Rasulullah was born in the noble family of the Banu Hashim of the Quraish tribe. After he was born he was taken by a women Bibi Halima (R.A.) to her village where he lived for four years in a clean environment. While he stayed with Hazrat Bibi Halima (R.A.), she was never short of anything and her home was always blessed. He was returned to his mother when he was four years old. His mother took him for a visit to her families in Madinah when he was six years old. She passed away when she was returning to Makkah, at a place called Abwa and Muhammed was brought back by a slave girl Umm-e-Aiyman.
After the demise of his mother, his grand-father Abdul Muttalib looked after him, but it was not long before his grandfather passed away too. Muhammed was then eight years old. Then his uncle Abu Talib looked after him. At a young age Rasulullah used to go into the desert to watch the flocks of his uncle. As a young boy he was truthful, well mannered and honest. He never wasted his time playing games. He always helped other people.
In his youth Rasulullah was a very hard working young man. He learnt to do business from his uncle Abu Talib. At first, he went with his uncle on business trips at the age of twelve but later he started trading on his own. The people of Makkah respected him. He believed in one Allah. He was loving and kind. He always kept his promise. He lived a simple life and hated pride. Rasulullah helped to re-start the work of Half-ul -Foodhul which took an active part in bringing about peace and unity among the tribe of Makkah. Killing, stealing and harassing visitors was discouraged while love and brotherhood was encouraged. The weak were looked after. Muhammed was also known as As-Saadiq (The Truthful) and Al-Ameen (The Trustworthy).
As the ka'bah was badly damaged by floods, the different tribes of Makkah worked together to build the Ka'bah again. The building was almost finished, only the famous black stone know as Hajre Aswad was left to be set into its place, and the tribes started quarreling, because each tribe wanted to have the honour to replace the stone. There was great fear that fighting would take place, when a wise old man gave them an idea. He said that the first person to enter the Ka'bah in the morning shall suggest what was to be done. This idea was accepted by all the tribes. It so happened that Rasulullah was the first person to enter the Ka'bah in the morning. Rasulullah was asked what to do. He took a sheet and spread it on the ground. He placed the black stone in the center of the sheet and asked the chiefs of all the tribes to lift it up together. When the sheet reached the proper height, he lifted the black stone and put it in its proper place. Everyone was happy and the problem was solved.
As Rasulullah grew older, his good manner and truthfulness became well known to all his friends and the people of Makkah. He was noted for his honesty. The people of Makkah respected him and called him AL-AMEEN (the trustworthy). The people left their goods with him for safe keeping. But Rasulullah was disgusted with the people doing wrong around him and he often went to a cave called Hira. He spent his time there in the remembrance of Allah.
A rich widow of Makkah, Khadija by name, hearing about Rasulullah's honesty and truthfulness, asked him to go to Syria for her on a business trip. When Rasulullah came back he gave an account for every dirham. Hazrat Bibi Khadija (R.A.) was completely won over by his honesty and good manners.
The trustworthiness, virtue, honesty and truthfulness of Rasulullah was praised by every tribe and individual in Makkah. His dignified character and sincerity had won the heart of Hazrat Khadeejah-binte-Khuwaylid (R.A.), who was pretty, rich and widowed.
Hazrat Khadeejah (R.A.) sent a marriage proposal to Rasulullah . As a mark of respect, Rasulullah consulted his uncle Abu Taalib, and gladly accepted the proposal. Hazrat Khadeejah (R.A.) was forty years old and Rasulullah was twenty- five.
Abu Taalib performed the Nikah and delivered the historical Nikah Khutbah (Sermon) which was noted for its praise of Rasulullah and of the high regard in which he was held by the elders of Makkah. Umar-bin-Asad represented Hazrat Khadejjah (R.A.) as her Wakeel (representative) and accepted four hundred misqaal (20 misqaal being equivalent to 4.37 grams of gold), as Mehr (dowry) on behalf of Hazrat Khadeejah (R.A.) and gave her away as wife of Rasulullah . Rasulullah had two sons, Qasim and Abdullah, both of whom passed away in childhood. They had four daughters, Zaynb (R.A.) Umme-kulthum (R.A.) Ruqayya (R.A.) and Faatimah (R.A.)
When Rasulullah reached the age of thirty-three, he developed a tendency to be alone and in deep thought and was drawn more towards the contemplation of the Great Creator, Allah. There was an ever-present light and brilliance 'Noor' around him which gladdened his heart.
Rasulullah resented the worship of idols and he denounced 'polytheism' (worship of more than one God). He abstained from eating food that had been offerings to the idols.
As Rasulullah got older he desired to be lonely and began to retire to the cave of Hira which was about five kilometers from Makkah. The cave was only three meters by two meters in size. During his visits to the cave he took with him only a small supply of bread and water.
He was always engaged in prayer and contemplation of the Greatness of Allah, the One and Only God.
When Rasulullah was forty years old, an angel appeared in the cave of Hira and commanded him three times to 'Read'. Rasulullah replied that he could not. The angel then recited the following verses as the first revelations of the Quran then disappeared:
This Divine incident so affected Rasulullah that he hurried home and he related the incident to Hazrat Khadeejah (R.A.)
When Rasulullah said he was afraid for his life, Hazrat Khadeejah (R.A.) comforted him and said 'you should feel happy. Allah will never let you down because you have been loving, helpful, truthful, and you are 'Fair'.
After this granting of apostleship, Rasulullah began to preach Islam. The first man to become a Muslim was his closest friend Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) and first women was his beloved wife Hazrat Khadeejah (R.A.)
Others who became Muslims willingly were Hazrat Ali-ibn-Abu Taalib (R.A.), the young cousin of Rasulullah , and Hazrat Zaid-bin-Harith (R.A.) the freed slave of Rasulullah.
After this Allah's messages continued to come and he quietly but firmly began to preach the ONENESS OF ALLAH and the good ways of living to his relatives and friends. His wife Hazrat Khadeejah (R.A.) was the first to accept Islaam. His very close friend Hazrat Abu Bakar bin Kuhafa (R.A.), and slave Hazrat Zaid (R.A.), and his cousin Hazrat Ali (R.A.), and then Hazrat Uthman bin Affan (R.A), Hazrat Talha bin Ubaidullah (R.A.), Hazrat Zubair bin Awaam (R.A.), Hazrat Sa'ad bin Abi Waqass (R.A.) and Hazrat Abdur-rahmaan bin Auf (R.A.) became muslims.
The teaching of Islaam continued in secret for three years. Then Allah commanded Rasulullah to preach the religion of Islaam openly to his people. Obeying Allah, Muhammed called his people together from the family of Quraish and invited them to the religion of Islaam. The people of the Quraish were very angry with his teaching and began to abuse him.
Rasulullah did not stop preaching Islaam although the people of Makkah, especially his uncle Abu Lahab and Abu Jahl (Amr bin Hishaam) were against his message and preaching. However, the sincere people slowly continued to accept Islaam. The poor and weak converts to Islaam, like Hazrat Bilal (R.A.) and others suffered at the hands of the Quraish. With all the hardships no one left Islaam and Rasulullah didi not stop his mission of Islaam.
One day Abu Jahl, an enemy of islam, attacked Rasulullah while he was resting near the hills of Safaa. Abu Jahl hurled a stone and wounded him on his head. Rasulullah went home bleeding a lot.
Hazrat Hamza (R.A.) who was the uncle of Rasulullah had just returned after one of his daily hunting trips in the morning. He was considered one of the bravest soldiers of Arabia. When he heard what Abu jahl had done to Rasulullah he became so angry that he attacked Abu jahl and made him bleed from his head. Although Hazrat Hamza (R.A.) had as yet not embraced islam, he nevertheless loved his nephew Rasulullah very dearly. On reporting to Rasulullah of his revenge against Abu Jahl, Rasulullah said although he was very grateful for the kind thoughts he had for him, he would feel very happy indeed if Hazrat Hamzah (R.A.) accepted islam. On hearing this, Hazrat Hamzah (R.A.) immediately became a Muslim.
Hazrat Umar (R.A.) was considered a brave person of Makkah. He was one of the Quraish who persecuted the Muslims to such an extent that one day he decided once and for all to assassinate Rasulullah . Abu jahl promised Hazrat Umar (R.A.) a gift of a hundred camels and one thousand silver coins if he would do this.
On his way to Darul-Arqam with an unsheathed sword, he met Nuaym-bin-Abdullah, who on hearing Hazrat Umar (R.A.)'s intention replied that Hazrat Umar (R.A.) 'should first put his own house in order'. His sister Hazrat Fathima (R.A.) and her husband Hazrat Saeed-bin-Zayd (R.A.) had already embraced Islam.
This rebellion by his own family angered Hazrat Umar (R.A.) that he turned towards his sister's house and on hearing them recite the Quraan, he beat his sister and her husband.. They told him that they would rather prefer death than give up Islam. On hearing this, Hazrat Umar (R.A.) calmed down and asked to hear what they were reading. When he heard the recital of the Quraan, he decided to become a Muslim.
With the unsheathed sword still in his hand, he turned towards Darul-Arqaam. On arriving at the house of Hazrat Arqaam (R.A.) Rasulullah enquired about Hazrat Umar (R.A.)'s intention, while Hazrat Hamzah (R.A.) and other companions stood ready against any wrong act by Hazrat Umar (R.A.). But when they heard that he had come to Rasulullah to accept Islam, they were so overjoyed that their cheer of 'Allah is Great' was heard in the mountains of Safaa. This was the sixth year of Nubuwwat.
The acceptance of Islam by Hazrat Umar (R.A.) had great effect on the small amount of Muslims of Makkah, who were praying to Allah in secret. They now had the courage to preach Islam publicly.
The Quraish tried to bribe Rasulullah to give up Islam in exchange for gifts of wealth or any thing he would like. But our Prophet did not accept their bribe. The Quraish decided to torture and persecute even more.
Hazrat Bilal (R.A.), the slave of Umayya-bin-Khalaf, was laid flat on his back on hot sand. A hot heavy stone was placed on his chest and he was beaten while his hands were tied behind his back.
Hazrat Uthman (R.A.), a rich and prosperous man of the Banu Umayya tribe was tied up with ropes by his uncle and beaten and tortured.
Hazrat Ammar (R.A.), his father Hazrat Yaasir (R.A.) and his mother Sumayyah (R.A.) had embraced Islam. Abu Jahl killed Hazrat Sumayya (R.A.) with a sharp spear.
Abu Jahl also beat slave lady Hazrat Zaeerah (R.A.) in such a way that she became totally blind.
Some helpless Muslims like Hazrat Khabbab-bin-Aett (R.A.) were pushed into a fire.
In the fith year of Islaam as the tortures and hardships for the Messenger of Allah and his followers became worse, Rasulullah gave the Muslims permission to emigrate to the friendly country of Abyssinia. It was ruled by very good and trustworthy king called Negus (Najjashi), who later accepted Islaam. In the sixth year of Islaam Hazrat Hamza bin Abdul Muttalib(R.A.) (uncle of Rasulullah ) and Hazrat Umar bin Khattab (R.A.) became Muslims. By them accepting Islaam the Muslims became stronger and they started praying openly in the Ka'bah. The chiefs of the Quraish were shocked and they all joined forces to crush Islaam.
When the Quraish realised that all their tortures and hardships on Muhammed and his followers did not help and that the number of Muslims were growing, they asked his uncle Hazrat Abu Talib to hand him over to them. When Abu Talib refused, all the tribes of Makkah decided to boycott the Banu Hashim (Family clan of Rasulullah ). The Banu Hashim had to go and stay in Shu'ab Abu Talib, a valley near Makkah. They could not buy anything, speak to anyone or sell to anyone. Sometimes they stayed without food or water for days and they suffered in this place. This boycott lasted from the seventh to the tenth year of Islaam.
Just after the boycott, our Prophet Muhammed lost his most faithful and loving uncle and his wife. With the death of Abu Talib and Hazrat Khadija (R.A.) in one year, he was left alone without any family help. The Quraish seeing this increased their harassment, tortures and hardship on Rasulullah and the Muslims.
He went to Ta'if, a town in the mountains 48 km, from Makkah to teach the message of Islaam to the people living there, but he was attacked and stoned by them. He was badly wounded and blood flowed into his shoes. Rasulullah made dua for the people in Ta'if that Allah make them and there children Muslims
The persecutions of the Quraish was so harsh in Makkah that Rasulullah decided to turn to the people of Ta'if, a town about forty eight kilometers from Makkah.
The people of Ta'if used to worship idolaters. On reaching Ta'if with his assistant Hazrat Zaid-bin-Harith (R.A.), Rasulullah met the leaders of the town, On preaching to them, he found them proud and arrogant. They disrespected Rasulullah in a very bad manner. They encouraged their slaves, boys and girls to follow and torture Rasulullah until he left Ta'if. The crowd pelted them with pebbles and stones. Hazrat Zaib (R.A.) tried his best to protect Rasulullah who was bleeding so much that the blood from his body ran down into his sandals and covered his feet.
Rasulullah was so hurt that he was partly conscious when an angel appeared. The angel offered to bring down a whole mountain on the crowd who attacked an innocent man. Rasulullah refused this Divine help and instead, prayed that one day all the people of Ta'if would become Muslims.
That evening they reached Nukhla, and in the middle of the night, while they were in salaat and reciting Quraan, seven leaders of the Jinnat of Naseebeen approached Rasulullah and became Muslims. The Quraan also mentioned this fact in Sura Al-Jinn.
The Quraish continued torturing and troubling Muhammed and his followers until Allah honoured him with Me'raj. Me'raj means the journey of Hazrat Muhammed from Makkah to Baitul Muqaddas (Jerusalem) on the Buraq (a winged horse). From Baitul Muqaddas he went to the seven heavens. He met all the prophets A.S. This journey took place in one night. It was during Me'raj that Allah gave Muhammed the five salaat (Namaz) as a gift.
In the eleventh year of Nabuwat (Prophethood) six men came from Madinah for Hajj and met Rasulullah . They embraced Islaam and the following year twelve pilgrims came to Makkah and embraced Islaam and pledged: 'We will not worship anyone but Allah, we will not steal, not commit adultery, nor kill our children. We will obey Rasulullah in all that is good'. This was known as the first covenant of Aqabah.
The following year, in the thirteenth year of Nabuwat seventy two Muslims came for Hajj from Madinah. When they heard that Rasulullah was thinking of leaving Makkah, they invited him to Madinah and promised full help for him, his mission and his followers.
With the promise of safety in Madinah, the believers migrated there alone or in groups with the permission of Rasulullah . When all had left with the exception of Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A.), Hazrat Ali (R.A.) and some women and children, Rasulullah awaited the Command of Allah to leave for Madinah.
Madinah (Yathrib) was populated with many tribes, but most important were the tribes of Aus and Khazraj. There was also a separate section of Madinah which was dominated by the Jews.
As the thirteenth year of Nubuwwat almost finidhed seventy Muslims, including two women, came to Makkah to perform pilgrimage and to meet Rasulullah at Aqabah. They were specifically sent by the Muslims of Madinah to request Rasulullah to come with them to Madinah.
The determined Muslims pledged on the hand of Rasulullah that they will sacrifice their lives to protect him and Islam, as they would their wives and children. This was the Second Covenant of Aqabah.
Rasulullah chose twelve Muslims of Madinah for the propagation of Islam. Nineof them were from the tribes of Khazraj. After the pledge had been taken, Rasulullah decided to migrate to Madinah. The muslims began to leave Makkah and go to Madinah. There were only a few Muslims left in Makkah and Rasulullah waited for Allah's commad to leave for Madinah.
When the Muslims began to migrate, the Makkah leaders became worried and wanted to put an end to Islaam. They decided to kill Rasulullah and end his mission and work. Rasulullah was told by Hazrat Jibra'eel A.S. of the enemy plan and asked to leave for Madinah that very night of the planned assassination.
Rasulullah asked Hazrat Ali (R.A.) to sleep in his bed and also to return the goods of the people he kept in trust. Thereafter, he quietly left the house, not seen by anyone. With Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) he made his way towards Madinah. As his enemies were looking for him everywhere, he stayed in the cave of Thoor for three days and nights
When the Makkans found Hazrat Ali (R.A.) in Muhammed 's bed the next morning they were very angry and now they really wanted him more than ever. They offered a hundred camels in reward for his capture, dead or alive, but Rasulullah and Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) had safely reached Madinah. The year of Hijrat of Rasulullah to Madinah marks the beginning of the Islamic Calendar.
The cave of Thoor, situated 5 km from Makkah served as a place of refuge for our beloved Nabi Muhammed and Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique (R.A.). This cave and the cave of Hira occupy a very important place in the History of Islaam: one for the Divine Call and other for the memorable Migration (Hijrah).
The Kuffar of Makkah sent out tracking parties to seize Rasulullah . A price of a 100 camels was set out for the capture of Rasulullah . At last, when the search for the neighborhood was over and all was clear, they left the cave. Rasulullah and Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique (R.A.) set out for Madinah. They used unfamiliar paths because they were still being pursued by the enemy. They rested during the day and travelled at night. The rest of the journey was fairly safe and was covered without any serious hazards.
Meanwhile, the Muslims of Madinah received news of Rasulullah 's departure from Makkah and eagerly awaited his arrival. Everyday the Ansars used to go out of the city of Madinah to give him a grand welcome, but they returned disappointed. Young girls sang songs of welcome from the roof of their homes. At last, the beloved Rasool of Allah accompanied by Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) arrived at a place called Quba, 5 km from Madinah after traveling for eight days, on the 12th Rabiul-Awwal in the thirteenth Year of his mission (June 28. 622 A.D.)
Rasulullah and his companion Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) stayed at Quba for 14 days. During his short stay at Quba, Rasulullah built the first Masjid in Islaam, Masjid-e-Quba.
The Ansaars (Helpers) of Madinah were now anxious to receive Rasulullah . The entry into Madinah began on a Friday. Nabi and his party arrived in the locality of Banu Salim bin Auf. It was time for prayers. The first Jum'a prayer in Muslim History was conducted here by Rasulullah with 100 worshippers in an open field. Rasulullah mounted his camel, named Quswa after jum'a Salaat and proceeded forward. As his camel passed by a particular family they would say with one voice 'Here we are with our homes, our property and our lives. Come and live with us'. Some in their Zeal would hold the reins of the camel and request Rasulullah to dismount . Gently Rasulullah would refuse saying 'Leave the camel alone, she is under Divine Command, she will stop where Allah wants her to stop'.
At last she stopped at a site belonging to two orphans of Banu Najjar, the clan to which belonged Rasulullah 's mother. The nearest house was that of Abu Ayyub Ansari (R.A.). He was the fortunate man to be the host of Rasulullah .
One of the most important things Rasulullah did in Madinah was to ask the people of Madinah to help those who came from Makkah. The people of Madinah shared their homes and goods with the people of Makkah most readily. The people who helped were called Ansars and the people who made Hijrah, were called the Muhajireen. This helping and sharing is called Muwakhat (Islamic Brotherhood).
After Rasulullah and the Muhajireen had settled in Madinah they now decided to build a Masjid. There was a vacant piece of land belonging to two orphans of the Najjar clan. They offered it free of charge to Rasulullah but Rasulullah refused, and bought it from them. Rasulullah and his companions worked like ordinary workmen in the building of the Masjid. It was the proud privilege for the Sahaba to work with the beloved Nabi .
The construction of the Masjid was a very simple one. The walls were made of mud bricks and the roof was supported by the trunks of palm-trees. The leaves and twigs made up the roof itself. A platform was raised in the corner of the courtyard for the residence of such followers who had no home nor family, and they were known as Ashaabe Suffah; the residents of Suffah. Adjoining the Masjid were built two apartments for Rasulullah and his family.
The Muslims were not allowed to build a Masjid in Makkah and they were not even allowed to say their prayers in public. Madinah offered an atmosphere of peace, and they could offer their Salaat without any fear or harassment in the Masjid.
At the time of the arrival of Rasulullah at Madinah, there were three Jewish tribes viz. Banu Quinuqah, Banu Nadhir and Banu Quraizah. The Jews were traders and merchants and they controlled the economy of Madinah. There were always differences between the Jews and the Arabs of Madinah which led to skirmishes between them.
After settling in Madinah, Rasulullah made peace between the Muslims and Jews. They agreed to help each other and defend Madinah from outside aggression. This was called a Treaty (agreement). This treaty gave all the people of Madinah the freedom to practice their religious teachings without any harassment and their goods and lives were not going to be interfered with. The idea of this treaty was to try and bring the Muslims and Jews to live in peace and defend the city of Madinah from anyone who wanted to cause harm to it.
In the event of any quarrel between two parties and if no agreement is reached then Rasulullah would give the final decision which nobody would go against.
Prior to the coming of Rasulullah to Madinah the tribes of Aus and Khazraj were always quarreling with each other and they felt harmony and peaceful co-existence should be maintained between the people of Madinah. They were keen to have a common ruler.
Abdullah bin Ubay bin Sulool a citizen of Madinah was a very intelligent, experienced in worldly matters, clever and cunning person. He had great influence over the Aus and Khazraj tribes and the people of Madinah accepted his leadership, and were prepared to crown him king and ruler of Madinah.
He foresaw himself as a future king and ruler of Madinah. After Rasulullah and his followers entered Madinah they became a strong force and the people of Madinah accepted the leadership of Rasulullah . This shattered the hopes of Abdullah bin Ubay bin Sulool of becoming the ruler of Madinah.
Abdullah bin Ubay bin Sulool hoped that if Rasulullah had not come to Madinah he would have been installed as ruler of the city. Being a clever and cunning person, he hid his dislike and hatred for Rasulullah and his followers accepted Islaam to show everyone that they were Muslims but at heart they were dangerous enemies of Islaam and they co-operated with the Jews in plotting against the Muslims.
The Jews found friends in these people as they had feared that they will lose control of the business of Madinah.
Abdullah bin Ubay bin Sulool and his followers are termed 'MUNAFIQS' (HYPOCRITES) in Islaam.
After Rasulullah safely got away from Makkan plot of assassination, the Makkans felt very humiliated and defeated. The Makkan tribes settled their personal quarrels and differences and became a united force in the desire to destroy the Muslims. The kuffar of Makkah did not let the Muslims live in peace for very long. The steady progress and gaining of strength by the Muslims made the kuffar very uneasy as they feared that their way of life, social and economic leadership was danger.
The kuffar became worried with the new force of Islaam and began planning to crush this force. A group of men under the leadership of Kurz bin Jabir from amongst the kuffar came to Madinah and stole some camels from Muslims. This was the first provocation by the kuffar against the Muslims. Rasulullah asked some Muslims to follow them but the kuffar managed to escape.
In the month of Rajab, seventeen months after Hijrat, Rasulullah sent a party of 12 men under the leadership of Hazrat Abdullah bin Jahash (R.A.) to investigate the movement of the Makkans. This group of Sahaba went up to Nakhla, situated between Taif and Makkah. Here a skirmish took place against a caravan, returning to Makkah, Amr bin Hazrami was killed and two were taken prisoners. This group safely returned to Madinah with the two prisoners and goods taken during the skirmish. Rasulullah was not happy with this situation, as he knew that the kuffar would want to take revenge.
In the second year of Hijrat, a caravan of the kuffar of Makkah, under leadership of Abu Sufyaan, went to Syria. Sensing trouble, on his return he sent a message to Makkah asking for help as he feared an attack from the Muslims. The commander of the kuffar Abu Jahl left Makkah with an army of 1000 men to assist Abu Sufyaan and to confront the Muslims of Madinah.
As soon as Abu Sufyaan got his caravan safely away from the Muslims, he sent another message to Makkah that they were safe and no longer required assistance. Abu Jahl was looking for an excuse to attack the Muslims. He had been making preparations for almost a year, thus he was not prepared to turn back after receiving the message from Abu Sufyaan. He marched towards Madinah with an army of 1000 men, 700 camels and 300 horses. Abu Jahl's men were well trained and well armed with spears, swords, bows and arrows, and shields.
On hearing the news that the Kuffaar of Makkah had left with 1000 men to destroy the Muslims, Rasulullah made mushwarah (consultation) with the sahaba at Masji-e-Nabwi in Madinah. At the Mashwarah, Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique (R.A.), Hazrat Umar (R.A.) from Muhajireen and Hazrat Saad bin Mu'az from the Ansaar and the rest of the Muslims showed their willingness and desire to defend Islaam against falsehood.
When Rasulullah was satisfied with the decision, he began preparations for the defence of Islaam. Rasulullah left Madinah with 313 men including some teenage boys. They only had 3 horses, 70 camels and a few swords. When they reached BADR, which was a mountainous region, Rasulullah made dua to Allah and pleaded : 'O Allah! should this small group of believers perish this day, no one will be left on earth to worship you and carry your message to the world'.
The battle took place on the 17th of Ramadhaan 2 A.H. Allah sent His mercy and the Kuffar lost the battle at the hands of the Muslims. Seventy of the Kufaar including the arch enemy of Islaam, Abu Jahl were killed and as many as seventy were taken as prisoners-of-war. Fourteen Muslims were martyred in the battle.
It was a battle between good and evil, falsehood was defeated and Truth triumphed. The success of the Battle of Badr considerably strengthened the Muslims and their cause.
The fire of vengeance was blindly burning in the hearts of the Makkans for they had met with a crushing defeat at Badr. In the third year of Hijrah they marched with 3,000 well armed solders towards Madinah. The kuffar of Makkah having lost their greatest leaders at Badr chose Abu Sufyaan as their commander, who swore that he would not rest until he had full vengeance on the Muslims.
Rasulullah made mushwarah (consultation) with the Muslims regarding the expected attack. It was finally decided to repel the attack outside the city of Madinah. Rasulullah offered Jum'a Salaat at Masjid-e-Nabwi and left for Uhud, a mountainous region 5 km north of Madinah with a thousand men on 14 Shawwal 3 A.H. Abdullah bin Ubay the leader of the Munafiqs deserted the Muslims with 300 of his men, reducing the strength of the Muslim army to 700 men, poorly equipped in arms but filled with enthusiasm to defend the truth at all cost.
Rasulullah and the Muslims camped with the mountain behind them. On the one side there was a mountainous pass and there was danger of an attack from behind, so Rasulullah posted 50 archers on Mount Rumat under the command of Hazrat Abdullah bin Jubair (R.A.) with strict orders not to leave the post at any account, irrespective of victory or defeat.
On Saturday 15 Shawwal 3 A.H. the opposing armies prepared for battle. According to Arab costom, the battle began with a round of hand to hand fighting before general attack.
Hazrat Ali (R.A.) and Hazrat Hamza (R.A.) an uncle of Rasulullah killed many of the kuffar. Twelve flag bearers of the kuffar were killed, eight of whom were killed by Hazrat Ali (R.A.). The kuffar were in desperate situation seeing their brave soldiers slain, they fled from the battlefield pursued by the Muslims. When the archers saw the fallen flags of the enemy and their companions collecting the booty (spoils of war) they sensed victory, and in their enthusiasm and desire to participate in the pursuance of the enemy, the archers overlooked the command of Nabi and left their positions.
Hazrat Hamza (R.A.) was martyred in this battle by Wahshi a negro slave. Jubair bin Mut'am the slave owner had offered Wahshi his freedom while Hinda binte Utbah, the wife of Abu Sufyaan, the commander of the Makkan army, offered her jewellery on her person if he, Wahshi succeeded in killing Hazrat Hamza (R.A.)
Khalid bin Walid, a Makkan army general, did not fail to observe the weak position of the pass and saw his chance. Through the pass, at the head of his cavalry (soldiers on horseback) he fiercely attacked and the Muslims suffered heavy losses. Hazrat Mus'ab bin Umair (R.A.), a sahabi who resembled our beloved Nabi was martyred in this attack. The Kuffar soldiers raised a cry that the prophet was slain. This alarming news spread like wild fire and caused great grief amongst the Muslims. This false cry of the kuffar rallied the devoted Sahaba round Rasulullah . Hazrat Aus bin Nazar (R.A.) said: 'Oh what worth is life then if the Prophet is no longer in our midst. Let us fight on for the cause which he fought for'. These words inspired the Muslims to fight for the cause of Islaam.
Hazrat Ka'ab bin Malik (R.A.) saw Rasulullah and loudly proclaimed; 'Muslims be happy, Rasulullah is alive and well'. Thereafter Rasulullah said, 'Come to me, I am the Rasool of Allah'.
Hazrat Ali (R.A.), Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A.), Hazrat Sa'ad bin Waqaas (R.A.), Hazrat Zubair (R.A.), Hazrat Talha (R.A.) among the Muhajireen and Hazrat Abu Dujana from the Ansaar were standing around our Nabi and formed a secured wall around him. The sword of Hazat Ali (R.A.) named 'Zulfiqar' fell like lightning and many of the attackers were forced to fall back. The enemies best effort to get to our Nabi were now frustrated.
One of the enemy, Ibn Qami'ah moved forward and gave a blow with his sword over the head of Rasulullah which caused two rings of his helmet (head gear) to pierce the face of Rasulullah . Another enemy struck him on the face with a stone with the result that two of his teeth fell were martyred.
The kuffar had to retreat because they were frustrated in their attempts against the Muslims. Before leaving the battlefield their passion and hatred and vengeance took the most barbarous shape, namely they gave vent to their vengeance on the dead bodies of the Muslims. The bodies were mercilessly mutilated. Hinda the wife of Abu Sufyaan hated the beloved uncle of Nabi Hazrat Hamza (R.A.) and seeing his dead body, ripped it open, took out the liver, chewed it, and garlanded herself with the intestines. She climbed up a hill and sang a song indicating that the defeat at Badr was avenged that day, Sixty five Ansaar and four Muhajireen laid down their lives and achieved matchless martyrdom. Rasulullah never lost his fortitude and patience.
Yet again, the Kuffar left the battlefield having failed to exterminate Islaam.
When Rasulullah came to Madinah, he signed a treaty (agreement) with the Jews to live in peace and harmony and help each other against anyone who wanted to attack Madinah. The Jews contravened (broke) the treaty and conspired (made plans) with the Quraish of Makkah, the Munafiqs and other enemies of Islaam to bring to an end the mission of Rasulullah .
Rasulullah ordered the Banu Qainuqah out of Madinah and they went and settled in Syria. Then the Banu Nadhir were ordered to leave Madinah. They refused to make a new agreement and they attempted to assassinate Rasulullah . Some of the Banu Nadir clan settled in Khaibar while others went and settled in Syria. All this happened in the 4th year of Hijrat. In the year 5 Hijrat the Banu Quraizah joined the kuffar against the Muslims in the Battle of Ahzab. After a siege (blockade) of one month they (the Banu Quraizah) gave up and requested that Hazrat Sa'ad bin Mu'az (R.A.) be asked to decide what should be done with them. In passing judgment Hazrat Sa'ad bin Mu'az (R.A.) ordered that the able bodies and active fighters be put to death, the women and children to be treated as prisoners of war and their goods and property to be handed over as spoils of war to be distributed among the poor Muslim workers. This decision was compatible with the commands of the Taura (The Book of the Jews),
In the year 5 A.H. the Makkans made another great effort to destroy the Muslims with the help of the Jews and the desert tribes of Ghatafan. This great army of 10,000 men, 4000 camels and 300 horses marched towards Madinah under the command of Abu Sufyaan. The coming danger seemed to cast a great gloom over Madinah. When Rasulullah was informed of the approach of the big army he summoned the Sahaba to devise means to meet the great danger.
On the advise of Hazrat Salmaan Faarsi (R.A.), it was decided that a trench be dug. Since Madinah was surrounded on two sides by lava rock and palm groves on the third side it was decided to dig the trench on the open approaches. Rasulullah with the assistance of the Muhajireen and the Ansaar got down to the difficult task of digging the trench. They made the trench 5 meters deep and 5 meters wide.
All the time the Sahaba were marvellously inspired by Rasulullah himself who worked as a labourer amongst them. The enemy approached Madinah and faced a setback when they saw the deep trench around the town. They settled down to a siege. The siege went on for 27 days. They failed to penetrate the defiance of the Muslims.
There was no hand combat since the trench was five meters wide. However, arrows were being showered from both sides. Amr bin Abd, a kuffar fighter, made his horse jump over a narrow portion of the trench. As soon as he reached the other side, Zulfiqar, the sword of Hazrat Ali (R.A.) flashed out and fell upon the enemy and killed him. Hazrat Ali (R.A.) triumphantly raised the war cry Allah hu Akbar- Allah is the Greatest.
On the twenty seventh night of the siege a severe storm approached Madinah. The effect of this severe storm was most devastating for the Kuffar. Their tents were uprooted, goods were blown about, fires were extinguished and the whole kuffar army was in utter fear and in a state of confusion. Under the circumstances the kuffar army fled in disarray.
In the year 6 A.H. Rasulullah saw a vision in which he found himself and the Sahaba entering the holy place of Makkah to perform Hajj. So he set out for Makkah in the month of Zil-Qaadah 6 A.H. with fourteen hundred Sahaba to perform Umrah, without the least intention of going into battle. To avoid any misunderstanding and impress upon the kuffar that it was entirely a peaceful mission, he ordered that none should carry arms except a sheathed sword, a common feature in those days. Camels for sacrifice were taken also. When Rasulullah approached Makkah, he encamped at Hudaybiyah, a mountainous plain, a few kilometres from Makkah in the direction of Jeddah. The kuffar did not allow them to advance despite the peaceful intentions of the Muslims.
Hazrat Uthman bin Affan (R.A.) the son-in-law of Rasulullah was sent as an envoy (negotiator), to explain to the Quraish of Makkah of the intentions of Rasulullah and the Muslims. While Hazrat Uthman (R.A.) was in the Haram a report reached the Muslim camp that Hazrat Uthman (R.A.) has been murdered. The news caused a great stir in the Muslim camp. Rasulullah sat under a tree and called the Sahaba to take a fresh oath to fight to the last man. This pledge is known as 'BAI'AT-UR-RIDHWAAN'.
After some time Hazrat Uthman (R.A.) returned unharmed. The kuffar sent Suhail bin Amr to come to terms with the Muslims. When Rasulullah saw Suhail bin Amr from a distance he said that now matters have become easy. Since the kuffar had sent him i.e. Suhail bin Amr their intention is to make peace. A pact was drawn up, both parties agreeing to maintain peace for ten years on the following conditions-:
(1) The Muslims would return to Madinah without performing Umrah.
(2) They would come for Umrah the following year, and would stay in Makkah for only three days.
(3) They shall not come bearing arms except the sword.
(4) They would not take any Muslim living in Makkah to Madinah, and would not stop any Muslim from staying in Makkah.
(5) If any Makkan Muslim went to Madinah the Muslims would return him to Makkah, but if any Muslim from Madinah went to Makkah he would not be returned to Madinah.
(6) The Kuffar would neither attack Muslims nor help others against them, but would remain neutral in case of Muslims fighting a third party.
(7) All the Arab tribes shall be free to enter into alliance with whichever party they like.
The truce of Hudaibiya turned out to be a complete triumph for Islaam. The numbers of Muslims increased by leaps and bounds. Rasulullah thought that it was the opportune moment to spread the 'Message of Allah' far and wide, including the Kings around Arabia. Rasulullah addressed his companions as followers: 'Now the time has arrived that you should spread the Message of Truth'. Rasulullah selected some intelligent Sahaba, and entrusted them with written invitations to Arab rulers and neighboring Kings. He sent envoys to the Emperor of Rome, the Qaysar of Persia, the Aziz of Egypt, the Negus of Abyssinia and the Arab chiefs, inviting them to embrace Islaam.
Hazrat Abdullah bin Huzaifa (R.A.) took a letter of invitation to the Persian Court. The Qaysar was enraged and tore the letter into pieces. Rasulullah suprised the Sahaba by telling them that the Qaysar was dead. The Qaysar's son had assassinated him that night .
Rasulullah also sent a letter to the Arab Chiefs inviting them to worship one 'ALLAH. The epistles that were sent to the various kings in the year 7 A.H. show that Rasulullah was an Apostle of Allah for the whole of mankind and he, though surrounded with an unstable situation, believed that Islaam would prevail and its light would illuminate the world.
Of the three main Jewish tribes of Madinah, the Banu Nadhir and the Banu Quraiza went into self-exile and settled at Khaibar, a town situated 320 km north of Madinah. This town possessed a number of fortresses and fortifications all around, thus making it difficult to gain entry.
They took advantage of the distance and became more active in the final attempt to harm the march of Islaam. After the Battle of Ahzaab (Trenches) in 5 A.H. the malice of the Jews increased in greater intensity. These tribal skirmishes burdened the patience of the Muslim army. Rasulullah set out with 1600 men from Madinah to Khaibar. Some muslim ladies accompanied the Muslim army. It was the first time that an Islaamic standard was introduced of three Islaamic flags. One was prepared from the shawl of Hazrat Bibi Ayesha (R.A.) and it was entrusted to Hazrat Ali (R.A.). Rasulullah ordered an attack and one by one the fortresses fell into Muslim hands. When they reached the famous fort called Q'MOOS, the Muslims spent twenty days without entry. Rasulullah was hopeful of gaining success and handing over the flag and sword to Hazrat Ali (R.A.), he appointed him as Commander of the troops.
Eventually the Fortress was captured. Some fifteen Muslim Mujahids (soldiers) achieved martyrdom and 93 Jews were killed. The Jews sued for peace and came begging for forgiveness. A peace treaty was signed between the Muslims and the Jews.
The truce of Hudaybiyah was broken by the Quraish when they sided with the tribe of Banu Bakr (with whom they had a pact to help one another), they attacked the tribe of Khuza'a who were the allies of the Muslims. The treaty was no longer effective. Abu Sufyan realized this and did his best to revive the treaty, but the Muslims had already realized that the kuffar were not to be trusted, and the treaty was never revived. This was a victory for the Muslims.
On hearing the news that the kuffar had broken the truce Rasulullah prepared to leave for Makkah. Every precaution was taken to keep the kuffar unaware of the coming of the Muslim army. It was the 10th day of Ramadaan in the year 8 Hijri that an army of 10,000 Muslims marched towards Makkah. The Muslims encamped at Mar-ur-Zahraan, a place a few kilometers from Makkah.
When the shepherds of Makkah returned in the evening they reported to the Makkans that a huge army was encamped outside Makkah at Mar-uz-Zahraan. Abu Sufyaan went to investigate who this army was and what were they doing in the valley of Makkah. During his investigation he met Hazrat Abbas (R.A.), the uncle of Rasulullah who convinced Abu Sufyaan to have an audience with Rasulullah . Abu Sufyaan the arch-enemy of Islaam who had instigated so many battles against the Muslims was now in the tent of the Prophet . Rasulullah our Nabi offered him protection from any harm.
The Muslim army triumphantly entered Makkah without any bloodshed and the kuffar surrendered without an attempt to resist. The city of Makkah was now at the mercy of Rasulullah and the Muslims. Everybody was present in the courtyard of the Haram (sanctuary of the Ka'ba). The enemies of Rasulullah and Islaam were helpless. Rasulullah asked them: 'What do you expect at my hands?'. The voices of their hearts rang out: 'Kindness and pity, gracious brother, gracious nephew'. They were not disappointed. Rasulullah used the noble words of Hazrat Yusuf A.S. When he addressed his brothers: 'Have no fear this day, May Allah forgive you, and He is the Most Merciful of those who show mercy'.
Hinda, the wife of Abu Sufyaan, who had mutilated the body of Hazrat Hamza (R.A.) came in the presence of Rasulullah covered in a veil. The most bitter enemy was touched with general amnesty (general pardon) of Rasulullah and accepted Islaam. Rasulullah purified the sacred House of Allah (Ka'ba) removing all its 360 idols and stones, reciting "Truth has come and Falsehood vanished and no more shall falsehood return" (Sahih al-Bukhari.) The sanctuary of the Ka'ba contained such idols as Hubal, Latt and Manaat. They saw their downfall for they were nothing but pieces of stones. Now every nook and corner of Makkah witnessed and resounded with the call of Tauheed. Rasulullah also proclaimed that : 'Allah has forbidden the sale of intoxicants and usury (Interest) is declared as Haraam'.
It was indeed a unique conquest for Islaam and triumph of Rasulullah 's unshakable faith in his sacred cause. Witness our beloved Nabi now seated on mount Safa delivering his sermon to the multitude of people, contrast this with his flight (Hijrat), stay in the Cave of Thoor and receiving wounds in the battles. Now his faith in 'SURELY ALLAH IS WITH US' is the secret of his success in life and mission.
Rasulullah had left Madinah for Makkah with the Muslim Army on Wednesday 10th Ramadhaan 8 A.H. and entered Makkah on the 20th of Ramadhaan and on that very day Makkah was conquered. He remained in Makkah for about 10-15 days and thereafter returned to Madinah Tayibah.
Makkah had been the nucleus centre of Religion in Arabia and the Capital of Hedjaz. When the Islaamic flag flew from the top of the Ka'ba, the whole of Arabia recognised this as the symbol of Islaam's truthfulness.
After the conquest of Makkah, people in every part of the land were leaving idol-worshipping and entering the peaceful fold of Islaam. The two tribes situated between Makkah and Taif, Viz, Hawazan and Saqif thought themselves to be superior and refused to embrace Islaam. The chief of the Hawazan tribe Maalik bin Auf, instigated the neighbouring tribes and gathered a huge army to harm Islaam. After receiving the news of this threat, Rasulullah prepared an army of 12,000 men including 2000 Makkans and marched out of Makkah towards the valley of Hunain.
The people of Hawazan were noted for their archery. As the Muslims advanced, they were met with attacks of arrows from all sides and the main army attacked from the front. The Muslim army could not stand the fierce attack of the enemy arrows and fell back. The retreat caused great confusion among the Muslim soldiers. Even the Muhajireen and Ansaar retreated and chaos prevailed. Rasulullah was left with a small band of Sahaba and they fought back with great courage and determination. Hazrat Abbas (R.A.) and the heroes of Islaam descended from their camels and horses and attacked the enemy with great ferocity. When the standard bearer of the enemy fell dead all turned and retreated.
Taif was inhabited by the Saqif tribe and within two years of the Battle of Hunain they voluntarily embraced Islaam.
In the early days of Hijrat, Syria and Egypt were territories governed by the Roman Emperor whose capital was Constantinople. The rising of the new power of Islaam made the Romans jealous and uneasy. In a short time the rapid growth of Islaam reached the borders of Syria. The Romans claimed Islaam as a danger so decided that a consolidated attack on Arabia was necessary. The merchants coming from Syria brought news that a large army was ready to attack Madina.
Rasulullah . called upon all the tribes, heroes, fighters and zealous followers of Islaam to defend the faith and their motherland against foreign invasion. Hazrat Uthman (R.A.) offered 3000 camels and 10,000 Dinars for this expedition. Rasulullah raised an army of 30,000 Mujahid (soldiers) including 10,000 cavalry. The army set out on Thursday in the month of Rajab 9 A.H. to encounter a well armed, well disciplined Roman Army. The Muslim army encamped at a place called Tabook for twenty days. When the Roman army saw the great force their spirits dampened and they gave up their intention of invasion or war.
Witnessing the life, piety and devotion to Allah, the Christians were greatly impressed. Rasulullah concluded many peaceful agreements with certain Christian tribes and returned to Madinah. The expedition of Tabook ended the warfare and tribe after tribe began to embrace Islaam. Within two years the whole of Arabia was united under the banner of Islaam and the cry of Allah-hu-Akbar resounded from all sides.
The land of Arabia had seen many wars and killings for centuries. In the year 10 A.H. most of Arabia had embraced Islaam. There were no idol-worshipping. In the month of Zil-Qadah 10 A.H. Rasulullah accompanied by 124,000 Sahaba (Companions) left Madinah for Makkah to perform the Hajj. On the 5th of Zil-Haj the Muslims entered Makkah and performed Umra, and on the 8th of Zil-Haj our beloved Nabi camped at Mina with the Sahaba. Riding on his camel Quswa, Rasulullah proceeded to the plains of Arafat, some 10 km from Mina. Here he delivered his final Khutba to the entire assembly of Muslims. He reminded them of their duties towards Islaam, explained the rights and treatment of women, that nobody should absorb the rights of each other's property and all Muslims should honour and respect each other. The slaves also received a declaration of just treatment. False superiority of race, nation and tribe was discouraged and interest (usury) was made Haraam.
That day the torch that brightened the Path of Truth was handed to the Ummat and Rasulullah exclaimed to his people "O Lord have I conveyed the Message?" The whole assembly of Muslims replied in one voice: "By our Lord, Verily Thou Hast".
Our Nabi also told his vast audience: "I leave behind amongst you two things. If you should hold fast to it, you shall be secure from vices and evil ways, i.e. the Holy Qur'aan and the Sunnah of Allah's Nabi "
When the glowing message and the marvellous Mission saw the day of its grand achievement, the Holy Prophet Muhammed received the Divine Call thus : "This day have I perfected your religion and completed my favour on you and have chosen Islaam as your religion." (Al- Quraan 3:5 ).
Thus giving this Divine Message he bid farewell to all the Muslims. Then performing other rites and performing the Fajr Salaat in the Ka'ba on the 12th Zil-Hajj, the whole gathering left for their homes and the beloved Nabi of Allah accompanied by the Muhajireen and Ansaar returned to Madinah.
After performing the farewell Hajj, Rasulullah left for Madinah. He wanted to say farewell to those martyrs who had laid down their lives for the cause of Islaam. So he went to Uhad and made dua for those who had achieved martyrdom and everlasting life. After his visit to Uhad our beloved Nabi visited the cemetery of the Muslims called "Jannatul Baqi" in Madinah and made dua for their departed souls.
In the month of Muharram 11 A.H. he fell ill with fever which became worse from day to day. When the illness became worse then Rasulullah sought permission from his wives to spend his final days in the house of Hazrat Ayesha (R.A.) The last Salaat that he could lead in Jama'at was the Maghrib Salaat and when his health failed him he directed: "Let Abu Bakr (R.A.) lead the prayer". Rasulullah 's house was adjoining Masjid-e-Nabwi and from his house he saw the Muslims engaged in Salaat. This pleased the Rasool of Allah very much. The health of our Nabi got worse and on Monday, 12th Rabiul-Awwal 11A.H. the greatest leader of mankind passed away.
Hazrat Fadal bin Abbas (R.A.) Hazrat Ali (R.A.), Hazrat Usama (R.A.) gave the body a ghusal (bath) and it was lowered into the grave in the very apartment of his wife Hazrat Bibi Ayesha (R.A.) where he breathed his last.