m1429 prism tablet. Boat glyph as a Sarasvati hieroglyph on a tablet.Three sided molded tablet. One side shows a flat bottomed boat with a central hut that has leafy fronds at the top of two poles. Two birds sit on the deck and a large double rudder extends from the rear of the boat. On the second side is a snout nosed gharial with a fish in its mouth. The third side has eight glyphs of the Indus script.

 

 

The hieroglyphs are: side a: eight sign glyphs including: body, rim of jar, two ingots, rim of jar, fish, three, graft infix ligature in ingot.side b: boat, two trees, two birds; side b: gharial (alligator), fish; Boat: kolam; rebus: kolami 'furnace'

 

Side a has a two-part message:

 

Part 1 (l. to r.)

 

Body (of person): komor, kombor 'body' (Munda etyma); rebus: kamar 'smith' (Santali)

Rim of jar: kan.d. kan-ka; rebus: kand. 'fire-altar, furnace' (Santali); kan- 'copper' (Ta.)

Two ingots: d.ha_l = a shield, a buckler; the grand flag of an army directing its march and encampments; the standard or banner of a chieftain; a flag flying on a fort (G.); rebus: d.ha_l.ako = large metal ingot (G.) barea 'two'; rebus: barea 'merchant' (Santali)

 

Part 2 (l. to r.)

Rim of jar: kan.d. kan-ka; rebus: kand. 'fire-altar, furnace' (Santali); kan- 'copper' (Ta.)

Fish: kolli 'fish'; rebus: kol 'pancaloha, alloy of five metals' (Ta.)

Three (linear strokes): t.ebra 'three'; ta(m)bra 'copper' graft infixed in an ingot: d.ha_l = shield; rebus: d.ha_l.ako 'ingot'; kolom 'graft'; kolami 'smithy, forge' (Te.)

The eighth (last glyph) from l. is: kolom = cutting, graft; to graft, engraft, prune; kolom dare kana = it is a grafted tree; kolom ul = grafted mango; kolom gocena = the cutting has died; kolom kat.hi hor.o = a certain variety of the paddy plant (Santali); kolom (B.); kolom mit = to engraft; kolom porena = the cutting has struck root; kolom kat.hi = a reed pen (Santali.lex.) ku_l.e stump (Ka.) [ku_li = paddy (Pe.)] xo_l = rice-sheaf (Kur.) ko_li = stubble of jo_l.a (Ka.); ko_r.a = sprout (Kui.) ko_le = a stub or stump of corn (Te.)(DEDR 2242). kol.ake, kol.ke, the third crop of rice (Ka.); kolake, kol.ake (Tu.)(DEDR 2154) kolma =  a paddy plant; kolma hor.o ‘ a variety of rice plant’ (Santali.lex.) [kural = corn-ear (Ta.)] Rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge'.

PLUS a number of variants and with ligatures: Signs162, 167, 169, 387,389 +variants; Ligatures: Signs163, 166-6, 168, 90, 91,223,224,227,235.262,270,273,274, 282,283,291,331, 347-352,  355-357,371,372, 388-390,395,405

 

Side b has two birds, two trees ligatured to a boat, two ox-hide ingots infixed in the central hut on the boat

Copper ox-hide ingot. Orthographically, the ingot is a mould with large, curving horns. This was also shown carried by Egyptians on a painting. A creta ox-hide ingot also had an incised glyph: Sarasvati hieroglyph of kolom 'graft' rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge'. Inscribed Cretan copper ox-hide ingot (After Fig.82 in: Sinclair Hood, 1971, The Minoans: Crete in the Bronze Age, Thames and Hudson)  In the Late Bronze Age, oxhide and plano-convex shaped ingots were used in the Aegean; elsewhere, only small plano-convex (bun-shaped) ingots were used."Bronze tools and weapons were cast in double moulds. The cire perdue process was evidently employed for the sockets of the fine decorated spear-heads of the Late Minoan period. Copper was available in some parts of Crete, notably in the Asterousi mountains which border the Mesara plain on the south, but it may have been imported from Cyprus as well. The standard type of ingot found throughout the East Mediterranean in the Late Bronze Age was about two or three feet long, with inward-curving sides and projections for a man to grasp as he carried it on his shoulder. Smaller bun-shaped ingots were also in use." (Sinclair Hood, opcit., p. 106). A variant of the inscribed sign, a comparable logograph, like a trident or a sheaf of corn, is used in Sarasvati hieroglyphs. 

d.abe, d.abea ‘large horns, with a sweeping upward curve, applied to buffaloes’ (Santali)

d.ab, d.himba, d.hompo ‘lump (ingot?)’, clot, make a lump or clot, coagulate, fuse, melt together (Santali) d.himba = become lumpy, solidify; a lump (of molasses or iron ore, also of earth); sadaere kolheko tahe_kanre d.himba me~r.he~t reak khan.d.ako bena_oet tahe_kana_ = formerly when the Kolhes were here they made implements from lumps of iron (Santali)

 

boat: kola 'boat'; rebus: kol 'pancaloha, alloy of five metals'; bagalo = an Arabian merchant vessel (G.) bagala = an Arab boat of a particular description (Ka.); bagala_ (M.); bagarige, bagarage = a kind of vessel (Ka.); rebus: ban:gala = a portable stove (Te.) =  kumpat.i = an:ga_ra s'akat.i_ = a chafing dish, a portable stove, a goldsmith's portable furnace (Te.) cf. ban:ga_ru, ban:ga_ramu 'gold' (Te.) Two birds: bat.a 'bird'; barea 'two' Rebus: barea 'merchant'

bat.a = a kind of iron (G.lex.) bhat.a = a furnace, a kiln; it.a bhat.a a brick kiln (Santali)

On either end of the central hut on the boat are two tree. kut.i 'tree'; kut.hi 'smelter furnace' (Santali)

 

Side c

 

Gharial: mangar 'crocodile'; rebus: mengro 'smith'; kolli 'fish'; rebus: kol 'pancaloha, alloy of five metals'; Rebus: kaulo mengro 'blacksmith' (Gypsy) kola - boat; ko_l 'raft, float' (Ka.); ko_lamu = a boat (Te.); ko_l = a raft, a float Ka.); kola = boat (Skt.); rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge'; mangar -crocodile, gharial; rebus: mengro 'metalsmith'. kolli 'fish'; rebus: kolami 'smithy'. The eight glyphs connote the repertoire of a smithy. komor, kombor 'body'; rebus: kamar 'smith'. (See the first glyph on the left of the eight-glyph epigraph which shows the body of a person). The next glyph from the l. is rim of a jar: kan.d. kan-ka; rebus: kand. 'fire-altar, furnace'; kan- 'copper'.

kolime, kolume, kulame, kulime, kulume, kulme fire-pit, furnace (Ka.); kolimi furnace (Te.); pit (Te.); kolame a very deep pit (Tu.); kulume kanda_ya a tax on blacksmiths (Ka.); kol, kolla a furnace (Ta.) kole.l smithy, temple in Kota village (Ko.); kwala.l Kota smithy (To.); konimi blacksmith; kola id. (Ka.); kolle blacksmith (Kod.); kollusa_na_ to mend implements; kolsta_na, kulsa_na_ to forge; ko_lsta_na_ to repair (of plough-shares); kolmi smithy (Go.); kolhali to forge (Go.)(DEDR 2133).] kolimi-titti = bellows used for a furnace (Te.lex.) kollu- to neutralize metallic properties by oxidation (Ta.) kol = brass or iron bar nailed across a door or gate; kollu-t-tat.i-y-a_n.i large nail for studding doors or gates to add to their strength (Ta.lex.) kollan--kamma_lai < + karmas'a_la_, kollan--pat.t.arai, kollan-ulai-k-ku_t.am blacksmith's workshop, smithy (Ta.lex.) cf. ulai smith's forge or furnace (Na_lat.i, 298); ulai-k-kal.am smith's forge; ulai-k-kur-at.u smith's tongs; ulai-t-turutti smith's bellows; ulai-y-a_n.i-k-ko_l smith's poker, beak-iron (Ta.lex.) [kollulaive_r-kan.alla_r: nait.ata. na_t.t.up.); mitiyulaikkollan- mur-iot.ir.r.an-n-a: perumpa_)(Ta.lex.) Temple; smithy: kol-l-ulai blacksmith's forge (kollulaik ku_t.attin-a_l : Kumara. Pira. Ni_tiner-i. 14)(Ta.lex.) cf. kolhua_r sugarcane milkl and boiling house (Bi.); kolha_r oil factory (P.)(CDIAL 3537). kulhu ‘a hindu caste, mostly oilmen’ (Santali) kolsa_r = sugarcane mill and boiling house (Bi.)(CDIAL 3538).

Mahabodhi temple, vedika, reverse of section 1, central pillar, upper portion. Stone. Both Gaya site museum.

Vis.n.u temple. Apsadh. Stucco material. c. 650-700CE (Late Gupta period). Associated with King Adityasena.

Stupa at Borobudur; west side, third level, relief panel no. 8, lower section, left section, late 8th century, 750 CE - 799 CE Central Java.  

Ancient design boat still used on the Sindhu river carrying cattle fodder.

Sea vessel. Stone architecural fragment. ca. 17th cent. CE 20 in. h. Bhubaneshwar. Kolkata, Indian Museum.

Lower panel shows sail raised on Sudhana's ship(Jataka). Top panel shows princes giving alms to the sick (Lalitavistara) Borobudur. 3rd level (gallery); wall south side, east end. Sailendra dynasty c. 750 to 799 CE. Volcanic rock.

Barygaza (Bharuch, Bhr.gukaccha) Minister Hiru's ship shown in the lower panel (Jataka). Top panel shows Siddharta eating offered food (Lalitavistara). Saliendra dynasty. ca. 750 to 799 CE. Borobudur. 3rd level (gallery), wall north side, west end. Volcanic rock.

 

 

During historical periods, traders of batik weavers of Gujarat had contacts with Indonesian weavers. "Double Ikat – the most difficult ikat technique, both the warp and weft threads are pre-dyed. The technique has traditionally only been practised in Gujarat in west India, where the silk patola is created, and in Tenganan in east Bali, where the famous cotton geringsingis woven."

                                                                                                                                                            Sembiyan-kandiyur, apart from the toponym indicating a village with copper furnace workers is not far from Tarangambadi -- 'the town with the singing waves' --

The journey from Denmark to India was around the Cape of Good Hope. Once the ship had left the port of Copenhagen the sailors would not see Denmark for another year.Drawing: Jan Pasternak.

 (later called Tranquebar port occupied by Dutch maritime movements during the 17th century) and Poompuhar/Kaverippoompat.t.in.am. Weapons were discovered at Tarangambadi, attesting to its importance as a port town and a smithy. The Danish fort was allowed by Raghunatha Nayaka (1600-1645 CE) to export pepper, cinnamon, nutmeg, ginger and cloves to Denmark. The pre-history of this port village has yet to be told. Sembiyan-kandiyur promises to be a pre-historic archaeological site.

 

A maritime movement during the bronze age trade, along the coastline of the Indian ocean can be compared with the maritime movement along the Persian gulf with the presence of Meluhha colonies in Magan and Dilmun (Oman and Barhrein). If trade could have been established with Mesopotamia (say, through intermediate traders), same could have been done with the east coast port of Tarangambadi (Tranquebar). There is certainly no reason to jump another level to assume that the language shown on the Sembiyan-kandiyur (toponym: copper furnace village) was Tamil or even Dravidian. It could simply have been proto-vedic, indic, mleccha (meluhha, the lingua franca as distinct from arya vaacas, the written idiom).

 

See reading of the boat shown on moulded tablet of Mohenjodaro at http://sarasvati96.googlepages.com/ioclinks  (IOC - Indian Ocean Community).

 

A sangam text (Patirruppattu) reads:

 

neeye, vad.apa_l munivan tad.avinul. to_nr-i
cempu punaintu iyar-r-iya ce_n.ned.um puricai
uvara_ i_kai tuvarai a_n.t.u
na_r-pattonpadu var..imur-ai vanta
ve_l.irul. ve_l.e_ vir-ar- po_r an.n.al

ta_r an.i ya_naic ce_t.t.u irunko_ve

tuvarai a_n.t.u na_r-pattonpadu var..mur-ai vanta ve_l.irul. ve_l.e means 'king among kings, ruling Dwaraka and descending from 49 generations' and refers to a Cera king ( i.e. king in Kerala).

Averaging 25 years per generation, the 49 generations mentioned  in this verse traces the genealogy of ve_l.ir back by 1225 years. If the movement of the people (yadava, a_yarkulam) from Dwaraka is related to the submergence of Dwaraka as mentioned in the mausala parvan of Mahabharata, the early presence of ve_l.ir in Dwaraka may be traced to c. 3000 BCE and hence, dating the ve_l.ir of Sangam Age in southern Bharat to 1775 BCE (that is 3000 BCE minus 1225).

It is unclear if the Yadava civil war is relatable to the extraordinary events related to the submergence of land by the incursion of the sea. There is scientific evidence for the series of tectonic events caused by plate tectonics and the creation, circa 10000 years ago, of the Gulf of Khambat by submergence of ancient channels of Rivers Narmada and Tapati. Similar recurring events may have resulted in the migrations of the ve_l.ir from Dwaraka (Tuvarai) to Cera (Kerala) region, that is from Bhr.gu ks.etra to Paras'urama ks.etra according to the Bharatiya tradition.

Kr.s.n.a fore-sees the upheaval in Dwaraka and advises Yadu-s to start on a pilgrimage, beyond Prabha_sa (Somnath)

After Kr.s.n.a’s soul departs the mortal body---

Vivr.ddhamu_s.ika_ rathya_ vibhinnaman.ika_statha_ kes’a_ nakha_s’ca supta_na_madyante mu_s.ikairnis’I (MBh., Mausala, 2.5)

Ci_ci_ku_ci_ti va_s’anti sa_rika_ vr.s.n.ives’masu nopas’a_myati s’abdas’ca sa diva_ra_trameva hi (MBh., Mausala, 2.6)

Anvakurvannulu_ka_na_m sa_rasa_ virutam tatha_ aja_h s’iva_na_m virutamanvakurvata bha_rata (MBh., Mausala, 2.7)

Streets swarmed with rats and mice, earthen pots showwed cracks or were broken from no apparent cause, sarika_s chirped ceaselessly day and night, sa_ras hooted like owls, goats cried like jackals, pigeons departed from their homes, and asses brayed aloud in disconsonant and awful voices (Ganguly, 1998).

Nirya_te tu jane tasmin sa_garo makara_layah dra_raka_m ratnasampu_rn.a_m jalena_pla_vayat tada_ (MBh., Mausala, 7.41)

Tadadbhutamabhipreks.ya dva_raka_va_sino jana_h tu_rn.a_t tu_rn.ataram jagmuraho daivakiti bruvan (MBh., Mausala, 7.43)

The sea, the abode of monsters, engulfed the gem-filled Dva_raka with waves soon after the people departed the place. Seeing this astounding incident, the citizens of Dva_raka ran away, exclaiming, ‘O, our fate’. (Ganguly, 1998).

It is conjectured that Yadava civil war is relatable to similar events of incursions of the sea caused by plate tectonics and consequent migration of yadu-s away from Saurashtra, Gujarat in the 4th millennium BCE.

Tuvarai-k-koma_n is the name of S'ri Kr.s.n.a; Tuvarai refers to Dwaraka; ko_ means 'king'. The very word, san:gam of Sangam literature tradition in Tamilnadu indicates the antiquity of the word, 'sanga' which is recognized as a substrate word in Sumerian. Sanghvi is a leader of pilgrims in Gujarati. The grand narrative related to Sangam age has to be reconstructed from the mists of pre-history and the tradition attributed to Agasthya. But, one factor looms large: Vindhya mountain range was no barrier for contacts between Sarasvati river valley and southern Bharatam. Hugging the coastline, maritime people who created the Sarasvati civilization, the smiths who created the mlecchita-vikalpa should have been able to traverse the regions of the Indian Ocean Rim.

Inscribed Ravi sherd (1998 find at Harappa: Kenoyer and Meadow); the sherd contains the same sign (ca. 3300 BC). http://www.harappa.com Slide 124Seal impression fromHarappa; a woman is carrying a kolom 'graft'. The hair-style is cu_d.a; rebus: cu_l.a 'furnace'. See also notes on roots of Bharatiya civilization.

2949 Dotted circles, three kolom (grafts) 2950 four kolom (grafts) Rojdi [potsherd with two kolom (grafts)]

The history of the maritime people, metal workers -- Bharatam Janam -, has yet to be fully narrated.The first step could be to unravel the essential unity of the linguistic area of 3300 BCE which is the date of the first inscription found at Harappa, showing kolom 'graft'; kolami 'smithy, forge' attesting to a writing system which became a necessity in the context of the bronze age trade networks.