Sarasvati: Hindu civilization

Sarasvati (mleccha) hieroglyphs (Indus Script)

Sarasvati in ancient texts

Sarasvati darshan (Movie, 6:18min.)

Sarasvati-Croat cultural interactions during the transition from Neolithic to Metals Age (ca. 6500 BCE to 1st millennium BCE)


Scorpion, pudendum muliebre as hieroglyphs to denote ore-smelting furnace 


Scoprion metaphor does occur in a sexual setting on early epigraphs and on one sculpture from Khajuraho. It is suggested in this note that the scorpion is a hieroglyph representing a major component mineral ore used by a blacksmith/artisan working with metals.


The most emphatic rebus representation of kut.hi ‘the pubes of a woman’ yields the homonym kut.hi ‘smelting furnace’ (Santali)


Shown together with scorpions, the reading may refer to a smelting furnace used for iron or native metal: bica ‘scorpion’ (Assamese); bica = stone ore containing iron (Mu.) [Sand containing iron ore is has a distinct lexeme: bali (Mu.); rebus: bali ‘bull’ (Skt.)] bali_varda = a bull (Skt.lex.) bel [Hem. Des. ba-i-li_ fr. Skt.] a bull; a bullock; an ox (G.lex.) 

Reclaiming the chronology of Bharatam: Narahari Achar (July 2006)

pipis'e in R.gveda: an example of proto-vedic continuity of bharatiya languages


Prehistoric human colonization of India: VN MIshra, 1994


A search for lost cities of Bharatam 


Nal pot of wing and eagle face ligatured to a tiger m1224 er-aka = upper arm, wing (Te.) eruvai - a kind of kite whose head is white and whose body is brown; eagle (Ta.) eruva - eagle, kite (Ma.)(DEDR 819). Rebus: eraka 'infusion of metal' (Tu.) Sarasvati hieroglyph. sen:gel gidi = the male of the Indian king-vulture, ologyps calvus (Santali). Rebus: sen:gel gitil = (furnace) fire for meteoric iron fragments; gitil bali = grains of magnetic iron resembling sand (Santali)

Pict-103 Horned (female with breasts hanging down?) person with a tail and bovine legs standing near a tree, fisting a horned tiger rearing on its hindlegs. Rabat Teppe. Winged woman with haunches of bovine.d.hagara_m 'buttocks, the hip' (G.) rebus:d.angar 'blacksmith' (H.) eraka 'wing'; erako 'infusion of metal' (Tu.) kola 'woman' (Nahali); kolami 'smithy' (Te.); kol 'alloy of five metals' (Ta.) kod. 'horns'; kod. 'workshop'. kut.i 'tree'; kut.hi 'smelter furnace'. krammara 'look back'; kamar 'smith, artisan' (Santali) karma_ra (Skt.) loa = a species of fig tree, ficus glomerata (Santali) [Hence, the depiction of a fig-leaf (pipal) on the summit on some glyphs.] Rebus: lo(h) = metal (H. and many languages of Indic language family)A phonetic determinant is lo = nine (Santali); and hence, nine leaves are shown on some epigraphs (m296 Parpola). kamsa 'to jump' (Santali); kancu 'bronze' (Te.) bronze (Pali); bell-metal, drinking vessel, cymbal (Pkt.); ka_sa id. (Pkt.); kas-kut. metal alloy (N.)(CDIAL 2987)  


Ligatured boat as a hieroglyph

Standard and dotted circles as Sarasvati hieroglyphs

Albums and notes on Sarasvati hieroglyphs 

Animals as Sarasvati hieroglyphs  

Balarama with na_ga canopy. Mathura, 101 to 200 CE. Pink sandstone. Lucknow State Museum 2.5 in. h. On the pedestal are shown: makara, garud.a and turtle. kaula mengro 'blacksmith' (Gypsy); rebus: mangar 'crocodile'; ibha 'elephant' (components of the makara glyph); rebus: ib 'iron'; sengel gidi 'eagle'; rebus: sengel gitil 'furnace for meteoric iron fragments'; ka_sai, ka_sye a kind of tortoise (the bigger kind) (Kon.lex; rebus: kac, kas, kacci iron (Go.); kacc iron, iron blade (of spade)(Go.); kacci iron sword (Go.); sword (Kol.) ? < IA (DEDR 1096; CDIAL 2866) kas kasa = bronze, bell-metal (Santali); ka_s’u = gold, money, the smallest copper coin (Ma.); ka.c = rupee (Ko.); kos. id. (To.)(DEDR 1431)


Winged goddesses flew over Iran 

Tehran, 12 October 2005 (CHN) – The recent excavations in Rabat Teppe archaeological site in Sardasht, Northwestern Iran, led to discovery of four icons of winged goddesses on bricks which belong to 3000 years ago. These are the first ever winged goddesses found in Iran.

In initial measures, the area of the archaeological site was believed to be 14 hectares but recent studies extend its measures to 25 hectares.

“This season of the excavations has led to discovery of four winged goddesses in Rabat Teppe which can be traced back to the Iron Age, about 3000 years ago. This kind of icons has never been seen in any Iranian archaeological site before,” said Reza Heydari, an archaeologist of Western Azarbaijan Cultural Heritage and Tourism Organization.

“These icons are unique and have no counterpart even in Persepolis. In Persepolis there is no sign of women,” he added.

According to him, “the found icons are women with haunches that are similar to deer or cow. Each one of the four goddesses has 2 raised wings.”

The most outward level of the site belongs to the first millennium BC. The archaeologists’ excavation which was started in current year September is an effort for a comparison of the site to the Mushashir’s civilization. Based on historical documents, one of the biggest ancient religion’s temples was based in the location.

Mushashir civilization was contemporary with Urartu and Assyria. Due to political situations, Mushashirs sometimes allied with Assyrians or Urartu people.

I find in this picture, three linear strokes on the top register. The woman has two wings emerging from the waistline. As you know, three linear strokes is a hieroglyh common in 'Indus script' which I have called Sarasvati hieroglyphs (not unlike Egyptian hieroglyphs, using rebus readings of homonyms).  I couldn't figure out how a deer or cow is referred to. Maybe, haunch (loi and leg of a quadruped) is clear on the other three bricks. If this brick is an epigraph the hieroglyphs can be read (assuming links with Sarasvati hieroglyphs) as:  kola 'woman'; rebus: kol 'alloy of five metals, furnace' er-aka =3D upper arm, wing; rebus: erako =3D molten cast; era =3D copper tebr.a, tebor. =3D thrice; rebus: tibira =3D copper merchant (Akkadian); ta(m)bra =3D copper (Pkt.)  It will be interesting to inquire if any metal artefacts were found at the site. The only close-by civilization which was using epigraphs to convey messages was IVC (what I call Sarasvati civilization with 80% of archaeological sites on this river basin; cf. Kenoyer).

Ligaturing was a unique artistic style seen on many Sarasvati hieroglyphs (seals and other inscribed objects of the so-called Indus script). In a recent excavation at Harappa, a unique ligature of a tiger's face ligatured to the breast of a woman was found. [kol 'alloy of five metals', kol 'furnace'; kollan 'blacksmith'; rebus: kola 'woman'; kola, kolum 'tiger, jackal'.] See examples in albums at: The following URL shows a  terracotta feline figurine with the body of a woman ligatured to the face of a tiger: *Material:* terra cotta * Dimensions:* 7.1 cm height, 4.8 cm length, 3.5 cm width Harappa, 2384 *Harappa Museum,* HM 2082 (Vats 1940: 300, pl. LXXVII, 67)  If the ligature is that of a woman, wings and a deer, there may be some parallels with the depiction of antelope or ram on Sarasvati hieroglyphs in a metallurgical context of alloying.