Environmental Degradation of Polyacrylamides II. Effects of Environmental (Outdoor) Exposure. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety v.37, n.1, Jun97 View
The results of this study suggest that polyacrylamide can degrade to acrylamide under environmental conditions. Acrylamide could be detected by Day 2 in soil columns of sandy clay, and Kohola silt loam.
Linda Chalker-Scott, Ph.D., (2001) The Myth of Polyacrylamide Hydrogels View
When hydrogels break down, they release potassium acrylate and acrylamide. Acrylamide is a lethal neurotoxin and has been found to cause cancer in laboratory animals. It readily passes through the skin and can be inhaled as dust.
WI_DNR (2002). Interim Sediment Control: Water Application of Polymers. View
Describes the practice of using polymers to settle out or remove suspended sediment from water within sediment control structures. "The use of cationic polyacrylamide shall be avoided where there is danger of impacting aquatic organisms because its toxicity to aquatic test species occurs at very low concentrations."
Falteisek (2007). Overview Of Recharge To Surficial Ground Water View
Discusses, in part, the complex water table, karst and confined conditions of southeastern Minnesota. Illustrates relationship to Jordan sandstone layer.
Jan 12, 2013, 4:34 PM
Ground Water and Surface Water— the Vital Connection (2005) View
High ground-water pumping rates in western Kansas caused perennial streams to disappear and the High Plains aquifer to decrease 200' (more than 50% of the aquifer thickness in some places). The same thing is starting to be seen in MN.
We are in Area 3: "Karst common; springs and cold-water streams depend on ground-water discharge; overpumping
ground water may deplete surface waters dependent on ground water"
Nov 19, 2012, 5:47 AM
HVP (2008). Identifying a Framework for Safeguarding Water Quality & Development Related to St. Lawrence Edge Conditions. View
This study examines available spatial data to determine its relationship to water quality and safety for the built environment along the Mississippi River Valley, throughout Goodhue and Wabasha Counties where the St. Lawrence Formation is exposed near the base of the bluffs.
MN DNR: Hydraulic impacts of Quarries and Pits (2005) View
"When limestone quarries are dewatered to allow mining below the water table, they alter groundwater levels and flow direction. In essence, the quarries become huge wells. Ground-water levels
were found to have dropped up to 70 ft; this lowering of the ground-water levels can affect wells
on neighboring properties and surface-water bodies. New quarries that will extract material below
the water table will have to be sited carefully to avoid this impact, or a plan must be developed to
provide an alternative water supply for property owners whose wells are affected."
- Deeper aquifers in metropolitan areas used for water supply continue to decline
- In some areas the reliability of deep aquifers for water supply in the future may be
limited if the declining trend continues.