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Introduction to TISLEP Working Groups and sanokondu

Healthcare leadership development is seen as central to the ongoing maintenance and improvement of patient care and health systems1.  However, the most appropriate definition of leadership as well as the optimal strategies to teach and assess leadership remain controversial1. In this resource website, we have defined leadership as interpreted in CanMEDS2015: 

    […] engage with others to contribute to a vision of a high-quality healthcare system and take responsibility for the delivery of excellent patient care through their activities as clinicians, administrators, scholars or teachers (Frank et al. 2015 page 20,          line 1)2.

This educational resource represents collaborative work that arose out of opportunities to harness international experience and expertise to develop a shared, locally adaptable curriculum for everyday physician leadership in postgraduate education.  It consists of a sampling of assorted opportunities for teaching and learning as well as a faculty development package to help implement any planned program. We have provided both new and known resources to assist in this process and recognize that there are other educational opportunities that may not have been showcased in this offering.

The international collaborative efforts arose from:

·       International interest in healthcare leadership education and competency-based medical education;

·       The University of Toronto’s Undergraduate & Postgraduate Medical Education Departments’ and the Institute of Health Policy, Measurement, and Evaluation (IHPME)’s work on leadership development; and

·       The CanMEDS 2015 review process where the “Manager” Role was changed to the “Leader” Role thus challenging programs to further develop their learners’ leadership competencies. 

These opportunities converged at The Toronto International Summits on Leadership Education for Physicians (TISLEP), which arose out of a collaboration between the University of Toronto and Royal College (Canada)3. Since its inception in 2014, TISLEP has brought together patients, learners, educators, and medical, health professional, and business faculty engaged in physician leadership development worldwide; as a result, an international community of practice committed to working on a postgraduate leadership curriculum has been formed.

The curriculum under development embeds the five pillars of the LEADS leadership framework4 (Lead Self, Engage Others, Achieve Results, Develop Coalitions and Systems Transformation) into the CanMEDS competency-based medical education (CBME) framework. Several conceptual frameworks have been used in designing the curriculum including experiential learning where the learning experience is paired with reflection. Another principle is that learners need to be active learners who are encouraged to be responsible for their learning. A curriculum planning perspective (systems theory) has been used to design the modules themselves.

A series of modules (one to two modules for each LEADS pillar), of a CBME postgraduate leadership curriculum, have been developed and released on September 27th, 2016, at the 3rd Toronto International Summit on Leadership Education for Physicians (TISLEP) in Niagara Falls, Canada. Each module is case-based (often a sampling of narratives is provided) to start the dialogue. Possible teaching and assessment strategies are suggested with the understanding that faculty and curriculum developers can adapt to the local context. Some perspective is provided around consideration of the learner’s developmental stage in leadership development and which components are more suitable for the ‘junior’ or more ‘senior’ learner.

The area of leadership development for medical and healthcare learners is rich in potential scholarship.  Modules need to be integrated with leadership curriculum development in undergraduate medical education and across other healthcare professions. Broader international and cross-sectoral collaboration, innovative implementation, enhanced strategies for assessment, program evaluation, and ongoing scholarship are needed and ongoing work is planned.

We welcome you to use and share this resource, adapt fit for your context and provide feedback to ensure that this evergreen resource remains relevant to our learners, faculty and healthcare. We continue to seek to expand our coalitions and develop a truly international community of practice engaged in efforts to improve patient care through advances in physician and healthcare leadership development.

To reference these materials: Chan, M-K and Matlow, A. (Ed) (2016) International Competency-based Resident Leadership Curriculum, Canada, available at www.sanokondu.com

Editors: Ming-Ka Chan, University of Manitoba and Anne Matlow, University of Toronto

More information on the Toronto International Summit on Leadership Education for Physicians (2014-2018) and its working group members is available at: http://tislep.pgme.utoronto.ca.


  • Busari JO, Chan M-K, Dath D, Matlow A, De Camps Meschino D. (2018) Sanokondu: The birth of a multinational network for the development of healthcare leadership education. Leadership in Health Services, 31(2), pp.254-264, https://doi.org/10.1108/LHS-01-2018-0001

  • Chan M-K, de Camps Meschino D, Dath D, Busari JO,  Bohnen JD, Samson L, Matlow A, and Sánchez-Mendiola M. (2016) Collaborating internationally on physician leadership development: why now?, Leadership in Health Services, Vol. 29 Iss: 3, pp.231 – 239. https://doi.org/10.1108/LHS-12-2015-0050

  • Dickson G and Tholl B. (2014), Bringing Leadership to Life in Health: LEADS in a Caring Environment, Springer-Verlag, London.

  • Frank JR, Snell LS and Sherbino J. (Eds) (2015), CanMEDS 2015 Physician Competency Framework, Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, Ottawa, available at: www.royalcollege.ca/portal/page/portal/rc/common/documents/canmeds/framework/canmeds_reduced_framework_e.pdf

  • Matlow A, Chan M-K, Bohnen JD, Blumenthal DM, Sánchez-Mendiola M, de Camps Meschino D, Samson L and Busari J. (2016) Collaborating internationally on physician leadership education: first steps, Leadership in Health Services, Vol. 29 Iss: 3, pp.220 – 230. https://doi.org/10.1108/LHS-12-2015-0049

  • Saxena A, Meschino D, Hazelton L, Chan M-K, Benrimoh D, Matlow A, Dath D, and Busari J. Power and Physician Leadership. BMJ Leader BMJ Leader, 2019 July 15: 1-7 doi.org/10.1136/leader-2019-000139

Email: sanokondu.com@gmail.com

Twitter: @sanokondu      

Danielle Kiss,
Apr 23, 2019, 2:15 PM