

pl. refer Talks with Sri Ramana Maharshi, Talk no. 100 and 307)


            {Notes on Swami Ramananda Saraswati talk on शांकरभाष्य (śāṅkarabhāṣya) of केनोपनिषद् (kenopaniṣad) - 2.4 प्रतिबोध विदितम् … 

              (pratibodha viditam…), ऐतरेय उपनिषद् (aitareya upaniṣad) - Introduction, and Bhagawad-Gita 5th chapter Introduction}


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