Inheriting the Trade: A Northern Family Confronts Its Legacy as the Largest Slave-Trading Dynasty in U.S. History
by Thomas Norman DeWolf
ABOUT THE BOOK
In 2001, Thomas DeWolf discovered that he was the descendant of the most successful slave-trading dynasty in America. When his ancestor Senator James DeWolf died in 1837, he was reportedly the second-richest man in America. Thomas DeWolf's cousin, Katrina Browne, produced and directed a documentary feature film, Traces of the Trade: A Story from the Deep North, in which she, Mr. DeWolf, and eight other family members retraced the steps of their ancestors. Inheriting the Trade is Thomas DeWolf's powerful memoir of their journey.
1. Inheriting the Trade, The Official Website of Thomas Norman DeWolf
2. Inheriting the Trade, The Author's Blog
3. Traces of the Trade, Documentary
4. Traces of the Trade, Discussion Guides and Resources
5. The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database
6. Captive Passage, Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade and the Making of the Americas, Online Exhibition
7. Yale Slavery and Abolition Portal
1. The preface begins with: Everyone has secrets—shameful episodes in our past that we try to keep buried. Heaven forbid that anyone should find out. What would people say? What are some of the potential impacts that hidden episodes in history—personal or societal—can have on individuals and in communities or nations? Can you think of situations in which a secret caused harm?
2. Tom grew up in Pomona, California which had a racially diverse population. Yet he seemed to lack both an understanding of cultures other than his own and much real contact with people of color outside of school. What factors do you think contributed to this “segregation” within a supposedly “integrated” community? Does this still happen in towns in the United States today? If you believe it does, what are the contributing factors?
3. Keila spoke about the “unwritten rules” in her family in which it wasn’t appropriate to discuss sex, religion, politics, or the Negroes. What “unwritten rules” existed in your family? How do such rules impact the larger community?
4. Tom includes sections of history in Inheriting the Trade that were episodes of which he was personally unaware (King Phillip’s War, Northern involvement in slavery and the slave trade, Ghanaian and Cuban history). He suspected that if he hadn’t learned about certain facts of history in school that he was probably not alone. What did you learn from the book that you didn’t know before? Does this information impact your thinking about America?
5. When Holly shared information about the film project (Traces of the Trade) with her stepfather he said, “I just think this [the idea of uncovering the family and town history and putting it into a film] is fearsome. I’m afraid.” Holly said, “If I grew up when he did, in his milieu, and I was his age, I’d probably have that same reaction.” What are your thoughts about exposing—or learning about—previously hidden and horrible incidents in history?
6. The words of Professor Kofi Anyidoho regarding the impact of the slave trade from the perspective of West African people had a profound impact on DeWolf and his cousins, as did their experience of being in the slave dungeon when the lights went out and they were plunged into darkness accompanied only by their own thoughts. What scenes or words impacted you the most from what you read about the family’s time in Ghana?
7. Tom discusses in some detail the horrific abuses enslaved African people suffered both in Africa and during the Middle Passage. He also discusses the complicity of churches and Christian people in slavery and the slave trade. Many people claim that these issues and people must be viewed within the context of the times in which they lived. DeWolf came to the conclusion that “it was an evil thing and they knew it was an evil thing and they did it anyway.” What do you think?
8. In Cuba the family was distracted by the festive atmosphere of Carnival: music, Mojitos, being in an “enemy” country most Americans cannot visit. Two family members become upset that the group isn’t doing what they came to do: connect with each other and talk about race in the United States. Elizabeth disagrees. She says it is tempting to be distracted and lured into amnesia and that this “disconnection is the very thing we’re here for.” Who is right, and why?
9. The family had several group conversations with people of color in Rhode Island, Ghana, and Cuba. Have you ever had an in-depth conversation with someone from a different “race” about issues that divide us or the impact that historic oppression may still have today? If so, what was the outcome? If not, why not?
10. Issues of gender came up throughout the journey. How does gender intersect with issues of race? Does one’s gender impact a person’s view of racism and the legacy of slavery? Since men were the traders, the ship captains, and the heads of households is it fair to lay the blame at the feet of men? Is there value in finding someone to blame? Is there danger in finding someone to blame?
11. When Professor Ron David at Harvard wrote a phrase on the chalk board (Relationships are primary; all else is derivative) Tom said he felt like he won the lottery; that the phrase captured the essence of what every great teacher throughout history has tried to tell us about right living. What does the phrase mean? What implications does it have in your life?
12. Though Tom expressed anger at churches, religious people, and their active role in historic oppression he also writes of having spiritual experiences and of grace. His cousin Deb said, “You can find spirituality in religion sometimes.” What did she mean? How do you view the role of religion in relation to historic—as well as current-day—oppression? What are some of the benefits as well as detriments of religious beliefs and practices?
13. Apology is a challenging concept discussed toward the end of Inheriting the Trade. How do you view the importance of apology in general? Should anyone—individually or collectively—apologize for historic acts? Why or why not?
14. Tom outlined a four-step process—awareness, apology, repair, and forgiveness—to achieve reconciliation after harm—historic or contemporary—has been committed. Do you agree or disagree, and how so?
15. “Reparations” is a word that incites passion in people black and white—for different reasons. After reading Tom’s explanation of his views—and support—for reparations/repair, what do you think? How would you repair the inequities and injustices that continue to disproportionately impact people of color today?