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General Resources

Advice

MIT's Advice on Learning

Becoming an early riser

How to detect a liar

Learn New Skills Site Compilation

Academic Career & Education Advice (Maths Perspective)

How to be a genius (New Scientist)

BetterExplained Writing, Life

PhD Grind

Do it Now by Steve Pavlina Academic productivity in college (author got degrees in CS & Math in just 3 semesters)

Study Hacks Study Tips & Stuff

Improve reading skills and comprehension Tips on how to study

Procrastination Webpage about dealing with procrastination. (Protip: Plan ahead. Divide your study into manageable parts. Don't try to study it all at once.)

Users' guide to detecting misleading claims in clinical research reports



Reference

/sci/'s Archive What else can I say?

/sci/'s Wiki  Not much on there but that’s what you are for!!

WIKIPEDIA |SCIENCES| |MATH Online Encyclopedia of Nearly Everything (Multilingual)

No Excuse List Aggregate of educational sites and articles from all over the Internet

Citizendium More Authoritative Wiki (Created by the Co-Founder of Wikipedia)

Connexions Sharing Knowledge

Wikiversity Learning resources wiki

Scholarpedia The Peer Reviewed Open-Access Encyclopedia

archive.org Internet Archive

HowStuffWorks Explanations accessible to the layman

Scirus Search engine of scientific publications, websites, courseware & more

ERIC General Publication Resource

Directory of Open-Access Journals

arxiv.org Scientific article preprint archive

Hippocampus Tutorials on many subjects at a first year level

BLS Occupational Outlook Handbook Salary, job prospects, future projections & general info.

JSMath quick guide.jpg A quick guide to using JSMath/LaTeX in /sci/

Cheat Sheets Loads of cheatsheets for many subjects (Nearly all comp languages)

FreeExamPapers Database of UK exam papers

/g/'s Information Library [b] Compilation of images & pdfs that span shitloads


4chan information library 2.0

Internet Public Library A large online library of help and information

Tools

WOLFRAM|ALPHA Knowledge Database/Computation engine (tour)

F.lux Makes looking at a computer screen bearable for long periods.

WorldCat.org Search through 10,000 libraries' contents

LibraryThing Catalogue and share your books online

Scriblink Share an online whiteboard

Google Scholar Journal & Article search

Simply Noise White/Pink/Brown Noise (Blocks background noise when used with headphones)

Spreeder Speed Reading Tool

Tineye Reverse Image Search

visual.ly WIP Infographic Search

2keystrokes.com Virtual multilingual keyboard

phet.colorado.edu Science simulator (free computer simulations of scientific concepts)

Zotero Useful for students. Keeps a scholarly database for you.

Quizlet Studying tools. Most notable is customizing flashcards.

Memrise Another website for studying that puts a twist to the flashcards by adding in media (picture, sound, etc).

Howjsay Talking English Pronunciation Dictionary

Communities

Organizations

The Geek Group Non-Profit Organization focusing on science, technology, engineering, math, and arts education. Open for volunteers to join and help out


Help

Places to get help on your science and math questions and/or places to discuss scientific interests in further depth and civility than can be attained on 4chan.

OpenStudy Online study group (live chat) on various topics including math -- This is the place on the internet where you can submit your underageb& algebra/trig math problems and actually get answers--Please go here before starting a thread on /sci/. Also, if you're bored, come here and help people with their baby-tier math problems.

Physicsforums Physics & Maths as well as other sciences

Chemical Forums Chemistry

Math Forum Math

Dr. Math Math

Art of Problem Solving Math puzzles & competitions

Reddit |Math|Science|University of Reddit Discussion & Links

Stack Overflow Programming Questions

dzone.com Links for Programming

MathOverflow Graduate/God-tier Math Q&A

Talk-Polywell.org A discussion forum for Polywell fusion

Non-free Learning Resources

This guide is dedicated to free (as in free beer) science and math learning resources. Even so, it would be remiss to neglect useful but unfortunately commercial resources.

Math Tutor DVD The Khan Academy of yesteryear. Sells DVDs of mostly math and physics videos, although the proprietor is expanding his library. The videos consist of the lecturer standing before a dry erase board and lecturing the old fashioned way. The lecturer in all the videos is Jason Gibson (holds a Master's in physics and another in EE). There are torrents and rapidshares of his stuff online, but anon noticed they are all readily taken down. His prices are not too outrageous, so this anon recommends you try to pay for it.

The Teaching Company Sells educational multimedia on various topics. They sell tons of lectures and have been around a long time, but their prices are ridiculous (typical price for a lecture series is >$200). There are many torrents of this company's content, but warning: Anon reports having received a C&D letter from this copyright holder for peer-to-peer sharing. So be careful (i.e., get behind seven proxies).



Computer Literacy

Google is a very powerful tool when used with a good sense of how to search

Google Tips

More Google Tips

Google Guide Google Guide

typingweb Online typing course

Bleepingcomputer/ Tutorials Malware & Computer tutorials



Academic Software

Many of these packages have demonstrations online to show off their capabilities, e.g. Mathematica

This is a stub. If you know of any other useful software related to math, science, or studying, please submit them.

Legend:
"free" : Creative Commons, GNU, open source, or some various free (as in freedom) license
"proprietary" : closed source software
"commercial" : you have to pay for it
These designations are mutually exclusive.

 Name  Description  License  Compatibility
Anki
Flashcards; automatically schedules reviews
free
Win/OS X/Linux/Unix
Mathematica
Professional mathematics application (examples)

properietary;
commercial
Win/OS X/Linux
Maple Professional mathematics application
proprietary;
commercial
Win/OS X/Linux
MATLAB Professional mathematics application
proprietary;
commercial
Win/OS X/Linux
Sage
Mathematics supertool, open source alternative
free
Win/OS X/Linux
Celestia Space simulator
free
Win/OS X/Linux
Magma
Mathematics tool; algebraic geometry, number theory, combinomatrics, &c.
proprietary
Win/OS X/Linux
GraphCalc
Quick and easy 2D and 3D graphing calculator
free
Win
Maxima
Computer algebra system
free
Win/OS X/Linux
R-Project
Statistics; statistical computing
free
Win/OS X/Linux/Unix
Avogadro
Chemistry; molecule editor & visualizer
free
Win/Mac/Linux/Unix
Octave Numerical calculations; linear algebra
free
Win/Mac/Linux/Unix
UCSC Genome Browser
Bioinformatics, genomics

 
Scilab Numerical computations free
Win/Mac/Linux/BSD
Xpress-Mosel
Modeling and operations research areas of mathematics; similar to the solver software incorporated in Excel but with a more MATLAB frontend commercial except for students;
proprietary
Win
Microsoft Mathematics Easy mode graphing tool free
Windows only
GrafEQ
Graphing mathematical equations (examples)
free
Win/Mac
GeoGebra
Free mathematics software for learning and teaching, from elementary to university level
free
 
Immune Attack"Video game" for learning immunologyfree
Windows only
Brain WorkshopExercises to improve working memory and fluid intelligence, supported by studiesfree
Win/Mac/Linux
Molecular WorkbenchUses interactive visuals to teach science. It's sponsored by an NSF grant.   
Mendeley
Free software reference manager and PDF file organizer, specifically scientific papers. Integrates with a social network of collaborators.
free
 Win/OS X/Linux
ChemDrawDe facto standard for drawing chemical graphics for publication
proprietary;
commercial
Win/OS X
Spartan
Widely-used molecular modeling and chemical computation software
proprietary;
commercial
Win/OS X/Linux
RadarScope
 Useful (but pricy) software that shows very detailed weather maps in the United States. This is the software most commonly used by most professional storm chasers.
 proprietary; commercial
 OS X/iOS/Android

Nootropics

Do your own research before ingesting things you read on 4chan/internet. Find dosage and usage instructions from very reputable sources. (Also, here's a long tl;dr article about nootropics and college.)

Forum for discussion of nootropics
 
(Longecity)
Spreadsheet on various nootropics compiled by Longecity
http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/showwiki.php?title=List_of_Nootropics Comprehensive list of every drug in the nootropic community to date

* Unregulated = Regulatory agencies have not approved it for sale, but does not generally fall under the jurisdiction of drug enforcement agencies; in other words, cops don't care
** OTC = over the counter; approved for over the counter sale
*** Prescription only but not a controlled substance
: if you happen to obtain it, you cannot necessarily get into legal trouble. 
****Controlled substance means although it can be obtained legally with a prescription, without one you can get v&.


 Name(s)
Effects & Comments
Pharmacology
Availability
Links & Usage info
Amphetamine (Adderall) Attention and wakefulness (closest thing to NZT)
Modulates neurotransmitters, namely dopamine and norepinephrine.
Prescription only; controlled substance
Erowid trip reports

L-lysine-D-amphetamine (Vyvanse)
Same effects as amphetamine, but the effects last longer but are less intense. Initially designed to be an amphetamine alternative with less potential for abuse.
Prodrug which metabolizesThe researchers concluded that this region of the visual cortex, known as layer six of region V2, is responsible for creating visual memories. When the region is removed, mice can no longer remember any object they see. If this protein boosts visual memory in humans, the implications are staggering. In their paper, the researchers say that it could be used as a memory-enhancer – which seems like an understatement. What's particularly intriguing is the fact that this protein works on visual memory only. So as I mentioned earlier, it would be perfect for mapping. It would also be useful for engineers and architects who need to hold a lot of visual images in their minds at once. And it would also be a great drug for detectives and spies.

Could it also be a way to gain photographic memory? For example, if I look at a page of text will I remember the words perfectly? Or will I simply remember how the page looked? I can't see much of a downside for this potential drug, unless the act of not forgetting what you see causes problems or trauma." into dextroamphetamine
Prescription only; controlled substance (by analogue laws)
 
Piracetam and its derivatives Memory; general cognitive function; increases communication between two hemispheres; increases cognitive performance
Not fully understood; likely acts on ion channels to cause non-specific increased neuron excitability, may also cause increased cell membrane permeability. Improves function of acetylcholine via muscarinic cholinergic receptors (involved with memory). May have effect on NMDA glutamate receptors (inovlved with learning).
Unregulated*
Erowid trip reports
Recommended to take with a cholinergic (e.g., choline, alpha-GPC, DMAE) to reduce side effects.
Aniracetam Derivative of piracetam that is more potent; anxiolytic effects
Anxiolytic mechanism is facilitated by D2/D3, nACh, and 5-HT2a receptors. Similar to piracetam.
Unregulated in the U.S., prescription only in Europe
Erowid trip report
Pramiracetam Derivative of piracetam; 8-30 times stronger than piracetam; far superior in terms of strength over piracetam
Very little research; assumed to be similar to piracetam (though of course much more potent)
Unregulated Erowid trip reports
Oxiracetam
Derivative of piracetam
Very little research; assumed to be similar to piracetam
Unregulated
Methylphenidate (Ritalin)
Attention and wakefulness
Reuptake inhibition of monoamine transporters, as with cocaine.
Prescription only; controlled substance
 
Choline
Memory; weak effects
Metabolizes into neurotransmitter acetylcholine (involved in memory)
OTC**
 
Alpha-GPC Memory
Form of choline which rapidly and effectively crosses the blood brain barrier.
OTC  
Dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) Vigilance, alertness, mood
Biochemical precursor to acetylcholine
OTC  
Modafinil (Provigil)
Wakefulness; coffee without the jitters
Not fully understood and under research. Increases monoamine levels; also increases brain histamine levels. Orexin peptides may be implicated.
Prescription only; controlled substance
 
Adrafinil Prodrug which metabolizes into modafinil. Not controlled in the U.S., whereas modafinil is
Very similar to modafinil
Unregulated
 
Galantamine Memory; alkaloid used for treatment of Alzheimer's
Competitive and reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor; increases concentration of acetylcholine in the brain
Prescription only***  
Idebenone Memory; used for treatment of Alzheimer's
Synthetic analogue of CoQ10; under research
Unregulated  
Ergoloid mesylates (Hydergine)
Memory; used for treatment of Alzheimer's and stroke recovery
Not clear
Prescription only
 
Ephedrine Attention and wakefulness; much less pronounced than amphetamine. Natural plant alkaloid (Ephedra sp.)
Stimulates andrenergic receptors to increase activity of noradrenaline
OTC (with restrictions due to its use as a reagent for meth)
Erowid trip reports
Vitamin D
   
Bacopa monnieri
Anxiolytic; improves memory capacity and motor learning ability in rats. In human subjects, it increases memory and retention capacity, but not attention or other mental faculties [Neuropsychopharmacology 27:279–281, 2002].
Not clear
OTC
 
Ginkgo biloba
Conflicting studies; may improve attention and memory
Vasodilator, increases blood flow to brain. May block norepinephrine uptake [Pharmacol Res. 2009 Jul;60(1):68-73].    
OTC
Green tea (Camellia sinensis) Negligible effects, though impressive considering the availability of green tea. Can increase alertness, boost memory, and have positive effects on mood. Most nootropic effects are exerted due to L-theanine and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), both of which occur more in green tea as opposed to black tea. Polyphenols inhibit acetylcholinesterase, can reverse the scopolamine-induced brain damage [Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., Vol. 68, 1977-1979 (2004)]. L-theanine induces relaxation and mental focus [Trends in Food Science & Technology, Volume 10, Issues 6-7, June 1999, 199-204], possibly due to its ability to increase levels of GABA and dopamine. EGCG promotes neurite outgrowth; phenomenon of "neurorescue" after induction of neuron damage [Journal of Neurochemistry, Volume 93, Issue 5, pages 1157–1167, June 2005]. EGCG can protect brain against monoamine oxidase-B (associated with aging and lower dopamine levels) and increase brain antioxidant capacity [Nutrition, Volume 26, Issue 11, Pages 1195-1200 (November 2010)]. Can inhibit butyrylcholinesterase, which is involved in protein deposits in Alzheimer's. OTC * Wikipedia: Overview of health effects
* Science Daily: Tea to improve memory
* Citrus to improve tea polyphenol bioavailability: Purdue research
Lentivirus-RGS-14 injection in Layer 6 of V2 Visual Cortex region of brain (invasive) [experimental] Vastly improves visual memory in mice. It basically gave the mice photographic memory. This is under research. The future holds amazing things. Overexpression of the RGS-14 gene in a certain region of the visual cortex "overclocks" the brain's perceptual memory abilities. [Science 3 July 2009:Vol. 325 no. 5936 pp. 87-89] Unregulated Full text of study
Articles about this study and related ones: [1][2], [3]
Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (TDCS) of parietal lobe (non-invasive) [experimental]Improves numerical competence, or mathematical ability. This procedure improved numerical competence for over six months after treatment. It was tested and intended for patients who have suffered strokes or neurodegenerative illnesses, but this can feasibly be used to treat people with dyscalculia.Electrically stimulating the parietal lobes of the brain can selectively inhibit or excitate neuronal populations by modulating local GABAergic and glutamatergic activity.
[Current Biology; 23 November 2010 (Vol. 20, Issue 22, pp. 2016-2020)]
N/A

Not a chemical, but a neuro-enhancer nevertheless.
Full text of study

Rough description of experiment procedures (not that we're recommending you do it at home)


Suggested combo by Anon: 1200mg Pramiracetam + 800mg Alpha GPC + 12mg Galantamine [citation needed that there are no adverse drug interactions here]. Anon said that this gave them "near eidetic memory."