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4 - Written text

Finally, to test whether the "suggestion" of long and short could produce similar results, I paired the written text "Long" and "Short" with the original marimba tones.  To compare the relative strength of such influences, the experiments also included the original videos. 


Although the suggestive text had a minimal effect on duration judgments, it was significantly smaller than that of the physical gestures. This is consistent with the idea that the illusion is not an artifact of post-perceptual processing.  Although this experiment is not by itself conclusive, paired with the previous three experiments it builds a case that the illusion is obligatory, pre-conscious, and independent of musical training and/or expectations.  
Visual influence from the written text (right) was significantly smaller than influence from the physical gestures (left).