Chemistry

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(1) Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to: (A) demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations, including the appropriate use of safety showers, eyewash fountains, safety goggles, and fire extinguishers;
(B) know specific hazards of chemical substances such as flammability, corrosiveness, and radioactivity as summarized on the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS); and
(C) demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials.

Interactive Student
(C) Recycle City  read the instructions to see how trash can be used
(C) Dumptown Game

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(2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods to solve investigative questions. The student is expected to: (A) know the definition of science and understand that it has limitations, as specified in subsection (b)(2) of this section;
(B) know that scientific hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power which have been tested over a wide variety of conditions are incorporated into theories;
(C) know that scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well-established and highly-reliable explanations, but may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed;
(D) distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories;
(E) plan and implement investigative procedures, including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology, including graphing calculators, computers and probes, sufficient scientific glassware such as beakers, Erlenmeyer flasks, pipettes, graduated cylinders, volumetric flasks, safety goggles, and burettes, electronic balances, and an adequate supply of consumable chemicals;
(F) collect data and make measurements with accuracy and precision;
(G) express and manipulate chemical quantities using scientific conventions and mathematical procedures, including dimensional analysis, scientific notation, and significant figures;
(H) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; and
(I) communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphs, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.

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(3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to: (A) in all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student;
(B) communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as current events, news reports, published journal articles, and marketing materials;
(C) draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services;
(D) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment;
(E) describe the connection between chemistry and future careers; and
(F) research and describe the history of chemistry and contributions of scientists.

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(C) Save Your Skin

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(4) Science concepts. The student knows the characteristics of matter and can analyze the relationships between chemical and physical changes and properties. The student is expected to: (A) differentiate between physical and chemical changes and properties;
(B) identify extensive and intensive properties;
(C) compare solids, liquids, and gases in terms of compressibility, structure, shape, and volume; and
(D) classify matter as pure substances or mixtures through investigation of their properties.

 Interactive Student
(C) Properties of Gases

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(5) Science concepts. The student understands the historical development of the Periodic Table and can apply its predictive power. The student is expected to: (A) explain the use of chemical and physical properties in the historical development of the Periodic Table;
(B) use the Periodic Table to identify and explain the properties of chemical families, including alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, halogens, noble gases, and transition metals; and
(C) use the Periodic Table to identify and explain periodic trends, including atomic and ionic radii, electronegativity, and ionization energy.

 Interactive Student
(A,B) Periodic Chart Quiz
(A,B) Elements Learning

(B) Element Flash Cards

(6) Science concepts. The student knows and understands the historical development of atomic theory. The student is expected to: (A) understand the experimental design and conclusions used in the development of modern atomic theory, including Dalton's Postulates, Thomson's discovery of electron properties, Rutherford's nuclear atom, and Bohr's nuclear atom;
(B) understand the electromagnetic spectrum and the mathematical relationships between energy, frequency, and wavelength of light;
(C) calculate the wavelength, frequency, and energy of light using Planck's constant and the speed of light;
(D) use isotopic composition to calculate average atomic mass of an element; and
(E) express the arrangement of electrons in atoms through electron configurations and Lewis valence electron dot structures.

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 (A,E) Atom Builder

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(7) Science concepts. The student knows how atoms form ionic, metallic, and covalent bonds. The student is expected to: (A) name ionic compounds containing main group or transition metals, covalent compounds, acids, and bases, using International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) nomenclature rules;
(B) write the chemical formulas of common polyatomic ions, ionic compounds containing main group or transition metals, covalent compounds, acids, and bases;
(C) construct electron dot formulas to illustrate ionic and covalent bonds;
(D) describe the nature of metallic bonding and apply the theory to explain metallic properties such as thermal and electrical conductivity, malleability, and ductility; and
(E) predict molecular structure for molecules with linear, trigonal planar, or tetrahedral electron pair geometries using Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory.

 Interactive Student

(A,B,C) Chem Balancer

(A,B,C) Balancing Equation Tutorials

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(A,B,C) Balance Chemical Equations
 

(8) Science concepts. The student can quantify the changes that occur during chemical reactions. The student is expected to: (A) define and use the concept of a mole;
(B) use the mole concept to calculate the number of atoms, ions, or molecules in a sample of material;
(C) calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas;
(D) use the law of conservation of mass to write and balance chemical equations; and
(E) perform stoichiometric calculations, including determination of mass relationships between reactants and products, calculation of limiting reagents, and percent yield.

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(9) Science concepts. The student understands the principles of ideal gas behavior, kinetic molecular theory, and the conditions that influence the behavior of gases. The student is expected to: (A) describe and calculate the relations between volume, pressure, number of moles, and temperature for an ideal gas as described by Boyle's law, Charles' law, Avogadro's law, Dalton's law of partial pressure, and the ideal gas law;
(B) perform stoichiometric calculations, including determination of mass and volume relationships between reactants and products for reactions involving gases; and
(C) describe the postulates of kinetic molecular theory.
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(A) Interactive Gas Laws
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(10) Science concepts. The student understands and can apply the factors that influence the behavior of solutions. The student is expected to: (A) describe the unique role of water in chemical and biological systems;
(B) develop and use general rules regarding solubility through investigations with aqueous solutions;
(C) calculate the concentration of solutions in units of molarity;
(D) use molarity to calculate the dilutions of solutions;
(E) distinguish between types of solutions such as electrolytes and nonelectrolytes and unsaturated, saturated, and supersaturated solutions;
(F) investigate factors that influence solubilities and rates of dissolution such as temperature, agitation, and surface area;
(G) define acids and bases and distinguish between Arrhenius and Bronsted-Lowry definitions and predict products in acid base reactions that form water;
(H) understand and differentiate among acid-base reactions, precipitation reactions, and oxidation-reduction reactions;
(I) define pH and use the hydrogen or hydroxide ion concentrations to calculate the pH of a solution; and
(J) distinguish between degrees of dissociation for strong and weak acids and bases.

 Interactive Student
(G) Alien Juice Bar
 

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(A) Structure of Water
(A) A Closer Look at Water

(B) Solution Formation

(E) Aqueous Equilibria

(F) Salt Dissolving in Water

(I) Ph buffering

(11) Science concepts. The student understands the energy changes that occur in chemical reactions. The student is expected to: (A) understand energy and its forms, including kinetic, potential, chemical, and thermal energies;
(B) understand the law of conservation of energy and the processes of heat transfer;
(C) use thermochemical equations to calculate energy changes that occur in chemical reactions and classify reactions as exothermic or endothermic;
(D) perform calculations involving heat, mass, temperature change, and specific heat; and
(E) use calorimetry to calculate the heat of a chemical process.

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(12) Science concepts. The student understands the basic processes of nuclear chemistry. The student is expected to: (A) describe the characteristics of alpha, beta, and gamma radiation;
(B) describe radioactive decay process in terms of balanced nuclear equations; and
(C) compare fission and fusion reactions

 Interactive Student

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(B) Radioactive Decay

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