Study Material Contributed by Ulhas Kavle - Senior SAP Consultant
Master Recipes in SAP PPPI
Just as discussed in the Routing task list section, the master recipe creation is very similar to it. One could create task list groups and then assign the material to it or one could create a master recipe task list for a producible material directly.
The transaction code to create a master recipe is C201 (Change is C202 and Display is C203); whereas the transaction code to create a process order is COR1 (Change is COR2 and Display is COR3). In this section, the master recipe and the process order is explained together.
The logics or the configuration to select the BOM, Task list in the process order remains the same. The only evident difference is that every manufactured product needs to pull in the BOM and the master recipe based on production versions and therefore the MRP 4 view of the material master needs the BOM selection procedure as “2” - Selection by production version or “3” - Selection only by production version.
a) It is needless to say that the configuration required just for the master recipe is similar to that of the Routing or rate routing settings and
b) The configuration required for creation of the process order is similar to that of the production order configuration.
c) One should also carry out the BOM selection configuration along the task list selection configurations just as explained in the production order section.
d) Additional configurations required for SAP PPPI are only for the use of process management, if you decide to use process management functions such as process instructions, control recipe destinations, RFC destinations for control recipes, process messages etc.
Notable Key Differentiators between Master Recipe and Routings are explained in the following below text boxes:
Key Difference between SAP PP and SAP PPPI
a) Use of Production Versions in a Master Recipe
When one creates the master recipe for a material-plant combination, it is recommended to enter the production version for the material on the selection screen. The production version should be created prior to the creation of the master recipe and then used for creation of the recipe. A production version can be created in the material master MRP4 view or Work Scheduling view.
A production version is used in creation of a master recipe so as to identify the BOM for the material and pull the bill of material details in the recipe.
The master recipe requires a profile assignment for creation of a recipe, the profile (as any other profile) contains some default value for some fields like the default control key, default operation number increment, default user field key, default phase relationships, default network creation parameters, default process instructions increment number. One can create the process instructions using the transaction code OPN1 or OPN0.
First strategy to create the master recipe:
a) Prior to the creation of the master recipe, one could create the production version with the BOM details included (and without the master recipe group number & counter number details)
b) And then use this production version for the creation of the recipe.
c) After the creation of the master recipe, you can go back and enter the master recipe details in the production version.
Second strategy in creation of the master recipe as below:
a) Create a (blanket) “master-recipe-group” without any reference to a material/plant,
b) Then create the production version with this master recipe details along with the BOM details,
c) This would mean that the master recipe which was created earlier had no connections to any material list (BOM) and you could now solve this issue by assigning the header material to the recipe triggering the system to prompt you to enter the production version details so as to explode the BOM in the recipe.
b) Recipe Header details in creation of a Master Recipe
The master recipe header is very much similar to the header of a routing/rate routings in SAP PP (discrete manufacturing). It contains the following:
a) The lot size quantities for which the master recipes are valid are given as charge quantity range.
b) The master recipe header also contains the default values for the operation/phase/secondary resources. It states the default values for deciding the operation quantities and its unit of measure versus the recipe quantities and its unit of measure in proportionate relationships. In Routings or rate routings, such relationships are directly mentioned in the operation details. SAP provides a very nice example to demonstrate the same, i.e., when the recipe unit of measure is pieces and the operation unit of measure is kilogram and for every 5 kg of the operation there are 3 pieces of the recipe, then the quotient is 3/5. The charge quantity is 3 pieces and the operation quantity is 5 kg. SAP also provides a base quantity to play around with the situation in a more detailed fashion.
Key Differences Between SAP PP and SAP PPPI
b) Operation and Phases in creation of Master Recipe
A master recipe has the concept of operations assigned with phase’s vis-à-vis discrete manufacturing which has only operation level details. The introduction of phases helps the organization to break down the activities on a given operation as phases and detail them out. The standard values/activities like the set-up time or duration or machine time etc; are assigned to the phases in process manufacturing unlike discrete manufacturing (where they are assigned to the operation itself). This takes you to an obvious conclusion that the confirmation in process manufacturing are carried out at the phase level rather than at operation level. Note the following amusing things in a master recipe which are unfortunately not a part of the routing or rate routing:
a) The Resource (work center) is assigned at the operation level. The phases adopt the resource which is assigned at the operation level. The phases behave as something similar to sub-operations).
b) The work center assigned to the phases also carry a QDR system which is something but the address of an external control system to which data has to be sent, in cases when the control recipe destination is an external process control system. The QDR field can be configured in SAP.
c) The standard values/activities which are assigned in the resource are active at the phase’s level and not at the operation level. You can enter the values of standard values/activities at the phase level unlike in routings/rate routings. The summation of the standard values at the phases is the total time required to process the operation. The operation in process manufacturing (SAP PPPI) has no meaning unlike discrete manufacturing where everything is executed at the operation level. Even the components of the BOM in SAP PPPI, are assigned to the phases and not the operations, thus strengthening the fact that the phases govern over the operations. Though the inspection characteristics can be assigned at both operation and phase level in case of QM in process inspection. To create a phase below the operations, you have to select the phase indictor.
d) In SAP PPPI, the phases (of an operation) are sent outside for external processing. The external processing details are entered at the phase level.
e) The relationships between phases can be maintained as start-finish, finish-start, finish-finish or start-start, in other words the phases can work in parallel or in a overlapping situation. It should be well noted that connecting phases of 2 different master recipes would connect two process orders and scheduling them as one unit (depending upon the relationship that exists between the 2 phases belonging to the 2 master recipes of 2 different producible products.
f) You can access phase relationship screen for phases (operations tab) by selecting the phases and going to the path – Goto > Relationships in master recipe’s create/change/display modes.
g) The Control recipe destination is assigned to the phases during the creation of the phases of an operation.
h) The process instructions are assigned in the master recipe to the respective phases. As discussed earlier some or all the process instructions can be assigned to the control recipe destination in IMG; though you can insert all the process instructions during master recipe creation itself increasing the total effort. For specific process instructions which have characteristic values based on material, then those instructions have to be assigned at the master recipe level.
i) To assign Process instructions to the phases, you can use the path in operation tab of the Master recipe – Goto > Process Management > Process instructions.
c) Embedding Bill of Materials in Master Recipes
Vis-à-vis the routing or rate routing, the master recipe collects the operations and the BOM together in one master data through the use of production version. The production version is exploded in the recipe to pull in the material BOM. Brining the BOM inside the task list helps in generating one more unique feature of a recipe called the “Material Quantity Calculations”. Before creating the recipe, one should have a Production version created with at least the BOM embedded in it, which will help adding the BOM to the recipe.
Very Important Note – It seems to be a normal practice that the recipe group number is added to the production version after it is created. So you may have to maintain the production version information, firstly after the BOM creation and before the recipe creation and once after the recipe creation so as to assign the Recipe group number to it.
Key Differences between SAP PP and SAP PPPI
d) Material Quantity Calculations
It is true that with the use of a BOM, the component quantities in a process order are calculated as directly proportional to the order quantity, and the product quantity cannot be altered with respect to the component quantities and their ever varying specifications.
But this truth can be falsified in process manufacturing through the use of a concept called “material quantity calculations, which allows changing the following in a process order, provided you have maintained the “material quantity calculations” through formulas in the master recipe:
a) To change header product quantities, with respect to the component quantities or with respect to the active ingredient proportions.
b) To change the component quantities with respect to each other or the header product or with respect to the active ingredient proportions (batch characteristics and their values).
c) To calculate the planned phase scrap and include it in planned cost.
d) To change operation/phase quantities when they are not proportional to the product quantity.
A “material Quantity calculation” requires definition of production version in the master recipe. A production version allows the system to identify the BOM related to the recipe and the list of components that needs to play with.
Planned scrap for the component, as entered in its material master, increases the component quantities automatically. You could also use the planned scrap of a component as a variable in calculating other component’s material quantity calculation formulas.
The Process order accepts these equations and processes them automatically if the batch allocation is not a criterion (taking active ingredient concentrations from the batches).
For formulas which are supposed to be processed at batch level and which uses active ingredient proportions (batch characteristics values) in them, the material quantity calculations have to be manually triggered in the process order after the batch determination. (It is evident that only numeric batch characteristics are entertained here). If no batch has been assigned in the process order, then the material lines quantities or batch characteristics values at the material line, as entered in the material master are taken in to account. (When we assign the batch characteristic values at the material master batch class level, it is considered as a default value which can be overwritten during goods receipt from process order).
After the BOM is exploded in the master recipe, you can enter into material quantity calculations screen through the path – Goto > Material Quantity Calculation
Following is an example and steps explained to execute the same:
a) Once you are in the material quantity calculations screen, keep your cursor on the field for which you want to change through the use of formula and press the “Select formula” button.
b) In the formula box, you can enter the formula equation that derives the output field value.
c) While creating the formula you can double click on the variables that you want to include in the formula or just keep the cursor on the variable and press the button – “Insert in formula”
The operators like +, -, *, /, DIV, MOD can be selected on the screen.
The functions for use of exponential, absolute values (ABS), rounding (ROUND), truncation (TRUNC), square root (SQRT), IF THEN ELSE conditions, IF THEN NOT conditions, EXP, LOG, SIN, COS, TAN, are also available for use.
Method to enter the formula:
Step a) To enter formula for header material quantity Place double click on the field showing header material quantity M1P1:Quantity = [001,001]
Step b) Intended Formula for M1P1 Quantity = [004, 001]/0.8
Step c) Press the enter button to save the formula and press the execute button to transfer the calculated material quantity to the material list and BOM
Other Formulas which you can create – They are not shown in the screen shot:
Calculating the quantities of component M2PI (field location [004, 001])
= Product Sum of all the assigned batch quantities (assigned to component M2PI)
= Component Batch Qty * Characteristics value of SPEC1 for the batch
= 20*0.7 + 50*0.8 = 54
Formula in general = CPSM(<material item>;<Characteristics Column>;<Characteristics Column)
Similarly you could have a formula for quotient Sum of all the assigned batch quantities
= CQSM(<material item>;<Characteristics Column>;<Characteristics Column)
= (Qty1/Characteristics1) + (Qty2/Characteristics2) + (Qty2/Characteristics2)
Step d) After saving the formula, you can press the “calculate quantity product” button to test the formula.
Key Differences Between SAP PP and SAP PPPI
e) Assignment of Process Instructions to the Master Recipe
To assign Process instructions to the phases, you should select the phase and use the following path in the operation tab of the Master Recipe – Goto > Process Management > Process instructions. To check or change or add values to the characteristics, you can go to the characteristics details by using the path in the below screen – Goto > PI Characteristics overview
Explanation of the Screen shots below:
If you have a look at the below screen shot, there are only 2 process instructions, one containing the order details (AORD_1) and (APROD_1). The process instructions APROD_1 is created with characteristics containing process message details or process message requests seeking goods receipts information from the shop floor. The details required for the goods receipt in SAP are requesting in the form of characteristic values. Both these instructions are pointed for download to the shop floor system with control recipe destination Z1 pointing to the shop floor system and having a destination type “2” – Download to PCS (process control system) initiated by SAP. Alternatively you could have a destination type “3” which is downloading to PCS initiated by the external system.
Process Instructions Assigned to Phase 20
Process Instructions Characteristics for AORD – Sending Order information to the Destination
Process Instruction Characteristics for APROD_1 – Sending Process messages details in the process instructions to request Goods receipt information
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